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2.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2147-2152, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1708655

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high rate of mortality in patients with ESKD, and vaccination is hoped to prevent infection. METHODS: Between January 18 and February 24, 2021, 225 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and 45 patients on hemodialysis (HDPs) received two injections of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. The postvaccinal humoral and cellular response was explored in the first 45 KTRs and ten HDPs. RESULTS: After the second dose, eight HDPs (88.9%) and eight KTRs (17.8%) developed antispike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P<0.001). Median titers of antibodies in responders were 1052 AU/ml (IQR, 515-2689) in HDPs and 671 AU/ml (IQR, 172-1523) in KTRs (P=0.40). Nine HDPs (100%) and 26 KTRs (57.8%) showed a specific T cell response (P=0.06) after the second injection. In responders, median numbers of spike-reactive T cells were 305 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 95-947) in HDPs and 212 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 61-330) in KTRs (P=0.40). In KTRs, the immune response to BNT162b2 seemed influenced by the immunosuppressive regimen, particularly tacrolimus or belatacept. CONCLUSION: Immunization with BNT162b2 seems more efficient in HDPs, indicating that vaccination should be highly recommended in these patients awaiting a transplant. However, the current vaccinal strategy for KTRs may not provide effective protection against COVID-19 and will likely need to be improved.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transplant Recipients
5.
Transplant Direct ; 7(12): e792, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528246

ABSTRACT

Kidney transplantation and dialysis are two major risk factors for severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The dynamics of the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in this population remain largely unknown. METHODS: We report here the analysis of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody- and T cell-mediated immune responses in 26 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and 11 dialyzed patients (DPs) who recovered from COVID-19. RESULTS: After a mean time of 83 ± 26 d post-symptom onset for KTRs and 97 ± 31 d for DPs, 20 KTRs (76.9%) and 10 DPs (90.9%) displayed anti-S1 immunoglobulin G SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P = 0.34), at similar titers in both groups. SARS-CoV-2-specific interferon-γ-producing T cells were evidenced in 26 KTRs (100%) and 10 DPs (90.9%). Total numbers of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells were high and not statistically different between the 2 groups. No correlation between the severity of the disease and the number of reactive T cells was found in KTRs. In 5 KTRs, also evaluated 10 mo after COVID-19, weak or absent antibody response was observed, whereas specific memory T-cell response was detected in all cases. CONCLUSION: T-cell response persisted up to 3 mo post-symptom onset, even in KTRs in whom full immunosuppressive regimen was reinstated at recovery, and seems to be present up to 10 mo after infection. Our findings have implications in the understanding of the natural course of the disease in transplant patients and DPs.

8.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(9): 2147-2152, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1266594

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is associated with a high rate of mortality in patients with ESKD, and vaccination is hoped to prevent infection. METHODS: Between January 18 and February 24, 2021, 225 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) and 45 patients on hemodialysis (HDPs) received two injections of mRNA BNT162b2 vaccine. The postvaccinal humoral and cellular response was explored in the first 45 KTRs and ten HDPs. RESULTS: After the second dose, eight HDPs (88.9%) and eight KTRs (17.8%) developed antispike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (P<0.001). Median titers of antibodies in responders were 1052 AU/ml (IQR, 515-2689) in HDPs and 671 AU/ml (IQR, 172-1523) in KTRs (P=0.40). Nine HDPs (100%) and 26 KTRs (57.8%) showed a specific T cell response (P=0.06) after the second injection. In responders, median numbers of spike-reactive T cells were 305 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 95-947) in HDPs and 212 SFCs per 106 CD3+ T cells (IQR, 61-330) in KTRs (P=0.40). In KTRs, the immune response to BNT162b2 seemed influenced by the immunosuppressive regimen, particularly tacrolimus or belatacept. CONCLUSION: Immunization with BNT162b2 seems more efficient in HDPs, indicating that vaccination should be highly recommended in these patients awaiting a transplant. However, the current vaccinal strategy for KTRs may not provide effective protection against COVID-19 and will likely need to be improved.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , COVID-19 Vaccines/pharmacology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Transplant Recipients
9.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 603931, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-979023

ABSTRACT

Despite efforts to develop anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibody (Ab) immunoassays, reliable serological methods are still needed. We developed a multiplex addressable laser bead immunoassay (ALBIA) to detect and quantify anti-Spike S1 and nucleocapsid N Abs. Recombinant S1 and N proteins were bound to fluorescent beads (ALBIA-IgG-S1/N). Abs were revealed using class-specific anti-human Ig Abs. The performances of the test were analyzed on 575 serum samples including 192 from SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction-confirmed patients, 13 from seasonal coronaviruses, 70 from different inflammatory/autoimmune diseases, and 300 from healthy donors. Anti-S1 IgM were detected by monoplex ALBIA-IgM-S1. Comparison with chemiluminescent assays or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays was performed using commercial tests. Multiplex ALBIA-IgG-S1/N was effective in detecting and quantifying anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG Abs. Two weeks after first symptoms, sensitivity and specificity were 97.7 and 98.0% (anti-S1), and 100 and 98.7% (anti-N), respectively. Agreement with commercial tests was good to excellent, with a higher sensitivity of ALBIA. ALBIA-IgG-S1/N was positive in 53% of patients up to day 7, and in 75% between days 7 and 13. For ALBIA-IgM-S1, sensitivity and specificity were 74.4 and 98.7%, respectively. Patients in intensive care units had higher IgG Ab levels (Mann-Whitney test, p < 0.05). ALBIA provides a robust method for exploring humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-2. Serology should be performed after 2 weeks following first symptoms, when all COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) patients had at least one anti-S1 or anti-N IgG Ab, illustrating the interest of a multiplex test.

10.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954408

ABSTRACT

We investigated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibodies and T-cell responses against SARS-CoV-2 and human coronavirus (HCoV) 229E and OC43 in 11 SARS-CoV-2 serodiscordant couples in Strausbourg, France, in which 1 partner had evidence of mild coronavirus disease (COVID-19) and in 10 unexposed healthy controls. Patients with confirmed COVID-19 were considered index patients and their partners close contacts. All index patients displayed positive SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and T-cell responses that lasted up to 102 days after symptom onset. All contacts remained seronegative for SARS-CoV-2; however, 6 reported COVID-19 symptoms within a median of 7 days after their partners, and 4 of those showed a positive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell response against 3 or 4 SARS-CoV-2 antigens that lasted up to 93 days after symptom onset. The 11 couples and controls displayed positive T-cell responses against HCoV-229E or HCoV-OC43. These data suggest that exposure to SARS-CoV-2 can induce virus-specific T-cell responses without seroconversion.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/physiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19 Testing , Case-Control Studies , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Male , Middle Aged , Seroconversion , Serologic Tests
11.
Am J Transplant ; 21(2): 854-863, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-852162

ABSTRACT

Immunosuppressed organ-transplanted patients are considered at risk for severe forms of COVID-19. Moreover, exaggerated innate and adaptive immune responses might be involved in severe progression of the disease. However, no data on the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 in transplanted patients are currently available. Here, we report the first assessment of antibody and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 in 11 kidney-transplanted patients recovered from RT-PCR-confirmed (n = 5) or initially suspected (n = 6) COVID-19. After reduction of immunosuppressive therapy, RT-PCR-confirmed COVID-19 transplant patients were able to mount vigorous antiviral T cell and antibody responses, as efficiently as two nontherapeutically immunosuppressed COVID-19 patients on hemodialysis. By contrast, six RT-PCR-negative patients displayed no antibody response. Among them, three showed very low numbers of SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells, whereas no T cell response was detected in the other three, potentially ruling out COVID-19 diagnosis. Low levels of T cell reactivity to SARS-CoV-2 were also detected in seronegative healthy controls without known exposure to the virus. These results suggest that during COVID-19, monitoring both T cell and serological immunity might be helpful for the differential diagnosis of COVID-19 but are also needed to evaluate a potential role of antiviral T cells in the development of severe forms of the disease.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/immunology , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/metabolism , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Case-Control Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Female , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism
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