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1.
Cells ; 11(17)2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009959

ABSTRACT

Virus-specific cellular and humoral responses are major determinants for protection from critical illness after SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the magnitude of the contribution of each of the components to viral clearance remains unclear. Here, we studied the timing of viral clearance in relation to 122 immune parameters in 102 hospitalised patients with moderate and severe COVID-19 in a longitudinal design. Delayed viral clearance was associated with more severe disease and was associated with higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific (neutralising) antibodies over time, increased numbers of neutrophils, monocytes, basophils, and a range of pro-inflammatory cyto-/chemokines illustrating ongoing, partially Th2 dominating, immune activation. In contrast, early viral clearance and less critical illness correlated with the peak of neutralising antibodies, higher levels of CD4 T cells, and in particular naïve CD4+ T cells, suggesting their role in early control of SARS-CoV-2 possibly by proving appropriate B cell help. Higher counts of naïve CD4+ T cells also correlated with lower levels of MIF, IL-9, and TNF-beta, suggesting an indirect role in averting prolonged virus-induced tissue damage. Collectively, our data show that naïve CD4+ T cell play a critical role in rapid viral T cell control, obviating aberrant antibody and cytokine profiles and disease deterioration. These data may help in guiding risk stratification for severe COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Viral , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Critical Illness , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Research and practice in thrombosis and haemostasis ; 6(6), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999173

ABSTRACT

Background Coagulation abnormalities and coagulopathy are recognized as consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). Specifically, venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been reported as a frequent complication. By May 27, 2021, at least 93 original studies and 25 meta‐analyses investigating VTE incidence in patients with COVID‐19 had been published, showing large heterogeneity in reported VTE incidence ranging from 0% to 85%. This large variation complicates interpretation of individual study results as well as comparisons across studies, for example, to investigate changes in incidence over time, compare subgroups, and perform meta‐analyses. Objectives This study sets out to provide an overview of sources of heterogeneity in VTE incidence studies in patients with COVID‐19, illustrated using examples. Methods The original studies of three meta‐analyses were screened and a list of sources of heterogeneity that may explain observed heterogeneity across studies was composed. Results The sources of heterogeneity in VTE incidence were classified as clinical sources and methodologic sources. Clinical sources of heterogeneity include differences between studies regarding patient characteristics that affect baseline VTE risk and protocols used for VTE testing. Methodologic sources of heterogeneity include differences in VTE inclusion types, data quality, and the methods used for data analysis. Conclusions To appreciate reported estimates of VTE incidence in patients with COVID‐19 in relation to its etiology, prevention, and treatment, researchers should unambiguously report about possible clinical and methodological sources of heterogeneity in those estimates. This article provides suggestions for that.

3.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(6): e12776, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995559

ABSTRACT

Background: Coagulation abnormalities and coagulopathy are recognized as consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection and the resulting coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Specifically, venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been reported as a frequent complication. By May 27, 2021, at least 93 original studies and 25 meta-analyses investigating VTE incidence in patients with COVID-19 had been published, showing large heterogeneity in reported VTE incidence ranging from 0% to 85%. This large variation complicates interpretation of individual study results as well as comparisons across studies, for example, to investigate changes in incidence over time, compare subgroups, and perform meta-analyses. Objectives: This study sets out to provide an overview of sources of heterogeneity in VTE incidence studies in patients with COVID-19, illustrated using examples. Methods: The original studies of three meta-analyses were screened and a list of sources of heterogeneity that may explain observed heterogeneity across studies was composed. Results: The sources of heterogeneity in VTE incidence were classified as clinical sources and methodologic sources. Clinical sources of heterogeneity include differences between studies regarding patient characteristics that affect baseline VTE risk and protocols used for VTE testing. Methodologic sources of heterogeneity include differences in VTE inclusion types, data quality, and the methods used for data analysis. Conclusions: To appreciate reported estimates of VTE incidence in patients with COVID-19 in relation to its etiology, prevention, and treatment, researchers should unambiguously report about possible clinical and methodological sources of heterogeneity in those estimates. This article provides suggestions for that.

4.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(4): e12722, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1976781

ABSTRACT

Men seem to have a higher intrinsic risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) than women, regardless of age. To date, this difference has not been explained. By integrating state-of-the-art research presented at the International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis Congress of 2021 with the available literature, we address potential explanations for this intriguing risk difference between men and women. We discuss the role of exogenous and endogenous sex hormones as the most important known sex-specific determinants of VTE risk. In addition, we highlight clues on the role of sex hormones and VTE risk from clinical scenarios such as pregnancy and the polycystic ovary syndrome. Furthermore, we address new potential sex-specific risk factors and unanswered research questions, which could provide more insight in the intrinsic risk difference between men and women, such as body height and differences in body fat distribution, leading to dysregulation of metabolism and inflammation.

5.
Eur Stroke J ; 7(2): 180-187, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785138

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is often complicated by thrombo-embolic events including ischemic stroke. The underlying mechanisms of COVID-19-associated ischemic stroke, the incidence and risk factors of silent cerebral ischemia, and the long-term functional outcome in these patients are currently unknown. Patients and methods: CORONavirus and Ischemic Stroke (CORONIS) is a multicentre prospective cohort study investigating the prevalence, risk factors and long-term incidence of (silent) cerebral ischemia, and the long-term functional outcome among patients with COVID-19. We aim to include 200 adult patients hospitalized with COVID-19 without symptomatic ischemic stroke to investigate the prevalence of silent cerebral ischemia compared with 60 (matched) controls with MRI. In addition, we will identify potential risk factors and/or causes of cerebral ischemia in COVID-19 patients with (n = 70) or without symptomatic stroke (n = 200) by means of blood sampling, cardiac workup and brain MRI. We will measure functional outcome and cognitive function after 3 and 12 months with standardized questionnaires in all patients with COVID-19. Finally, the long-term incidence of (new) silent cerebral ischemia in patients with COVID-19 will be assessed with follow up MRI (n = 120). Summary: The CORONIS study is designed to add further insight into the prevalence, long-term incidence and risk factors of cerebral ischemia, and the long-term functional outcome in hospitalized adult patients with COVID-19.

6.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(3): 377-385, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730367

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In January 2021, the Dutch vaccination program against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was started. Clinical studies have shown that systemic reactions occur in up to 50% of vaccine recipients. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination could affect anticoagulation control, potentially leading to an increased risk of thrombotic events and bleeding complications. AIMS: This article investigates whether the BNT162b2 vaccine affects anticoagulation control in outpatients using vitamin K antagonists (VKAs). METHODS: A case-crossover study was performed in a cohort of outpatient VKA users from four Dutch anticoagulation clinics who received a BNT162b2 vaccine. International normalized ratio (INR) results and VKA dosages before the first vaccination, the reference period, were compared with those after the first and second vaccination. RESULTS: A total of 3,148 outpatient VKA users were included, with a mean age (standard deviation) of 86.7 (8.7) years, of whom 43.8% were male, 67.0% used acenocoumarol, and 33.0% phenprocoumon. We observed a decrease of 8.9% of INRs within range in the standard intensity group (target INR 2.0-3.0). There was both an increased risk of supratherapeutic (odds ratio [OR] = 1.34 [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.08-1.67]) and subtherapeutic levels (OR = 1.40 [95% CI 1.08-1.83]) after first vaccination. In the high-intensity group (target INR 2.5-3.5), the risk of a supratherapeutic INR was 2.3 times higher after first vaccination (OR = 2.29 [95% CI 1.22-4.28]) and 3.3 times higher after second vaccination (OR = 3.25 [95% CI 1.06-9.97]). CONCLUSION: BNT162b2 was associated with an immediate negative effect on anticoagulation control in patients treated with VKAs, so it is advisable to monitor the INR shortly after vaccination, even in stable patients.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care , Drug Monitoring , Female , Humans , International Normalized Ratio , Male , Netherlands , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
7.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(7): e12597, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1469557

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coagulopathy has been reported in severely ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It is unclear whether outpatients with COVID-19 who are treated with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) have unstable anticoagulation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the stability of VKA therapy in patients with COVID-19 through a case-crossover study. METHODS: Between February and July 2020, we included patients who tested positive for COVID-19 from two anticoagulant clinics in the Netherlands. We collected international normalized ratios (INRs) determined between 26 weeks before infection and 12 weeks after. Time in therapeutic range (TTR) and the variance growth rate (VGR) were calculated within patients. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients with COVID-19 (mean age, 84 years) were included, of whom 15 (29%) were men. Mean TTR in the 26 weeks before COVID-19 was 80% (95% confidence interval [CI], 75-85) compared to 59% (95% CI, 51-68) in the 6 weeks after infection. Mean TTR difference was -23% (95% CI, -32 to -14) with a time above therapeutic range of 38% (95% CI, 30-47) in the 6 weeks after infection. The TTR rose again to 79% (95% CI, 69-89) between 6 and 12 weeks after infection. Also, VGR increased, with a mean increase of 4.8 (95% CI, 2.1-7.5) in the 6 weeks after infection. In the 26 weeks before infection, we registered 19 of 641 (3%) of INR ≥5.0 compared with 35 of 247 (14%) in the 6 weeks after (risk ratio, 4.4; 95% CI, 2.7-7.3). CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is associated with a strong decrease in TTR and in therapeutic stability in patients taking VKAs. Additional monitoring in these patients is advised to maximize therapeutic stability.

8.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(2): 278-290, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1120206

ABSTRACT

The incidence of venous thrombosis, mostly pulmonary embolism (PE), ranging from local immunothrombosis to central emboli, but also deep vein thrombosis (DVT) in people with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is reported to be remarkably high. The relevance of better understanding, predicting, treating, and preventing COVID-19-associated venous thrombosis meets broad support, as can be concluded from the high number of research, review, and guideline papers that have been published on this topic. The Dutch COVID & Thrombosis Coalition (DCTC) is a multidisciplinary team involving a large number of Dutch experts in the broad area of venous thrombosis and hemostasis research, combined with experts on virology, critically ill patients, pulmonary diseases, and community medicine, across all university hospitals and many community hospitals in the Netherlands. Within the consortium, clinical data of at least 5000 admitted COVID-19-infected individuals are available, including substantial collections of biobanked materials in an estimated 3000 people. In addition to considerable experience in preclinical and clinical thrombosis research, the consortium embeds virology-hemostasis research models within unique biosafety facilities to address fundamental questions on the interaction of virus with epithelial and vascular cells, in relation to the coagulation and inflammatory system. The DCTC has initiated a comprehensive research program to answer many of the current questions on the pathophysiology and best anticoagulant treatment of COVID-19-associated thrombotic complications. The research program was funded by grants of the Netherlands Thrombosis Foundation and the Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development. Here, we summarize the design and main aims of the research program.

9.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 5(3): 412-420, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086541

ABSTRACT

Background: Whereas accumulating studies on patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) report high incidences of thrombotic complications, large studies on clinically relevant thrombosis in patients with other respiratory tract infections are lacking. How this high risk in COVID-19 patients compares to those observed in hospitalized patients with other viral pneumonias such as influenza is unknown. Objectives: To assess the incidence of venous and arterial thrombotic complications in hospitalized patients with influenza as opposed to that observed in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study; we used data from Statistics Netherlands (study period: 2018) on thrombotic complications in hospitalized patients with influenza. In parallel, we assessed the cumulative incidence of thrombotic complications-adjusted for competing risk of death-in patients with COVID-19 in three Dutch hospitals (February 24 to April 26, 2020). Results: Of the 13 217 hospitalized patients with influenza, 437 (3.3%) were diagnosed with thrombotic complications, versus 66 (11%) of the 579 hospitalized patients with COVID-19. The 30-day cumulative incidence of any thrombotic complication in influenza was 11% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.4-12) versus 25% (95% CI, 18-32) in COVID-19. For venous thrombotic (VTC) complications and arterial thrombotic complications alone, these numbers were, respectively, 3.6% (95% CI, 2.7-4.6) and 7.5% (95% CI, 6.3-8.8) in influenza versus 23% (95% CI, 16-29) and 4.4% (95% CI, 1.9-8.8) in COVID-19. Conclusions: The incidence of thrombotic complications in hospitalized patients with influenza was lower than in hospitalized patients with COVID-19. This difference was mainly driven by a high risk of VTC complications in the patients with COVID-19 admitted to the Intensive Care Unit. Remarkably, patients with influenza were more often diagnosed with arterial thrombotic complications.

10.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 4(4): 439-445, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-604072
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