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Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003460


Background: Children living in poverty may endure Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACEs) that can affect their cognitive and social-emotional development. Safe and nurturing caregiverchild relationships mitigate many of the deleterious effects of ACEs. Child development research suggests that talking, reading, and playing with young children living in poverty improves their developmental outcomes. Developmental coaching, unlike traditional anticipatory guidance, is an interactive format engaging caregivers through self-reflection, encouraging parents to attempt novel interaction approaches, and strengthening parent self- confidence through positive feedback. This study examined the efficacy of the Grow Your Kids: TREE (Talk Read Engage Encourage) program, an interactive developmental coaching program promoting positive caregiver-child interactions during well-child encounters (ages 0-2) with lowincome families. The TREE program was developed by the Emotional Health Committee of the Maryland Chapter American Academy of Pediatrics. ( Methods: The study used a quasi-experimental design in two pediatric training programs in an eastern mid-sized city (residents: intervention n=24, control n=42). A convenience sample (n = 167 families) was recruited (79 intervention;88 control). Data collection included parent STIMQ2 pre/post (4-6 and 9-15 months of age) and pediatric resident report of training impact. The StimQ2 is a structured validated parent measure designed to assess caregiver-child interactions at home. Results: Recruited children were 3-10 months old (both sites), predominantly Black (76% intervention;77% control), and on Medicaid (81% intervention;78% control). Due to COVID-19, follow-up data was obtained from 45% of families (38 intervention;38 control). A significance level of p < .10 was used due to the small sample size. Analyses demonstrated differences in the STIMQ2 total (d = .43;95% CI, -.04 to .89;p = .07) and Parent Verbal Responsivity scales (d = .68;95% CI, .17 to 1.18;p = .009). There was also a significant change over time in the intervention group for reading quality subdimension (d= -.34, 95% CI, -.7 to .03, p=.07), whereas the control group's reading quality decreased. Intervention residents demonstrated significantly greater change in talking to, reading to, and being positive and encouraging with infants and toddlers as well as confidence in fostering interactions, conveying child development, and providing feedback (all p-values = .005 to .09). Conclusion: The TREE program is a feasible, brief, inexpensive, easily replicated and learned, universal developmental coaching intervention delivered by pediatric primary care providers during well child encounters that enhances caregiver-child interactions among low-income families. The study demonstrated increased overall parent-reported caregiver-child interactions, including verbal responsivity and reading behaviors and had a significant effect on pediatric residents' perceptions of their competency in promoting positive caregiver-child interactions. Antagonists' Skin Tones are Darker than Protagonist' Skin Tones in Animated Films. Average weighted grayscale values of protagonist and antagonist skin tones were plotted and arranged into a box and whisker plot. The median grayscale value of antagonists (106.7) was lower than that of protagonists (134.9), indicating that antagonists overall were darker than protagonists. This difference was significant (p<.001). Average grayscale values of protagonist and antagonist skin tones in 91 films were plotted against the year of production. Trend lines and confidence bands were superimposed on these data points. In recent years, the skin tones of both protagonists and antagonists have changed to include darker shades. However, differences between protagonist and antagonist skin tones have remained constant over time, with protagonists consistently having lighter skin tones compared to antagonists.

Blood ; 138:2520, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1582169


Updated analysis confirms sustained poor prognosis of COVID-19 in patients with lymphoma in Latin America: A cohort of 160 patients from GELL. Introduction: Ongoing SARS-COV-2 pandemic has impacted the management of cancer patients worldwide. Several reports have demonstrated inferior outcomes of patients with hematological malignancies, including higher rates of intensive care unit admission, need for mechanical ventilation and death. The impact of COVID-19 is profound in resource-restricted countries, including Latin America. Most cohorts reported have not included patients from Latin America, and there is paucity of data of the outcome of cancer patients with COVID-19 in low- and middle-income countries. Grupo de Estudio De Linfoproliferativos En Latino-America (GELL )is a collaborative network of hematological centers in 13 countries in Latin America. We report updated outcomes of lymphoma patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Latin America. Methods: We conducted a retrospective study including patients with a diagnosis of lymphoma and COVID-19 infection. Patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma were excluded from the analysis We defined active disease as follow: (1) patients with detectable disease either prior to initiating therapy or upon relapse, and/or (2) patients undergoing active cancer treatment. The primary outcome was overall survival at 100 days. Survival curves were estimated using the Kaplan Meier method. Uni and multivariable analysis were carried out with Cox model. Results: A total of 160 patients were available for analysis. Median age was 60 years old. Hypertension was the most common comorbidity (33%). Most patients had aggressive lymphomas (62%), including 43% of patients with diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma (DLBCL). Follicular lymphomas were observed in 13% of patients and Hodgkin lymphoma in 12.5% of patients. With a median follow-up of 37 days, the 100-day OS was 64% (95CI 56-74%, fig. 1). In univariate analysis, age (HR 1.03, p=0.0025), hypertension (HR 2.01, p=0.017), >1 number of prior lines (HR 2.78, p=0.011), patients currently on treatment (HR 1.83, p=0.043), ferritin >2000 ng/mL (HR 4.74 p=0.00047) were associated with inferior OS. In multivariate analysis, age (HR 1.03, p=0.0026) and patients currently on treatment (HR 1.82, p=0.04) had inferior OS. There was a trend towards inferior outcomes in patients receiving monoclonal antibodies in univariate analysis (HR 1.82, p=0.081) but not in multivariable analysis (HR=1.29, p=0.48). Use of steroids was not statistically related to mortality (HR 1.79, p=0.074). Finally, contrary to other cohorts, no improvement in OS was observed in patients diagnosed later on the pandemic (fig. 2). Conclusion: In this large cohort of Latin American patients with lymphoma malignancies, our updated analysis showed a maintained dismal prognosis with COVID-19 infection. With a median follow up of 37 days, the 100-day OS was 64%. Older age and ongoing active cancer treatment were significantly associated with mortality. The use of monoclonal antibodies and systemic corticosteroids were not statistically associated to poor survival. Current efforts are focused on improving immunization in the Latin American population. There is an unmet need for improving survival in patients with hematologic malignancies and COVID-19 infection. [Formula presented] Disclosures: Perini: Janssen: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Takeda: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;Astra Zeneca: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau;MSD: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Otero: ASTRA ZENECA: Current Employment. Abello: Dr Reddy's: Research Funding;Amgen: Honoraria;Janssen: Honoraria. Castillo: Abbvie: Consultancy, Research Funding;BeiGene: Consultancy, Research Funding;Pharmacyclics: Consultancy, Research Funding;Janssen: Consultancy;Roche: Consultancy;TG Therapeutics: Research Funding.