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1.
J Pers Med ; 12(5)2022 May 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875655

ABSTRACT

Allergic diseases are particularly suitable for personalized medicine, because they meet the needs for therapeutic success, which include a known molecular mechanism of the disease, a diagnostic tool for that disease and a treatment that blocks this mechanism. A range of tools is available for personalized allergy diagnosis, including molecular diagnostics, treatable traits and omics (i.e., proteomics, epigenomics, metabolomics, transcriptomics and breathomics), to predict patient response to therapies, detect biomarkers and mediators and assess disease control status. Such tools enhance allergen immunotherapy. Higher diagnostic accuracy results in a significant increase (based on a greater performance achieved with personalized treatment) in efficacy, further increasing the known and unique characteristics of a treatment designed to work on allergy causes.

2.
World Allergy Organ J ; 15(5): 100649, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860142

ABSTRACT

Background: Chronic cough management necessitates a clear integrated care pathway approach. Primary care physicians initially encounter the majority of chronic cough patients, yet their role in proper management can prove challenging due to limited access to advanced diagnostic testing. A multidisciplinary approach involving otolaryngologists and chest physicians, allergists, and gastroenterologists, among others, is central to the optimal diagnosis and treatment of conditions which underly or worsen cough. These include infectious and inflammatory, upper and lower airway pathologies, or gastro-esophageal reflux. Despite the wide armamentarium of ancillary testing conducted in cough multidisciplinary care, such management can improve cough but seldom resolves it completely. This can be due partly to the limited data on the role of tests (eg, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide), as well as classical pharmacotherapy conducted in multidisciplinary specialties for chronic cough. Other important factors include presence of multiple concomitant cough trigger mechanisms and the central neuronal complexity of chronic cough. Subsequent management conducted by cough specialists aims at control of cough refractory to prior interventions and includes cough-specific behavioral counseling and pharmacotherapy with neuromodulators, among others. Preliminary data on the role of neuromodulators in a proof-of-concept manner are encouraging but lack strong evidence on efficacy and safety. Objectives: The World Allergy Organization (WAO)/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the recent literature on management of chronic cough in primary, multidisciplinary, and cough-specialty care. Knowledge gaps in diagnostic testing, classical and neuromodulator pharmacotherapy, in addition to behavioral therapy of chronic cough were also analyzed. Outcomes: This third part of the WAO/ARIA consensus on chronic cough suggests a management algorithm of chronic cough in an integrated care pathway approach. Insights into the inherent limitations of multidisciplinary cough diagnostic testing, efficacy and safety of currently available antitussive pharmacotherapy, or the recently recognized behavioral therapy, can significantly improve the standards of care in patients with chronic cough.

3.
ERJ Open Res ; 8(2)2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1854770

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has put pressure on healthcare services, forcing the reorganisation of traditional care pathways. We investigated how physicians taking care of severe asthma patients in Europe reorganised care, and how these changes affected patient satisfaction, asthma control and future care. Methods: In this European-wide cross-sectional study, patient surveys were sent to patients with a physician-diagnosis of severe asthma, and physician surveys to severe asthma specialists between November 2020 and May 2021. Results: 1101 patients and 268 physicians from 16 European countries contributed to the study. Common physician-reported changes in severe asthma care included use of video/phone consultations (46%), reduced availability of physicians (43%) and change to home-administered biologics (38%). Change to phone/video consultations was reported in 45% of patients, of whom 79% were satisfied or very satisfied with this change. Of 709 patients on biologics, 24% experienced changes in biologic care, of whom 92% were changed to home-administered biologics and of these 62% were satisfied or very satisfied with this change. Only 2% reported worsening asthma symptoms associated with changes in biologic care. Many physicians expect continued implementation of video/phone consultations (41%) and home administration of biologics (52%). Conclusions: Change to video/phone consultations and home administration of biologics was common in severe asthma care during the COVID-19 pandemic and was associated with high satisfaction levels in most but not all cases. Many physicians expect these changes to continue in future severe asthma care, though satisfaction levels may change after the pandemic.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1820449

ABSTRACT

Anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe and effective, also in individuals with allergic and immune-mediated diseases (IMDs). There are reports suggesting that vaccines may be able to trigger de-novo or exacerbate pre-existing IMDs in predisposed individuals. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a small-vessel vasculitis characterized by asthma, eosinophilia, and eosinophil-rich granulomatous inflammation in various tissues. We describe the case of a 63-year-old man who experienced cardiac, pulmonary, and neurological involvement one day after the administration of the booster dose of anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine (mRNA-1273). A diagnosis of EGPA was made and the patient was treated with high-dose steroids and cyclophosphamide, with a good clinical response. Interestingly, our patient had experienced a significant worsening of his pre-existing asthma six months earlier, just after the first two vaccine shots with the ChAdOx1 anti-SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. It is impossible to know whether our patient would have had developed EGPA following natural SARS-CoV-2 infection or at some point in his life regardless of infectious stimuli. Nevertheless, our report may suggest that caution should be paid during the administration of additional vaccine doses in individuals who experienced an increase in IMD severity that persisted over time following previous vaccine shots.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314294

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine BNT162b2 received approval and within the first few days of public vaccination several severe anaphylaxis cases occurred. An investigation is taking place to understand the cases and their triggers. The vaccine will be administered to a large number of individuals worldwide and concerns raised for severe adverse events might occur. With the current information, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) states its position for the following preliminary recommendations that are to be revised as soon as more data emerges. To minimize the risk of severe allergic reactions in vaccinated individuals, it is urgently required to understand the specific nature of the reported severe allergic reactions, including the background medical history of the individuals affected and the mechanisms involved. To achieve this goal all clinical and laboratory information should be collected and reported. Mild and moderate allergic patients should not be excluded from the vaccine as the exclusion of all these patients from vaccination may have a significant impact on reaching the goal of population immunity. Health care practitioners vaccinating against COVID-19 are required to be sufficiently prepared to recognise and treat anaphylaxis properly with the ability to administer adrenaline. A mandatory observation period after vaccine administration of at least 15 minutes for all individuals should be followed. The current guidelines, which exclude patients with severe allergies from vaccination with BNT162b2, should be re-evaluated after more information and experience with the new vaccine develops.

6.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-313609

ABSTRACT

Immune modulation is a key therapeutic tool for allergic diseases and asthma. It can be achieved in an antigen-specific way via allergen immunotherapy (AIT) or in endotype-driven approach using biologicals that target the major pathways of the type 2 (T2) immune response: IgE, IL-5 and IL-4/IL-13. COVID-19 vaccine provides an excellent opportunity to tackle the global pandemics and is currently being applied in an accelerated rhythm worldwide. It works as well through immune modulation. Thus, as there is an obvious interference between these treatment modalities recommendations on how they should be applied in sequence are expected. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) gathered an outstanding expert panel under its Research and Outreach Committee (ROC). This expert panel was called to evaluate the evidence and formulate recommendation on the administration of COVID-19 vaccine in patients with allergic diseases and asthma receiving AIT or biologicals. The panel also formulated recommendations for COVID-19 vaccine in association with biologicals targeting the type 1 or type 3 immune response. In formulating recommendations, the panel evaluated the mechanisms of COVID-19 infection, of COVID-19 vaccine, of AIT and of biologicals and considered the data published for other anti-infectious vaccines administered concurrently with AIT or biologicals.

7.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(12): 100618, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chronic cough can be triggered by respiratory and non-respiratory tract illnesses originating mainly from the upper and lower airways, and the GI tract (ie, reflux). Recent findings suggest it can also be a prominent feature in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), laryngeal hyperresponsiveness, and COVID-19. The classification of chronic cough is constantly updated but lacks clear definition. Epidemiological data on the prevalence of chronic cough are informative but highly variable. The underlying mechanism of chronic cough is a neurogenic inflammation of the cough reflex which becomes hypersensitive, thus the term hypersensitive cough reflex (HCR). A current challenge is to decipher how various infectious and inflammatory airway diseases and esophageal reflux, among others, modulate HCR. OBJECTIVES: The World Allergy Organization/Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (WAO/ARIA) Joint Committee on Chronic Cough reviewed the current literature on classification, epidemiology, presenting features, and mechanistic pathways of chronic cough in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes, OSA, and COVID-19. The interplay of cough reflex sensitivity with other pathogenic mechanisms inherent to airway and reflux-related inflammatory conditions was also analyzed. OUTCOMES: Currently, it is difficult to clearly ascertain true prevalence rates in epidemiological studies of chronic cough phenotypes. This is likely due to lack of standardized objective measures needed for cough classification and frequent coexistence of multi-organ cough origins. Notwithstanding, we emphasize the important role of HCR as a mechanistic trigger in airway- and reflux-related cough phenotypes. Other concomitant mechanisms can also modulate HCR, including type2/Th1/Th2 inflammation, presence or absence of deep inspiration-bronchoprotective reflex (lower airways), tissue remodeling, and likely cough plasticity, among others.

8.
Allergy ; 77(4): 1114-1128, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1440721

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic started in March 2020 and caused over 5 million confirmed deaths worldwide as far August 2021. We have been recently overwhelmed by a wide literature on how the immune system recognizes severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and contributes to COVID-19 pathogenesis. Although originally considered a respiratory viral disease, COVID-19 is now recognized as a far more complex, multi-organ-, immuno-mediated-, and mostly heterogeneous disorder. Though efficient innate and adaptive immunity may control infection, when the patient fails to mount an adequate immune response at the start, or in advanced disease, a high innate-induced inflammation can lead to different clinical outcomes through heterogeneous compensatory mechanisms. The variability of viral load and persistence, the genetic alterations of virus-driven receptors/signaling pathways and the plasticity of innate and adaptive responses may all account for the extreme heterogeneity of pathogenesis and clinical patterns. As recently applied to some inflammatory disorders as asthma, rhinosinusitis with polyposis, and atopic dermatitis, herein we suggest defining different endo-types and the related phenotypes along COVID-19. Patients should be stratified for evolving symptoms and tightly monitored for surrogate biomarkers of innate and adaptive immunity. This would allow to preventively identify each endo-type (and its related phenotype) and to treat patients precisely with agents targeting pathogenic mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adaptive Immunity , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Expert Rev Respir Med ; 15(8): 1057-1060, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202112

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has deeply revolutionized our lives and consequently the management of patients, specifically ones with severe asthma.Objective: A survey was conducted to evaluate the effects on adherence, exacerbations and quality of life in patients with severe asthma during the COVID-19 pandemic period.Methods: 100 severe asthma patients, who accepted to participate to the survey, were asked to respond to different questionnaires in order to assess asthma symptoms (Asthma Control Test - ACT, and Asthma Control Quality - ACQ) and rino-sinusal ones (Sino-nasal outcome test - SNOT-22).Results: 31 out of 100 patients reported worsening of respiratory symptoms requiring a step-up in therapy dosage or frequency during the observational period; however, exacerbation rate was very low. Only 17 (17%) of the 100 participants experienced a severe asthma exacerbation. Moreover, there was no confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 in this population.Conclusion: Patients with severe asthma did not show higher rates of exacerbations during the pandemic outbreak as well as no increased risk of contracting COVID-19 infection or developing the disease. Self-administration of biological drugs could be useful to maintain high rates of adherence to therapy, and, at the same time, to decrease the risk of exacerbations or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) room access.


Subject(s)
Asthma , COVID-19 , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(5): 100541, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines have been approved recently, and public concern regarding the risk of anaphylactic reactions arose after a few cases during the first days of mass vaccination. Polyethylene glycol (PEG) has been suggested as the most probable culprit agent for allergic reactions. OBJECTIVE: We describe the allergy work-up protocol implemented for the vaccination campaign in our Center, aiming to allow the greatest number of people to be vaccinated safely. METHODS: The protocol included the self-report of a history of suspected drug or vaccine allergies, and subsequent teleconsultation and allergometric tests for PEG and Polysorbate 80 (PS80). A desensitizing protocol of vaccine administration was applied to patients sensitized only to PS80, and to those with a suspect allergic reaction after the first vaccine dose. RESULTS: 10.2% (414 out of 4042) of the entire vaccine population have been screened: only one patient resulted allergic to PEG and therefore excluded from the vaccination. Another patient was sensitized to PS80 only and safely vaccinated applying the desensitizing protocol. Seven subjects without a previous history of allergic disease experienced suspect hypersensitivity reactions to the first administered dose: one of them resulted allergic to PEG and was excluded from the second dose, while the others safely completed the vaccination with the desensitizing protocol. CONCLUSION: A careful allergological risk-assessment protocol significantly reduces the number of patients who would have avoided SARS-CoV-2 vaccination for their allergies and to effectively identify and manage those rare patients with sensitization to PEGs and/or PS80.

12.
Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology ; 146(5):1215-1215, 2020.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-946731
16.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 10: 23, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-602114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Almost the entire World is experiencing the Coronavirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, responsible, at the end of May 2020, of more than five million people infected worldwide and about 350,000 deaths. In this context, a deep reorganization of allergy clinics, in order to ensure proper diagnosis and care despite of social distancing measures expose, is needed. MAIN TEXT: The reorganization of allergy clinics should include programmed checks for severe and poorly controlled patients, application of digital medicine service for mild-to-moderate disease in well-controlled ones, postponement of non urgent diagnostic work-ups and domiciliation of therapies, whenever possible. As far as therapies, allergen immunotherapy (AIT) should not be stopped and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) fits perfectly for this purpose, since a drug home-delivery service can be activated for the entire pandemic duration. Moreover, biologic agents for severe asthma, chronic spontaneous urticaria and atopic dermatitis should be particularly encouraged to achieve best control possible of severe disease in times of COVID-19 and, whenever possible, home-delivery and self-administration should be the preferred choice. CONCLUSION: During COVID-19 pandemic, allergists have the responsibility of balancing individual patients' needs with public health issues, and innovative tools, such as telemedicine and digital medicine services, can be helpful to reduce the risk of viral spreading while delivering up-to-date personalized care.

17.
Allergy ; 76(3): 648-676, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-596293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has evolved into a pandemic infectious disease transmitted by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). Allergists and other healthcare providers (HCPs) in the field of allergies and associated airway diseases are on the front line, taking care of patients potentially infected with SARS-CoV-2. Hence, strategies and practices to minimize risks of infection for both HCPs and treated patients have to be developed and followed by allergy clinics. METHOD: The scientific information on COVID-19 was analysed by a literature search in MEDLINE, PubMed, the National and International Guidelines from the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI), the Cochrane Library, and the internet. RESULTS: Based on the diagnostic and treatment standards developed by EAACI, on international information regarding COVID-19, on guidelines of the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations, and on previous experience, a panel of experts including clinicians, psychologists, IT experts, and basic scientists along with EAACI and the "Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma (ARIA)" initiative have developed recommendations for the optimal management of allergy clinics during the current COVID-19 pandemic. These recommendations are grouped into nine sections on different relevant aspects for the care of patients with allergies. CONCLUSIONS: This international Position Paper provides recommendations on operational plans and procedures to maintain high standards in the daily clinical care of allergic patients while ensuring the necessary safety measures in the current COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hypersensitivity/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Allergists , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Information Technology , Patient Care Team , Triage
18.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(5): 100126, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-380025

ABSTRACT

Managing patients with severe asthma during the coronavirus pandemic and COVID-19 is a challenge. Authorities and physicians are still learning how COVID-19 affects people with underlying diseases, and severe asthma is not an exception. Unless relevant data emerge that change our understanding of the relative safety of medications indicated in patients with asthma during this pandemic, clinicians must follow the recommendations of current evidence-based guidelines for preventing loss of control and exacerbations. Also, with the absence of data that would indicate any potential harm, current advice is to continue the administration of biological therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic in patients with asthma for whom such therapies are clearly indicated and have been effective. For patients with severe asthma infected by SARS-CoV-2, the decision to maintain or postpone biological therapy until the patient recovers should be a case-by-case based decision supported by a multidisciplinary team. A registry of cases of COVID-19 in patients with severe asthma, including those treated with biologics, will help to address a clinical challenge in which we have more questions than answers.

19.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 146(1): 18-22, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-197498

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 has rapidly increased in pandemic scale since it first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. In these troubled days the scientific community is asking for rapid replies to prevent and combat the emergency. It is generally accepted that only achieving a better understanding of the interactions between the virus and the host immune response and of the pathogenesis of infection is crucial to identify valid therapeutic tools to control virus entry, replication, and spread as well as to impair its lethal effects. On the basis of recent research progress of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and the results on previous coronaviruses, in this contribution we underscore some of the main unsolved problems, mostly focusing on pathogenetic aspects and host immunity to the virus. On this basis, we also touch important aspects regarding the immune response in asymptomatic subjects, the immune evasion of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in severe patients, and differences in disease severity by age and sex.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immune Evasion/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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