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1.
Eur J Intern Med ; 102: 63-71, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1944883

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents an urgent threat to global health. Prediction models that accurately estimate mortality risk in hospitalized patients could assist medical staff in treatment and allocating limited resources. AIMS: To externally validate two promising previously published risk scores that predict in-hospital mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. METHODS: Two prospective cohorts were available; a cohort of 1028 patients admitted to one of nine hospitals in Lombardy, Italy (the Lombardy cohort) and a cohort of 432 patients admitted to a hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands (the Leiden cohort). The endpoint was in-hospital mortality. All patients were adult and tested COVID-19 PCR-positive. Model discrimination and calibration were assessed. RESULTS: The C-statistic of the 4C mortality score was good in the Lombardy cohort (0.85, 95CI: 0.82-0.89) and in the Leiden cohort (0.87, 95CI: 0.80-0.94). Model calibration was acceptable in the Lombardy cohort but poor in the Leiden cohort due to the model systematically overpredicting the mortality risk for all patients. The C-statistic of the CURB-65 score was good in the Lombardy cohort (0.80, 95CI: 0.75-0.85) and in the Leiden cohort (0.82, 95CI: 0.76-0.88). The mortality rate in the CURB-65 development cohort was much lower than the mortality rate in the Lombardy cohort. A similar but less pronounced trend was found for patients in the Leiden cohort. CONCLUSION: Although performances did not differ greatly, the 4C mortality score showed the best performance. However, because of quickly changing circumstances, model recalibration may be necessary before using the 4C mortality score.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 1906-1907, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921960

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Prognosis
3.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 32(2): 020901, 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1798676

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Several laboratory tests are characteristically altered in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), but are not totally accurate in predicting the disease outcome. The long pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is quickly released directly at inflammation sites by many immune cell types. Previous studies have shown that PTX3 correlated with disease severity in various inflammatory conditions. Our study investigated the use of PTX3 as a potential marker of COVID-19 severity and compared its performance in detecting a more severe form of the disease with that of routine laboratory parameters. Materials and methods: Stored serum samples of RT-PCR confirmed COVID-19 cases that had been obtained at hospital admission were retrospectively analysed. Intensive care unit (ICU) stay was considered a surrogate endpoint of severe COVID-19. Pentraxin 3 was measured by a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: A total of 96 patients were recruited from May 1st, 2020 to June 30th, 2020; 75/96 were transferred to ICU. Pentraxin 3 was higher in ICU vs non-ICU patients (35.86 vs 10.61 ng/mL, P < 0.001). Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models demonstrated that the only significant laboratory predictor of ICU stay was PTX3 (OR: 1.68 (1.19-2.29), P = 0.003), after controlling for comorbidities. The Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis showed that PTX3 had a higher accuracy compared to C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LD), ferritin in identifying ICU patients (AUC of PTX3 = 0.98; CRP = 0.66; LD = 0.70; ferritin = 0.67, P < 0.001). A cut-off of PTX3 > 18 ng/mL yielded a sensitivity of 96% and a specificity of 100% in identifying patients requiring ICU. Conclusion: High values of PTX3 predict a more severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Biomarkers , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , Ferritins , Humans , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Serum Amyloid P-Component
4.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 834354, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785362

ABSTRACT

Objective: Our knowledge on the long-term consequences of COVID-19 is still scarce despite the clinical relevance of persisting syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze patient-reported outcomes, including assessment by specific questionnaires of health impairment and symptoms. Methods: This is a prospective, observational and multicenter cohort study coordinated by Fondazione IRCSS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico di Milano and Istituto di Ricerche Farmacologiche Mario Negri IRCCS including eight hospitals located in North and Central Italy. A telephone interview to assess rehospitalization, access to health care resources, general health status subjective evaluation, and symptoms was performed at 12 months after the discharge in patients admitted to hospital because of COVID-19 from February 2020 to the end of May 2020. Results: Among the 776 patients discharged alive, 44 (5.7%) died, 456 subjects (58.8%) completed the questionnaire and 276 (35.6%) were not reachable or refused to join the telephone interview. The mean age of the study population was 59.4 years (SD 14.1), 69.8% of individuals needed oxygen support during hospitalization and 10.4% were admitted to ICU. Overall, 91.7% of participants reported at least one symptom/sequela at 12 months. Exertional dyspnea (71.7%), fatigue (54.6%), and gastrointestinal symptoms (32.8%) were the most reported ones. Health issues after discharge including hospitalization or access to emergency room were described by 19.4% of subjects. Female and presence of comorbidities were independent predictors of whealth impairment and presence of ≥2 symptoms/sequelae after 12 months from hospitalization for COVID-19. Conclusions: Patient-reported symptoms and sequelae, principally dyspnea and fatigue, are found in most individuals even 12 months from COVID-19 hospitalization. Long-term follow-up based on patient-centered outcome can contribute to plan tailored interventions.

5.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330161

ABSTRACT

Background The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) presents an urgent threat to global health. Prediction models that accurately estimate mortality risk in hospitalized patients could assist medical staff in treatment and allocating limited resources. Aims To externally validate two promising previously published risk scores that predict in-hospital mortality among hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Methods Two cohorts were available;a cohort of 1028 patients admitted to one of nine hospitals in Lombardy, Italy (the Lombardy cohort) and a cohort of 432 patients admitted to a hospital in Leiden, the Netherlands (the Leiden cohort). The primary endpoint was in-hospital mortality. All patients were adult and tested COVID-19 PCR-positive. Model discrimination and calibration were assessed. Results The C-statistic of the 4C mortality score was good in the Lombardy cohort (0.85, 95CI: 0.82-0.89) and in the Leiden cohort (0.87, 95CI: 0.80-0.94). Model calibration was acceptable in the Lombardy cohort but poor in the Leiden cohort due to the model systematically overpredicting the mortality risk for all patients. The C-statistic of the CURB-65 score was good in the Lombardy cohort (0.80, 95CI: 0.75-0.85) and in the Leiden cohort (0.82, 95CI: 0.76-0.88). The mortality rate in the CURB-65 development cohort was much lower than the mortality rate in the Lombardy cohort. A similar but less pronounced trend was found for patients in the Leiden cohort. Conclusion Although performances did not differ greatly, the 4C mortality score showed the best performance. However, because of quickly changing circumstances, model recalibration may be necessary before using the 4C mortality score.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-304746

ABSTRACT

Background: The early detection of COVID-19 patients with interstitial pneumonia at high risk of dismal outcome is necessary to deliver proper care and optimize management of limited resources. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyse the performance of pre-existing scores in predicting in-hospital mortality and ICU transfer at admission in an Acute Medical Unit. Methods: 106 consecutive patients with acute respiratory failure due to COVID-19 interstitial pneumoni admitted to Acute Medical Unit were enrolled. The performances of NEWS, SIRS, RAPS, REMS, qSOFA, APACHE II, CURB-65 and PSI were analysed by the Area Under the Receiver Operator Characteristic (AUROCs) and standard indices of accuracy. Results: Considering in-hospital mortality PSI and APACHE II had the higher AUROCs, 0.83 (95% CI 0.75-0.91) and 0.80 (95% CI 0.71-0.88), followed by REMS, 0.77 (95% CI 0.67-0.86), and CURB-65, 0.73 (95% CI 0.63-0.82), whereas the AUROCs of the other scores were < 0.7. PSI and APACHE II had good sensitivity (0.92 and 0.97), negative predictive value (0.96 and 0.97) and negative likelihood ratio (0.1 and 0.1), accurately identifying patients at low risk to die. However, the low specificity (0.70 and 0.47) and positive likelihood ratio (3.1 and 1.8) could limit their usefulness in predicting in-hospital mortality. Considering ICU admissions all the scores, except NEWS, SIRS and qSOFA, showed a worse performance. Conclusions: PSI and APACHE II showed good prognostic results in predicting in-hospital mortality but no pre- existing score validated for acute care settings was totally satisfactory to predict adverse outcomes in COVID-19 interstitial pneumonia after admission to Acute Medical Unit. The application setting and selected outcome criteria should always be considered to evaluate and compare scoring systems’ performance analysis.

7.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248498, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1388907

ABSTRACT

We report onset, course, correlations with comorbidities, and diagnostic accuracy of nasopharyngeal swab in 539 individuals suspected to carry SARS-COV-2 admitted to the hospital of Crema, Italy. All individuals underwent clinical and laboratory exams, SARS-COV-2 reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab, and chest X-ray and/or computed tomography (CT). Data on onset, course, comorbidities, number of drugs including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin-II-receptor antagonists (sartans), follow-up swab, pharmacological treatments, non-invasive respiratory support, ICU admission, and deaths were recorded. Among 411 SARS-COV-2 patients (67.7% males) median age was 70.8 years (range 5-99). Chest CT was performed in 317 (77.2%) and showed interstitial pneumonia in 304 (96%). Fatality rate was 17.5% (74% males), with 6.6% in 60-69 years old, 21.1% in 70-79 years old, 38.8% in 80-89 years old, and 83.3% above 90 years. No death occurred below 60 years. Non-invasive respiratory support rate was 27.2% and ICU admission 6.8%. Charlson comorbidity index and high C-reactive protein at admission were significantly associated with death. Use of ACE inhibitors or sartans was not associated with outcomes. Among 128 swab negative patients at admission (63.3% males) median age was 67.7 years (range 1-98). Chest CT was performed in 87 (68%) and showed interstitial pneumonia in 76 (87.3%). Follow-up swab turned positive in 13 of 32 patients. Using chest CT at admission as gold standard on the entire study population of 539 patients, nasopharyngeal swab had 80% accuracy. Comorbidity network analysis revealed a more homogenous distribution 60-40 aged SARS-COV-2 patients across diseases and a crucial different interplay of diseases in the networks of deceased and survived patients. SARS-CoV-2 caused high mortality among patients older than 60 years and correlated with pre-existing multiorgan impairment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Comorbidity , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
8.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(2): e0054921, 2021 10 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1381170

ABSTRACT

In one year of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, many studies have described the different metabolic changes occurring in COVID-19 patients, linking these alterations to the disease severity. However, a complete metabolic signature of the most severe cases, especially those with a fatal outcome, is still missing. Our study retrospectively analyzes the metabolome profiles of 75 COVID-19 patients with moderate and severe symptoms admitted to Fondazione IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico (Lombardy Region, Italy) following SARS-CoV-2 infection between March and April 2020. Italy was the first Western country to experience COVID-19, and the Lombardy Region was the epicenter of the Italian COVID-19 pandemic. This cohort shows a higher mortality rate compared to others; therefore, it represents a unique opportunity to investigate the underlying metabolic profiles of the first COVID-19 patients in Italy and to identify the potential biomarkers related to the disease prognosis and fatal outcome. IMPORTANCE Understanding the metabolic alterations occurring during an infection is a key element for identifying potential indicators of the disease prognosis, which are fundamental for developing efficient diagnostic tools and offering the best therapeutic treatment to the patient. Here, exploiting high-throughput metabolomics data, we identified the first metabolic profile associated with a fatal outcome, not correlated with preexisting clinical conditions or the oxygen demand at the moment of diagnosis. Overall, our results contribute to a better understanding of COVID-19-related metabolic disruption and may represent a useful starting point for the identification of independent prognostic factors to be employed in therapeutic practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Chemical Analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Energy Metabolism/physiology , Metabolome/physiology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Comorbidity , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Resuscitation ; 166: 83-84, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322337

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Auton Neurosci ; 229: 102734, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-778433

ABSTRACT

We describe clinical and laboratory findings in 35 patients tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction on nasopharyngeal swab experiencing one or multiple syncope at disease onset. Clinical neurologic and cardiologic examination, and electrocardiographic findings were normal. Chest computed tomography showed findings consistent with interstitial pneumonia. Arterial blood gas analysis showed low pO2, pCO2, and ratio of arterial oxygen partial pressure to fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) indicating hypocapnic hypoxemia. Patients who presented with syncope showed significantly lower heart rate as compared to 68 SARS-CoV-2 positive that did not. Such poorer than expected compensatory heart rate increase may have led to syncope based on individual susceptibility. We speculate that SARS-CoV-2 could have caused angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) receptor internalization in the nucleus of the solitary tract and other midbrain nuclei, impairing baroreflex and chemoreceptor response, and inhibiting the compensatory tachycardia during acute hypocapnic hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Syncope/virology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Heart Rate/physiology , Humans , Hypocapnia/virology , Hypoxia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Am J Emerg Med ; 45: 156-161, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-713140

ABSTRACT

AIMS: In this work, the survival and mortality data of 54 consecutive patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and suffering from severe respiratory insufficiency imputable to viral SARS - CoV - 2 infection were analyzed and shared, after a critical review of the evidence in order to optimize the most dedicated clinical and treatment strategy, for a future 'targeted' management in the care of the possible return flu outbreak. METHODS: At our Emergency Department of the Crema Hospital, from the beginning of the pandemic until the end of June 2020, 54 consecutive patients admitted to ICU suffering from severe acute respiratory infection (SARI) and severe respiratory distress (ARDS) attributable to viral SARS - CoV - 2 infection were recruited. The recruitment criterion was based on refractory hypoxia, general condition and clinical impairment, comorbidities and CT images. The incoming parameters of the blood chemistry and radiology investigations and the timing of the gold - tracheal intubation were compared. Medical therapy was based on the application of shared protocols. RESULTS: The onset of symptoms was varyng, i.e. within the range of 1-14 days. The average time from the admission to the emergency room to the admission to intensive care was approximately 120 h. The average number of days of hospitalization in the ICU was 28 days. With a majority of male patients, the most significant age group was between 60 and 69 years. There were 21 deaths and, compared to the survivors, the deceased ones were older at an average age of about 67 years (vs an average age of the survivors of about 59 years). From the available data entering the ICU, the surviving patients presented average better values of oximetry and blood gas analysis, with a lower average dosage of D-Dimer than the deceased. Ones with a presence of bilateral pneumonia in all patients, the worsening of the ARDS occurred in 31 patients. 9 out of 25 patients early intubated died, while 12 out of 23 patients died when intubation was performed after 24 h of non-invasive ventilation. The presence of multiple comorbidities was shown in 17 of 28 patients and revealed an additional adverse prognostic factor. Also, more than one complication in the same patient were detected; after respiratory worsening, renal failure was more frequently found in 16 patients. Some particular complications such as lesions induced by ventilation with barotrauma mechanism (VILI), ischemic heart disease and the appearance of central and peripheral neurological events were detected too. CONSIDERATIONS: SARS - CoV - 2 disease is caused by a new coronavirus that has its main route of transmission through respiratory droplets and close contact, resulting in a sudden onset of the clinical syndrome with acute respiratory infection (SARI) and severe respiratory distress (ARDS). But it can also appear with other symptoms such as gastrointestinal or neurological events, as to be considered as a disease with multisystem phenotype. This pathology evolves towards a serious form of systemic disease from an acute lung damage to venous and arterial thromboembolic complications and multi-organ failure, mostly associated with high mortality. All patients received empirical or targeted antibiotic therapy for prevention and control of infections of potential pathogens, together with low molecular weight heparin therapy. The majority of patients was subjected to the off - label protocol with antivirals and hydroxychloroquine therapy, we used cortisone support therapy under surveillance and in 3 cases the protocol with anti - IL6 monoclonal antibody (Tolicizumab). In a simplified classification of the tomographic examination of the chest, mostly 3D and 2C lesions were found in the deceased patients with a prevalence of severe and moderate forms, whilst in the survivors the distribution appears with a prevalence of medium and moderate forms. Among the intubated patients, 21 patients, all suffering from worsening ARDS, died whilst there was no mortality in patients subjected to non-invasive ventilation it so. The heterogeneity of the respiratory syndromes and the presence of multiple comorbidities represent an unfortunate prognostic factor. Among the complications, besides the respiratory worsening, renal failure, liver failure and the state of sepsis were most frequently found; less frequent complications were lesions induced by ventilation with a barotrauma mechanism, ischemic heart disease, the appearance of central neurological events of sensory alterations, meningo - encephalitis and cerebral hemorrhage, and peripheral neurological events with polyneuro - myopathies. Mechanical ventilation can adversely affect the prognosis due to lung damage induced, protective ventilation remains the necessary treatment during severe hypoxia in patients with SARS - CoV - 2. The essential prerequisite remains the search for optimal 'customized' values since conditions can vary from patient to patient and, in the same patient, during different times of ventilation. CONCLUSIONS: In these extraordinary circumstances, our reality was among the most affected and was able to hold the impact thanks to the immediate great response set in place by the operators, although it costed us an effort especially the one to try to guarantee a high quality level of assistance and care compared to the huge wave of patients in seriously bad conditions. Further research on this heterogeneous pathology and data sharing could help identify a more dedicated clinical decision-making and treatment pathway that, together with a resource planning, would allow us to better face any new disease outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies
12.
Biochem Med (Zagreb) ; 30(3): 030402, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709641

ABSTRACT

After December 2019 outbreak in China, the novel Coronavirus infection (COVID-19) has very quickly overflowed worldwide. Infection causes a clinical syndrome encompassing a wide range of clinical features, from asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic course to acute respiratory distress and death. In a very recent work we preliminarily observed that several laboratory tests have been shown as characteristically altered in COVID-19. We aimed to use the Corona score, a validated point-based algorithm to predict the likelihood of COVID-19 infection in patients presenting at the Emergency rooms. This approach combines chest images-relative score and several laboratory parameters to classify emergency room patients. Corona score accuracy was satisfactory, increasing the detection of positive patients' rate.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Biomarkers/metabolism , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Emergency Service, Hospital/standards , False Negative Reactions , Humans , Negative Results , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Reproducibility of Results , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/standards
14.
Arch Med Res ; 51(6): 598-599, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-423996

ABSTRACT

Infection of novel Coronavirus has been declared pandemic by the WHO and now is a world public health crisis. Laboratory activity becames essential for the timely diagnosis. Few parameters, such Lymphocytes count, SaO2 and CRP serum level can be used to assess the severity of COVID-19 in emergency room.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Lymphocyte Count , Oxygen/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
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