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1.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(13)2022 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911364

ABSTRACT

Reducing inequality is one of the current challenges that most societies are facing. Our aim was to analyze the evolution of inequalities in self-assessed health among older Europeans in a time period spanning the 2008 economic crisis and the COVID-19 health crisis. We used data from Waves 2, 4 and 8 of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe. We used inequality indices that accept ordinal variables. Our empirical results suggest that average inequality declines over time. Gender significantly influences the results. Some of the countries with the highest level of inequality are Denmark and Sweden, and some with the lowest are Estonia and the Netherlands. Our results may be of interest for the development of public policies to reduce inequalities. Special attention should be paid to vulnerable groups, such as the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Health Status Disparities , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , European Union , Humans , Pandemics , Retirement , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Geospat Health ; 17(s1)2022 03 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780144

ABSTRACT

The work presented concerns the spatial behaviour of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the regional scale and the socio-economic context of problem areas over the 2020-2021 period. We propose a replicable geographical information systems (GIS) methodology based on geocodification and analysis of COVID-19 microdata registered by health authorities of the Government of Cantabria, Spain from the beginning of the pandemic register (29th February 2020) to 2nd December 2021. The spatial behaviour of the virus was studied using ArcGIS Pro and a 1x1 km vector grid as the homogeneous reference layer. The GIS analysis of 45,392 geocoded cases revealed a clear process of spatial contraction of the virus after the spread in 2020 with 432 km2 of problem areas reduced to 126.72 km2 in 2021. The socio-economic framework showed complex relationships between COVID-19 cases and the explanatory variables related to household characteristics, socio-economic conditions and demographic structure. Local bivariate analysis showed fuzzier results in persistent hotspots in urban and peri-urban areas. Questions about â€Ëœwhere, when and how’ contribute to learning from experience as we must draw inspiration from, and explore connections to, those confronting the issues related to the current pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Geographic Information Systems , Humans , Pandemics , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain/epidemiology
3.
Trans GIS ; 26(4): 1981-2003, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774906

ABSTRACT

This research approaches the empirical study of the pandemic from a social science perspective. The main goal is to reveal spatiotemporal changes in Covid-19, at regional scale, using GIS technologies and the emerging three-dimensional bins method. We analyze a case study of the region of Cantabria (northern Spain) based on 29,288 geocoded positive Covid-19 cases in the four waves from the outset in March 2020 to June 2021. Our results suggest three main spatial processes: a reversal in the spatial trend, spreading first followed by contraction in the third and fourth waves; then the reduction of hot spots that represent problematic areas because of high presence of cases and growing trends; and finally, an increase in cold spots. All this generates relevant knowledge to help policy-makers from regional governments to design efficient containment and mitigation strategies. Our research is conducted from a geoprevention perspective, based on the application of targeted measures depending on spatial patterns of Covid-19 in real time. It represents an opportunity to reduce the socioeconomic impact of global containment measures in pandemic management.

4.
Int J Environ Health Res ; : 1-18, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1532299

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted issues due to mental health disorders, in particular the serious consequences derived from lockdown measures. This paper aims to analyse the literature on the potential direct impact of the natural environment on mental health disorders. We have systematically reviewed the studies analysing green spaces and mental health included in this review using PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and Cochrane Library. A retrospective time-frame is considered, covering the COVID-19 pandemic. We have found that exposure to, use and proximity to green spaces have a beneficial impact on mental health among elderly, students and patients with underlying pathologies. However, it has negative effects on the mental health of women and young adults. Exposure to and interaction with the natural environment can improve certain mental health disorders and should be taken into account for strategies and policies related to future threats to public health.

5.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1524098

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the great lockdown in Spain due to SARS-CoV-2, in between the months of March and June 2020, dietary and physical activity habits were modified in children. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of the lockdown on anthropometric parameters in children aged 11/12 years. METHODS: Fifty Spanish children aged 11/12 years (M = 11.40; SD = 0.50) participated: 33 (66%) boys and 17 (34%) girls. For data collection, we used an anthropometry kit; the Alpha-Fitness Battery, a validated instrument to assess dietary intake, habits and practices; and an ad hoc survey to collect sociodemographic and other data under investigation. RESULTS: There were significant differences in the anthropometric parameters measured and in the results obtained for Body Mass Index (BMI) and body fat percentage pre- and post-lockdown in both boys and girls (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found in waist-circumference measurements (p > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of a significant impact of the SARS-CoV-2 lockdown on anthropometric parameters in boys and girls aged 11/12 years.


Subject(s)
Anthropometry , COVID-19 , Child Behavior , Healthy Lifestyle , Quarantine , Adiposity , Age Factors , Body Mass Index , Child , Exercise , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Sex Factors , Spain , Time Factors , Waist Circumference
6.
Int J Health Plann Manage ; 36(6): 2062-2078, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1300396

ABSTRACT

Lean Management method has been applied in several fields before its implementation in healthcare area. Among the different techniques associated with Lean, in this paper, we are focused on Kanban system, which is a method that presents several benefits such as inventory holding reduction or improvement of the employees' satisfaction. Our main objective is to carry out a literature review focused on Kanban methodology applied to health care. In this sense, this study can serve as a script to improve hospital management in pandemic periods, such as the one currently lived on COVID-19. We carry out a literature review searching in four different databases. We combine several terms to achieve our objective. We identify several articles which describe Kanban methodology applied to health field. More specifically, we present in what areas (nursing or pharmacy, among others) this method has been applied. In addition, we show all the barriers as well as benefits caused by the implementation of this system. There are a few studies focused on analysing how Kanban is applied to health care. Therefore, we can affirm that this topic is still recent.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospital Administration , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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