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1.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504985

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The burden of acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI), and common viral ALRI aetiologies among 5-19 years are less well understood. We conducted a systematic review to estimate global burden of all-cause and virus-specific ALRI in 5-19 years. METHODS: We searched eight databases and Google for studies published between 1995 and 2019 and reporting data on burden of all-cause ALRI or ALRI associated with influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus. We assessed risk of bias using a modified Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. We developed an analytical framework to report burden by age, country and region when there were sufficient data (all-cause and influenza-associated ALRI hospital admissions). We estimated all-cause ALRI in-hospital deaths and hospital admissions for ALRI associated with respiratory syncytial virus, human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus by region. RESULTS: Globally, an estimated 5.5 million (UR 4.0-7.8) all-cause ALRI hospital admissions occurred annually between 1995 and 2019 in 5-19 year olds, causing 87 900 (UR 40 300-180 600) in-hospital deaths annually. Influenza virus and respiratory syncytial virus were associated with 1 078 600 (UR 4 56 500-2 650 200) and 231 800 (UR 142 700-3 73 200) ALRI hospital admissions in 5-19 years. Human metapneumovirus and human parainfluenza virus were associated with 105 500 (UR 57 200-181 700) and 124 800 (UR 67 300-228 500) ALRI hospital admissions in 5-14 years. About 55% of all-cause ALRI hospital admissions and 63% of influenza-associated ALRI hospital admissions occurred in those 5-9 years globally. All-cause and influenza-associated ALRI hospital admission rates were highest in upper-middle income countries, Asia-Pacific region and the Latin America and Caribbean region. CONCLUSION: Incidence and mortality data for all-cause and virus-specific ALRI in 5-19 year olds are scarce. The lack of data in low-income countries and Eastern Europe and Central Asia, South Asia, and West and Central Africa warrants efforts to improve the development and access to healthcare services, diagnostic capacity, and data reporting.


Subject(s)
Global Health , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adolescent , Child , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
2.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(10): e676-e683, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Community mobility data have been used to assess adherence to non-pharmaceutical interventions and its impact on SARS-CoV-2 transmission. We assessed the association between location-specific community mobility and the reproduction number (R) of SARS-CoV-2 across UK local authorities. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on community mobility from Google with data on R from 330 UK local authorities, for the period June 1, 2020, to Feb 13, 2021. Six mobility metrics are available in the Google community mobility dataset: visits to retail and recreation places, visits to grocery and pharmacy stores, visits to transit stations, visits to parks, visits to workplaces, and length of stay in residential places. For each local authority, we modelled the weekly change in R (the R ratio) per a rescaled weekly percentage change in each location-specific mobility metric relative to a pre-pandemic baseline period (Jan 3-Feb 6, 2020), with results synthesised across local authorities using a random-effects meta-analysis. FINDINGS: On a weekly basis, increased visits to retail and recreation places were associated with a substantial increase in R (R ratio 1·053 [99·2% CI 1·041-1·065] per 15% weekly increase compared with baseline visits) as were increased visits to workplaces (R ratio 1·060 [1·046-1·074] per 10% increase compared with baseline visits). By comparison, increased visits to grocery and pharmacy stores were associated with a small but still statistically significant increase in R (R ratio 1·011 [1·005-1·017] per 5% weekly increase compared with baseline visits). Increased visits to parks were associated with a decreased R (R ratio 0·972 [0·965-0·980]), as were longer stays at residential areas (R ratio 0·952 [0·928-0·976]). Increased visits to transit stations were not associated with R nationally, but were associated with a substantial increase in R in cities. An increasing trend was observed for the first 6 weeks of 2021 in the effect of visits to retail and recreation places and workplaces on R. INTERPRETATION: Increased visits to retail and recreation places, workplaces, and transit stations in cities are important drivers of increased SARS-CoV-2 transmission; the increasing trend in the effects of these drivers in the first 6 weeks of 2021 was possibly associated with the emerging alpha (B.1.1.7) variant. These findings provide important evidence for the management of current and future mobility restrictions. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Commerce , Pandemics , Parks, Recreational , Transportation , Travel , Workplace , Behavior , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Models, Biological , Recreation , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 18262, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1410889

ABSTRACT

A growing body of evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency has been associated with an increased susceptibility to viral and bacterial respiratory infections. In this study, we aimed to examine the association between vitamin D and COVID-19 risk and outcomes. We used logistic regression to identify associations between vitamin D variables and COVID-19 (risk of infection, hospitalisation and death) in 417,342 participants from UK Biobank. We subsequently performed a Mendelian Randomisation (MR) study to look for evidence of a causal effect. In total, 1746 COVID-19 cases (399 deaths) were registered between March and June 2020. We found no significant associations between COVID-19 infection risk and measured 25-OHD levels after adjusted for covariates, but this finding is limited by the fact that the vitamin D levels were measured on average 11 years before the pandemic. Ambient UVB was strongly and inversely associated with COVID-19 hospitalization and death overall and consistently after stratification by BMI and ethnicity. We also observed an interaction that suggested greater protective effect of genetically-predicted vitamin D levels when ambient UVB radiation is stronger. The main MR analysis did not show that genetically-predicted vitamin D levels are causally associated with COVID-19 risk (OR = 0.77, 95% CI 0.55-1.11, P = 0.160), but MR sensitivity analyses indicated a potential causal effect (weighted mode MR: OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.55-0.95, P = 0.021; weighted median MR: OR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.42-0.92, P = 0.016). Analysis of MR-PRESSO did not find outliers for any instrumental variables and suggested a potential causal effect (OR = 0.80, 95% CI 0.66-0.98, p-val = 0.030). In conclusion, the effect of vitamin D levels on the risk or severity of COVID-19 remains controversial, further studies are needed to validate vitamin D supplementation as a means of protecting against worsened COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Calcifediol/blood , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United Kingdom
4.
J Glob Health ; 11: 10003, 2021 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219190

ABSTRACT

Background: As SARS-CoV-2 continues to spread worldwide, it has already resulted in over 110 million cases and 2.5 million deaths. Currently, there are no effective COVID-19 treatments, although numerous studies are under way. SARS-CoV-2, however, is not the first coronavirus to cause serious outbreaks. COVID-19 can be compared with previous human coronavirus diseases, such as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS), to better understand the development of treatments. Methods: Databases Medline, Embase and WHO COVID-19 was systematically searched on 9 February 2021 for studies reporting on therapeutic effect of COVID-19 treatments. Clinical trials, case reports, observational studies and systematic reviews in the English language were eligible. Results: 1416 studies were identified and 40 studies were included in this review. Therapies included are: remdesivir, convalescent plasma, hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ ritonavir, interferon, corticosteroids, cytokine storm inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies. Remdesivir, convalescent plasma and interferon seems to provide some clinical benefits such as faster recovery time and reduced mortality, but these effects are not clinically significant. Some corticosteroids are effective in reducing mortality in severe COVID-19 patients. Hydroxychloroquine do not convey any beneficial, and therapies such as cytokine storm inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies were also not effective and require further investigation. Conclusions: There is no single therapy effective against COVID-19. However, a combination of therapies administered at different stages of infection may provide some benefit. This conclusion is reflected in the limited effects of these treatments in previous human coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
5.
Vaccine ; 39(21): 2811-2820, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199115

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of serious lower respiratory tract illness in infants and children and causes significant disease in the elderly and immunocompromised. Recently there has been an acceleration in the development of candidate RSV vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and therapeutics. However, the effects of RSV genomic variability on the implementation of vaccines and therapeutics remain poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Fogarty International Center held a workshop to summarize what is known about the global burden and transmission of RSV disease, the phylogeographic dynamics and genomics of the virus, and the networks that exist to improve the understanding of RSV disease. Discussion at the workshop focused on the implications of viral evolution and genomic variability for vaccine and therapeutics development in the context of various immunization strategies. This paper summarizes the meeting, highlights research gaps and future priorities, and outlines what has been achieved since the meeting took place. It concludes with an examination of what the RSV community can learn from our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 genomics and what insights over sixty years of RSV research can offer the rapidly evolving field of COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Genomics , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(2): 193-202, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1137673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) were implemented by many countries to reduce the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causal agent of COVID-19. A resurgence in COVID-19 cases has been reported in some countries that lifted some of these NPIs. We aimed to understand the association of introducing and lifting NPIs with the level of transmission of SARS-CoV-2, as measured by the time-varying reproduction number (R), from a broad perspective across 131 countries. METHODS: In this modelling study, we linked data on daily country-level estimates of R from the London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine (London, UK) with data on country-specific policies on NPIs from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker, available between Jan 1 and July 20, 2020. We defined a phase as a time period when all NPIs remained the same, and we divided the timeline of each country into individual phases based on the status of NPIs. We calculated the R ratio as the ratio between the daily R of each phase and the R from the last day of the previous phase (ie, before the NPI status changed) as a measure of the association between NPI status and transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We then modelled the R ratio using a log-linear regression with introduction and relaxation of each NPI as independent variables for each day of the first 28 days after the change in the corresponding NPI. In an ad-hoc analysis, we estimated the effect of reintroducing multiple NPIs with the greatest effects, and in the observed sequence, to tackle the possible resurgence of SARS-CoV-2. FINDINGS: 790 phases from 131 countries were included in the analysis. A decreasing trend over time in the R ratio was found following the introduction of school closure, workplace closure, public events ban, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits; the reduction in R ranged from 3% to 24% on day 28 following the introduction compared with the last day before introduction, although the reduction was significant only for public events ban (R ratio 0·76, 95% CI 0·58-1·00); for all other NPIs, the upper bound of the 95% CI was above 1. An increasing trend over time in the R ratio was found following the relaxation of school closure, bans on public events, bans on public gatherings of more than ten people, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits; the increase in R ranged from 11% to 25% on day 28 following the relaxation compared with the last day before relaxation, although the increase was significant only for school reopening (R ratio 1·24, 95% CI 1·00-1·52) and lifting bans on public gatherings of more than ten people (1·25, 1·03-1·51); for all other NPIs, the lower bound of the 95% CI was below 1. It took a median of 8 days (IQR 6-9) following the introduction of an NPI to observe 60% of the maximum reduction in R and even longer (17 days [14-20]) following relaxation to observe 60% of the maximum increase in R. In response to a possible resurgence of COVID-19, a control strategy of banning public events and public gatherings of more than ten people was estimated to reduce R, with an R ratio of 0·71 (95% CI 0·55-0·93) on day 28, decreasing to 0·62 (0·47-0·82) on day 28 if measures to close workplaces were added, 0·58 (0·41-0·81) if measures to close workplaces and internal movement restrictions were added, and 0·48 (0·32-0·71) if measures to close workplaces, internal movement restrictions, and requirements to stay at home were added. INTERPRETATION: Individual NPIs, including school closure, workplace closure, public events ban, ban on gatherings of more than ten people, requirements to stay at home, and internal movement limits, are associated with reduced transmission of SARS-CoV-2, but the effect of introducing and lifting these NPIs is delayed by 1-3 weeks, with this delay being longer when lifting NPIs. These findings provide additional evidence that can inform policy-maker decisions on the timing of introducing and lifting different NPIs, although R should be interpreted in the context of its known limitations. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust Institutional Strategic Support Fund and Data-Driven Innovation initiative.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19 , Models, Theoretical , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Communicable Diseases, Emerging/prevention & control , Global Health , Humans , Time Factors
7.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 021102, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106364

ABSTRACT

Background: Influenza vaccination prevents people from influenza-related diseases and thereby mitigates the burden on national health systems when COVID-19 circulates and public health measures controlling respiratory viral infections are relaxed. However, it is challenging to maintain influenza vaccine services as the COVID-19 pandemic has the potential to disrupt vaccination programmes in many countries during the 2020/21 winter. We summarise available recommendations and strategies on influenza vaccination, specifically the changes in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: We searched websites and databases of national and international public health agencies (focusing on Europe, North and South America, Australia, New Zealand, and South Africa). We also contacted key influenza immunization focal points and experts in respective countries and organizations including WHO and ECDC. Results: Available global and regional guidance emphasises the control of COVID-19 infection in immunisation settings by implementing multiple measures, such as physical distancing, hand hygiene practice, appropriate use of personal protective equipment by health care workers and establishing separate vaccination sessions for medically vulnerable people. The guidance also emphasises using alternative models or settings (eg, outdoor areas and pharmacies) for vaccine delivery, communication strategies and developing registry and catch-up programmes to achieve high coverage. Several novel national strategies have been adopted, such as combining influenza vaccination with other medical visits and setting up outdoor and drive through vaccination clinics. Several Southern Hemisphere countries have increased influenza vaccine coverage substantially for the 2020 influenza season. Most of the countries included in our review have planned a universal or near universal influenza vaccination for health care workers, or have made influenza vaccination for health care workers mandatory. Australia has requested that all workers and visitors in long term care facilities receive influenza vaccine. The UK has planned to expand the influenza programme to provide free influenza vaccine for the first time to all adults 50-64 years of age, people on the shielded patient list and their household members and children in the first year of secondary school. South Africa has additionally prioritised people with hypertension for influenza vaccination. Conclusions: This review of influenza vaccination guidance and strategies should support strategy development on influenza vaccination in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Global Health , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020514, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-976508

ABSTRACT

Background: Physical activity (PA) is known to be a protective lifestyle factor against several non-communicable diseases while its impact on infectious diseases, including Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is not as clear. Methods: We performed univariate and multivariate logistic regression to identify associations between both objectively and subjectively measured PA collected prospectively and COVID-19 related outcomes (overall COVID-19, inpatient COVID-19, outpatient COVID-19, and COVID-19 death) in the UK Biobank cohort. Subsequently, we tested causality by using Mendelian randomisation (MR) analyses. Results: In the multivariable model, the increased acceleration vector magnitude PA (AMPA) is associated with a decreased probability of overall and outpatient COVID-19 with an odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.80 (0.69, 0.93) and 0.74 (0.58, 0.95), respectively. No association is found between self-reported moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and COVID-19 related outcomes. No association is found by MR analyses. Conclusions: Our results indicate a protective effect of objectively measured PA and COVID-19 outcomes (outpatient COVID-19 and overall COVID-19) independent of age, sex, measures of obesity, and smoking status. Although the MR analyses do not support a causal association, that may be due to limited power. We conclude that policies to encourage and facilitate exercise at a population level during the pandemic should be considered.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Exercise/physiology , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Male , Mendelian Randomization Analysis , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
10.
J Infect Dis ; 222(Supplement_7): S563-S569, 2020 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851798

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory tract infections (ARI) constitute a substantial disease burden in adults and elderly individuals. We aimed to identify all case-control studies investigating the potential role of respiratory viruses in the etiology of ARI in older adults aged ≥65 years. We conducted a systematic literature review (across 7 databases) of case-control studies published from 1996 to 2017 that investigated the viral profile of older adults with and those without ARI. We then computed a pooled odds ratio (OR) with a 95% confidence interval and virus-specific attributable fraction among the exposed (AFE) for 8 common viruses: respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza virus (Flu), parainfluenza virus (PIV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), adenovirus (AdV), rhinovirus (RV), bocavirus (BoV), and coronavirus (CoV). From the 16 studies included, there was strong evidence of possible causal attribution for RSV (OR, 8.5 [95% CI, 3.9-18.5]; AFE, 88%), Flu (OR, 8.3 [95% CI, 4.4-15.9]; AFE, 88%), PIV (OR, not available; AFE, approximately 100%), HMPV (OR, 9.8 [95% CI, 2.3-41.0]; AFE, 90%), AdV (OR, not available; AFE, approximately 100%), RV (OR, 7.1 [95% CI, 3.7-13.6]; AFE, 86%) and CoV (OR, 2.8 [95% CI, 2.0-4.1]; AFE, 65%) in older adults presenting with ARI, compared with those without respiratory symptoms (ie, asymptomatic individuals) or healthy older adults. However, there was no significant difference in the detection of BoV in cases and controls. This review supports RSV, Flu, PIV, HMPV, AdV, RV, and CoV as important causes of ARI in older adults and provides quantitative estimates of the absolute proportion of virus-associated ARI cases to which a viral cause can be attributed. Disease burden estimates should take into account the appropriate AFE estimates (for older adults) that we report.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Acute Disease , Age Factors , Aged , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
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