Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 6 de 6
Filter
1.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330092

ABSTRACT

The Job Syndrome or Autosomal Dominant Hyper Immunoglobulin E Syndrome (AD-HIES, LOF-STAT3 gene) is a very rare inborn error of immunity disorder with multi-organ involvement and long-life post-infective damages. Longitudinal registries are of main importance to improve knowledge on natural history and management of these rare disorders. This study aims to describe the natural history of 30 Italian patients recorded in the IPINet registry with AD-HIES, with a cumulative observational-time of 721.1 patient-years. Age at disease onset was < 12 months in the 66.7% of patients, but the mean time of diagnostic delay was 13.7 years. At diagnosis skin involvement was present in 93.3% of patients (eczema 80.8%, abscess 66.7%). At the follow up eczema was still present in 63.3% and abscess in 56.7%. Respiratory complications such as bronchiectasis and pneumatoceles were present at diagnosis in the 46.7% and 43.3% respectively. Antimicrobial prophylaxis resulted in decrease of pneumonia from 76.7–46.7%. Antifungal prophylaxis decreased mucocutaneous candidiasis occurrence from 70–56.7%. In the course of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, seven patients developed COVID-19. Survival analyses showed that 27 out of 30 patients are still alive, while three patients died at age of 28, 39 and 46 as consequence of lungs bleeding, lymphoma and sepsis, respectively. Our study shows that many severe complications can affect AD-HIES patients. Analysis of a cumulative follow-up of 278.7 patient-years has shown that early diagnosis, adequate management at expertise centres for primary immunodeficiency, prophylactic antibiotic and antifungal therapy improve outcome and can positively influence patients’ life expectancy.

2.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704407

ABSTRACT

The constant battle between viruses and their hosts leads to their reciprocal evolution. Viruses regularly develop survival strategies against host immunity, while their ability to replicate and disseminate is countered by the antiviral defense mechanisms that host mount. Although most viral infections are generally controlled by the host's immune system, some viruses do cause overt damage to the host. The outcome can vary widely depending on the properties of the infecting virus and the circumstances of infection but also depends on several factors controlled by the host, including host genetic susceptibility to viral infections. In this narrative review, we provide a brief overview of host immunity to viruses and immune-evasion strategies developed by viruses. Moreover, we focus on inborn errors of immunity, these being considered a model for studying host response mechanisms to viruses. We finally report exemplary inborn errors of both the innate and adaptive immune systems that highlight the role of proteins involved in the control of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Virus Replication , Viruses/genetics
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 727850, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477821

ABSTRACT

Mass SARS-Cov-2 vaccination campaign represents the only strategy to defeat the global pandemic we are facing. Immunocompromised patients represent a vulnerable population at high risk of developing severe COVID-19 and thus should be prioritized in the vaccination programs and in the study of the vaccine efficacy. Nevertheless, most data on efficacy and safety of the available vaccines derive from trials conducted on healthy individuals; hence, studies on immunogenicity of SARS-CoV2 vaccines in such populations are deeply needed. Here, we perform an observational longitudinal study analyzing the humoral and cellular response following the BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine in a cohort of patients affected by inborn errors of immunity (IEI) compared to healthy controls (HC). We show that both IEI and HC groups experienced a significant increase in anti-SARS-CoV-2 Abs 1 week after the second scheduled dose as well as an overall statistically significant expansion of the Ag-specific CD4+CD40L+ T cells in both HC and IEI. Five IEI patients did not develop any specific CD4+CD40L+ T cellular response, with one of these patients unable to also mount any humoral response. These data raise immunologic concerns about using Ab response as a sole metric of protective immunity following vaccination for SARS-CoV-2. Taken together, these findings suggest that evaluation of vaccine-induced immunity in this subpopulation should also include quantification of Ag-specific T cells.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/immunology , Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Vaccination , Young Adult
5.
Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol ; 33(1S Suppl 1): e1051-e1056, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1242125

ABSTRACT

Gut involvement is frequent in immunologic disorders, especially with inflammatory manifestations but also with cancer. In the last years, advances in functional and genetic testing have improved the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to immune dysregulation syndromes. CTLA-4 deficiency is a rare disease with variable phenotype, ranging from absence of symptoms to severe multisystem manifestations and complications. We describe a rare case of CTLA-4 deficiency in a boy with gastric cancer, very early onset inflammatory bowel disease and polyautoimmunity, the second-ever reported in the literature with the same characteristics. A 17-year-old boy was referred to Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital of Rome, a tertiary care center, for a gastric mass and a long-term history of very early onset inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus type 1, polyarthritis and psoriasis. Histology of gastric biopsies revealed the presence of neoplastic signet ring cells. Imaging staging showed localized cancer; therefore, the patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy with termino-lateral gastro-jejunal anastomosis. Immunological work up and genetic testing by next-generation sequencing panels for primary immunodeficiencies led to the diagnosis of CTLA-4 deficiency. Good disease control was obtained with the administration of Abatacept. The patient experienced an asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection without any concern. Eighteen months after treatment initiation, the patient is alive and well. Immunologic and genetic testing, such as next-generation sequencing, should always be part of the diagnostic approach to patients with complex immune dysregulation syndrome, severe clinical course, poor response to treatments or cancer. The early recognition of the monogenic disease is the key for disease management and targeted therapy.


Subject(s)
Abatacept/therapeutic use , Autoimmune Diseases , CTLA-4 Antigen/deficiency , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Stomach Neoplasms , Adolescent , Asymptomatic Infections , Autoimmune Diseases/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases/drug therapy , Autoimmune Diseases/genetics , COVID-19 , CTLA-4 Antigen/genetics , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/diagnosis , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/genetics , Male , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Stomach Neoplasms/drug therapy , Stomach Neoplasms/genetics
6.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 26: 75-78, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006222

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a complex new viral disease, in which a strict balance between anti-viral immune response and the ensuing organ inflammation has a critical role in determining the clinical course. In adults, compelling evidence exists indicating that an uncontrolled inflammatory response ("cytokine storm") is pivotal in determining disease progression and mortality. Children may rarely present with severe disease. Modulating factors related to the host's genetic factors, age-related susceptibility, and the capability to mount appropriate immune responses might play a role in control virus load at an early stage and regulating the inflammatory reaction. Elucidating these mechanisms seems crucial in developing target therapies according to patient's age, immunologic status, and disease evolution in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Pneumonia/complications
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL