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2.
Allergy ; 76(10): 2952-2964, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1165737

ABSTRACT

Older adults, especially men and/or those with diabetes, hypertension, and/or obesity, are prone to severe COVID-19. In some countries, older adults, particularly those residing in nursing homes, have been prioritized to receive COVID-19 vaccines due to high risk of death. In very rare instances, the COVID-19 vaccines can induce anaphylaxis, and the management of anaphylaxis in older people should be considered carefully. An ARIA-EAACI-EuGMS (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma, European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and European Geriatric Medicine Society) Working Group has proposed some recommendations for older adults receiving the COVID-19 vaccines. Anaphylaxis to COVID-19 vaccines is extremely rare (from 1 per 100,000 to 5 per million injections). Symptoms are similar in younger and older adults but they tend to be more severe in the older patients. Adrenaline is the mainstay treatment and should be readily available. A flowchart is proposed to manage anaphylaxis in the older patients.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Aged , Anaphylaxis/etiology , Anaphylaxis/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Epinephrine , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(4): 324-338, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076039

ABSTRACT

In this article, we propose that differences in COVID-19 morbidity may be associated with transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) and/or transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) activation as well as desensitization. TRPA1 and TRPV1 induce inflammation and play a key role in the physiology of almost all organs. They may augment sensory or vagal nerve discharges to evoke pain and several symptoms of COVID-19, including cough, nasal obstruction, vomiting, diarrhea, and, at least partly, sudden and severe loss of smell and taste. TRPA1 can be activated by reactive oxygen species and may therefore be up-regulated in COVID-19. TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels can be activated by pungent compounds including many nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2) (Nrf2)-interacting foods leading to channel desensitization. Interactions between Nrf2-associated nutrients and TRPA1/TRPV1 may be partly responsible for the severity of some of the COVID-19 symptoms. The regulation by Nrf2 of TRPA1/TRPV1 is still unclear, but suggested from very limited clinical evidence. In COVID-19, it is proposed that rapid desensitization of TRAP1/TRPV1 by some ingredients in foods could reduce symptom severity and provide new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diet therapy , COVID-19/immunology , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/immunology , Nutrients/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , TRPA1 Cation Channel/immunology , TRPV Cation Channels/immunology , Antioxidants/metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Brassica , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Desensitization, Immunologic/methods , Down-Regulation , Humans , Oxidative Stress/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index , Up-Regulation
6.
Allergy ; 76(6): 1624-1628, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998737

ABSTRACT

Further to the approval of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine BNT162b2, several severe anaphylaxis cases occured within the first few days of public vaccination. An investigation is taking place to understand the cases and their triggers. The vaccine will be administered to a large number of individuals worldwide and there are raising concerns that severe adverse events might occur. With the current information, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) states its position for the following preliminary recommendations that are to be revised as soon as more data emerge. To minimize the risk of severe allergic reactions in vaccinated individuals, it is urgently required to understand the specific nature of the reported severe allergic reactions, including the background medical history of the individuals affected and the mechanisms involved. To achieve this goal, all clinical and laboratory information should be collected and reported. Mild and moderate allergic patients should not be excluded from the vaccine as this could have a significant impact on reaching the goal of population immunity. Healthcare practitioners vaccinating against COVID-19 are required to be sufficiently prepared to recognize and treat anaphylaxis properly with the ability to administer adrenaline. Further to vaccine administration, a mandatory observation period of at least 15 minutes should be followed for all individuals. The current data have not shown any higher risk for patients suffering from allergic rhinitis or asthma, and this message should be clearly stated by physicians to enable our patients to trust the vaccine. More than 30% of the population suffers from allergic diseases and the benefit of the vaccination clearly outweighs the risk of severe COVID-19 development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines/adverse effects
7.
Int Arch Allergy Immunol ; 182(6): 489-495, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-992130

ABSTRACT

There are large country variations in COVID-19 death rates that may be partly explained by diet. Many countries with low COVID-19 death rates have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented vegetables such as cabbage and, in some continents, various spices. Fermented vegetables and spices are agonists of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2), and spices are transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 and vanillin 1 (TRPA1/V1) agonists. These mechanisms may explain many COVID-19 symptoms and severity. It appears that there is a synergy between Nrf2 and TRPA1/V1 foods that may explain the role of diet in COVID-19. One of the mechanisms of COVID-19 appears to be an oxygen species (ROS)-mediated process in synergy with TRP channels, modulated by Nrf2 pathways. Spicy foods are likely to desensitize TRP channels and act in synergy with exogenous antioxidants that activate the Nrf2 pathway.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Diet , NF-E2-Related Factor 2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Spices , TRPA1 Cation Channel/metabolism , Antioxidants , Disease Resistance , Fermentation , Humans , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Signal Transduction , Vegetables
8.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 10(1): 58, 2020 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965712

ABSTRACT

There are large between- and within-country variations in COVID-19 death rates. Some very low death rate settings such as Eastern Asia, Central Europe, the Balkans and Africa have a common feature of eating large quantities of fermented foods whose intake is associated with the activation of the Nrf2 (Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2) anti-oxidant transcription factor. There are many Nrf2-interacting nutrients (berberine, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate, genistein, quercetin, resveratrol, sulforaphane) that all act similarly to reduce insulin resistance, endothelial damage, lung injury and cytokine storm. They also act on the same mechanisms (mTOR: Mammalian target of rapamycin, PPARγ:Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, NFκB: Nuclear factor kappa B, ERK: Extracellular signal-regulated kinases and eIF2α:Elongation initiation factor 2α). They may as a result be important in mitigating the severity of COVID-19, acting through the endoplasmic reticulum stress or ACE-Angiotensin-II-AT1R axis (AT1R) pathway. Many Nrf2-interacting nutrients are also interacting with TRPA1 and/or TRPV1. Interestingly, geographical areas with very low COVID-19 mortality are those with the lowest prevalence of obesity (Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia). It is tempting to propose that Nrf2-interacting foods and nutrients can re-balance insulin resistance and have a significant effect on COVID-19 severity. It is therefore possible that the intake of these foods may restore an optimal natural balance for the Nrf2 pathway and may be of interest in the mitigation of COVID-19 severity.

9.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 10(1): 47, 2020 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901925

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An increase in online searches on health topics may either mirror epidemiological changes or reflect media coverage. In the context of COVID-19, this is particularly relevant, as COVID-19 symptoms may be mistaken for those of respiratory disease exacerbations. Therefore, we aimed to assess Internet search patterns on asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in the context of COVID-19, as compared to searches on other chronic diseases. METHODS: We retrieved Google Trends (GTs) data on two respiratory (asthma and COPD) and three non-respiratory (diabetes, hypertension, and Crohn's disease) chronic diseases over the past 5 years (up to May 31, 2020). For 54 countries, and for each disease, we built autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models to predict GTs for 2020 based on 2015-2019 search patterns. In addition, we estimated the proportion of searches in which COVID-19-related terms were used. To assess the potential impact of media coverage on online searches, we assessed whether weekly "asthma" GTs correlated with the number of Google News items on asthma. RESULTS: Over the past 5 years, worldwide search volumes for asthma and COPD reached their maximum values in March 2020. Such was not observed for diabetes, hypertension and Crohn's disease. In 38 (70%) countries, GTs on asthma were higher in March 2020 than the respective maximum predicted values. This compares to 19 countries for COPD, 23 for hypertension, 11 for Crohn's disease, and 9 for diabetes. Queries with COVID-19-related terms represented up to 47.8% of the monthly searches on asthma, and up to 21.3% of COPD searches. In most of the assessed countries, moderate-strong correlations were observed between "asthma" GTs and the number of news items on asthma. CONCLUSIONS: During March 2020, there was a peak in searches on asthma and COPD, which was probably mostly driven by media coverage, as suggested by their simultaneity in several countries with different epidemiological situations.

10.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 50(9): e13314, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-597490

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has infected 189 000 people in Italy, with more than 25 000 deaths. Several predictive factors of mortality have been identified; however, none has been validated in patients presenting with mild disease. METHODS: Patients with a diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia caused by SARS-CoV-2, presenting with mild symptoms, and requiring hospitalization in a non-intensive care unit with known discharge status were prospectively collected and retrospectively analysed. Demographical, clinical and biochemical parameters were recorded, as need for non-invasive mechanical ventilation and admission in intensive care unit. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify independent predictors of death. RESULTS: Between 28 February and 10 April 2020, 229 consecutive patients were included in the study cohort; the majority were males with a mean age of 60 years. 54% of patients had at least one comorbidity, with hypertension being the most commonly represented, followed by diabetes mellitus. 196 patients were discharged after a mean of 9 days, while 14.4% died during hospitalization because of respiratory failure. Age higher than 75 years, low platelet count (<150 × 103 /mm3 ) and higher ferritin levels (>750 ng/mL) were independent predictors of death. Comorbidities were not independently associated with in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSIONS: In-hospital mortality of patients with COVID-19 presenting with mild symptoms is high and is associated with older age, platelet count and ferritin levels. Identifying early predictors of outcome can be useful in the clinical practice to better stratify and manage patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Disease Progression , Ferritins/blood , Hospital Mortality , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Cause of Death , Cohort Studies , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Logistic Models , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/epidemiology , Lung Diseases, Interstitial/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Pandemics , Platelet Count , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Predictive Value of Tests , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Sex Factors
11.
Minerva Med ; 111(4): 308-314, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-505753

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To date, the European experience with COVID-19 mortality has been different to that observed in China and Asia. We aimed to forecast mortality trends in the 27 countries of the European Union (EU), plus Switzerland and the UK, where lockdown dates and confinement interventions have been heterogeneous, and to explore its determinants. METHODS: We have adapted our predictive model of COVID-19-related mortality, which rested on the observed mortality within the first weeks of the outbreak and the date of the respective lockdown in each country. It was applied in a training set of three countries (Italy, Germany and Spain), and then applied to the EU plus the UK and Switzerland. In addition, we explored the effects of timeliness and rigidity of the lockdown (on a five-step scale) and population density in our forecasts. We report r2, and percent variation of expected versus observed deaths, all following TRIPOD guidance. RESULTS: We identified a homogeneous distribution of deaths, and found a median of 24 days after lockdown adoption to reach the maximum daily deaths. Strikingly, cumulative deaths up to April 25th, 2020 observed in Europe separated countries in three waves, according to the time lockdown measures were adopted following the onset of the outbreak: after a week, within a week, or even prior to the outbreak (r2=0.876). In contrast, no correlation neither with lockdown rigidity nor population density were observed. CONCLUSIONS: The European experience confirms that early, effective interventions of lockdown are fundamental to minimizing the COVID-19 death toll.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Population Density , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Europe/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Quarantine/standards , Switzerland/epidemiology , Time Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
12.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 10: 16, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-378138

ABSTRACT

Reported COVID-19 deaths in Germany are relatively low as compared to many European countries. Among the several explanations proposed, an early and large testing of the population was put forward. Most current debates on COVID-19 focus on the differences among countries, but little attention has been given to regional differences and diet. The low-death rate European countries (e.g. Austria, Baltic States, Czech Republic, Finland, Norway, Poland, Slovakia) have used different quarantine and/or confinement times and methods and none have performed as many early tests as Germany. Among other factors that may be significant are the dietary habits. It seems that some foods largely used in these countries may reduce angiotensin-converting enzyme activity or are anti-oxidants. Among the many possible areas of research, it might be important to understand diet and angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2) levels in populations with different COVID-19 death rates since dietary interventions may be of great benefit.

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