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1.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob ; 2(2): 100091, 2023 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290697

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunodeficient patients (IDPs) are at higher risk of contracting severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Targeted vaccination strategies have been implemented to enhance vaccine-induced protection. In this population, however, clinical effectiveness is variable and the duration of protection unknown. Objective: We sought to better understand the cellular and humoral immune responses to mRNA and adenoviral vectored COVID-19 vaccines in patients with immunodeficiency. Methods: Immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 spike were assessed after 2 doses of homologous ChAdOx1-nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccines in 112 infection-naive IDPs and 131 healthy health care workers as controls. Predictors of vaccine responsiveness were investigated. Results: Immune responses to vaccination were low, and virus neutralization by antibody was not detected despite high titer binding responses in many IDPs. In those exhibiting response, the frequency of specific T-cell responses in IDPs was similar to controls, while antibody responses were lower. Sustained vaccine specific differences were identified: T-cell responses were greater in ChAdOx1-nCoV-19- compared to BNT162b2-immunized IDPs, and antibody binding and neutralization were greater in all cohorts immunized with BNT162b2. The positive correlation between T-cell and antibody responses was weak and increased with subsequent vaccination. Conclusion: Immunodeficient patients have impaired immune responses to mRNA and viral vector COVID-19 vaccines that appear to be influenced by vaccine formulation. Understanding the relative roles of T-cell- and antibody-mediated protection as well as the potential of heterologous prime and boost immunization protocols is needed to optimize the vaccination approach in these high-risk groups.

3.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1118523, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253825

ABSTRACT

The accelerated development of the first generation COVID-19 vaccines has saved millions of lives, and potentially more from the long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most successful vaccine candidates have used the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as an immunogen. As expected of RNA viruses, new variants have evolved and quickly replaced the original wild-type SARS-CoV-2, leading to escape from natural infection or vaccine induced immunity provided by the original SARS-CoV-2 spike sequence. Next generation vaccines that confer specific and targeted immunity to broadly neutralising epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein against different variants of concern (VOC) offer an advance on current booster shots of previously used vaccines. Here, we present a targeted approach to elicit antibodies that neutralise both the ancestral SARS-CoV-2, and the VOCs, by introducing a specific glycosylation site on a non-neutralising epitope of the RBD. The addition of a specific glycosylation site in the RBD based vaccine candidate focused the immune response towards other broadly neutralising epitopes on the RBD. We further observed enhanced cross-neutralisation and cross-binding using a DNA-MVA CR19 prime-boost regime, thus demonstrating the superiority of the glycan engineered RBD vaccine candidate across two platforms and a promising candidate as a broad variant booster vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Epitopes , COVID-19 Vaccines , Polysaccharides , Antibodies, Neutralizing
4.
EMBO Rep ; 24(4): e56979, 2023 04 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2253688

ABSTRACT

Entry of SARS-CoV-2 into human respiratory cells, mediated by the spike protein, is absolutely dependent on the cellular receptor ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme-2). This makes ACE2 an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in COVID-19. In this issue, Zuo et al. discover that vitamin C, an essential nutrient and common dietary supplement, can target ACE2 for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, resulting in the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 infection (Zuo et al, 2023). The study identifies novel mechanisms of cellular ACE2 regulation and may inform the design of therapeutics targeting SARS-2 and related coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Protein Binding
5.
Frontiers in immunology ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2253824

ABSTRACT

The accelerated development of the first generation COVID-19 vaccines has saved millions of lives, and potentially more from the long-term sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The most successful vaccine candidates have used the full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as an immunogen. As expected of RNA viruses, new variants have evolved and quickly replaced the original wild-type SARS-CoV-2, leading to escape from natural infection or vaccine induced immunity provided by the original SARS-CoV-2 spike sequence. Next generation vaccines that confer specific and targeted immunity to broadly neutralising epitopes on the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein against different variants of concern (VOC) offer an advance on current booster shots of previously used vaccines. Here, we present a targeted approach to elicit antibodies that neutralise both the ancestral SARS-CoV-2, and the VOCs, by introducing a specific glycosylation site on a non-neutralising epitope of the RBD. The addition of a specific glycosylation site in the RBD based vaccine candidate focused the immune response towards other broadly neutralising epitopes on the RBD. We further observed enhanced cross-neutralisation and cross-binding using a DNA-MVA CR19 prime-boost regime, thus demonstrating the superiority of the glycan engineered RBD vaccine candidate across two platforms and a promising candidate as a broad variant booster vaccine.

6.
The journal of allergy and clinical immunology Global ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2248236

ABSTRACT

Background Immunodeficient patients (IDPs) are at higher risk of contracting severe COVID-19 disease. Targeted vaccination strategies have been implemented to enhance vaccine-induced protection. In this population however, clinical effectiveness is variable and duration of protection unknown. Objective To understand the cellular and humoral immune responses to mRNA and adenoviral vectored COVID-19 vaccines in patients with immunodeficiency. Methods Immune responses to SARS-COV-2 spike were assessed after two doses of homologous ChAdOx1-nCoV-19 or BNT162b2 vaccines in 112 infection-naïve IDPs and 131 healthy health care workers (HCWs) as controls. Predictors of vaccine responsiveness were investigated. Results Immune responses to vaccination were low, and viral neutralisation by antibody not detected despite high titre binding responses in many IDPs. In those responding, the frequency of specific T-cell responses in IDPs was similar to controls whilst antibody responses were lower. Sustained vaccine specific differences were identified: T-cell responses were greater in ChAdOx1-nCoV-19 compared with BNT162b2 immunised IDPs and antibody binding and neutralisation was greater in all cohorts immunised with BNT162b2. The positive correlation between T-cell and antibody responses was weak and increased with subsequent vaccination. Conclusion Immunodeficient patients have impaired immune responses to mRNA and viral vector COVID-19 vaccines that appear influenced by vaccine formulation. Understanding the relative roles of T-cell and antibody mediated protection and potential of heterologous prime and boost immunization protocols is needed to optimise the vaccination approach in these high-risk groups. We demonstrate impaired T-cell and B-cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in immunodeficient patients compared with the healthy population and highlight the need for tailoring booster vaccine approaches for immunodeficient individuals.

7.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 4648, 2023 03 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263196

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 continues to circulate in the human population necessitating regular booster immunization for its long-term control. Ideally, vaccines should ideally not only protect against symptomatic disease, but also prevent transmission via asymptomatic shedding and cover existing and future variants of the virus. This may ultimately only be possible through induction of potent and long-lasting immune responses in the nasopharyngeal tract, the initial entry site of SARS-CoV-2. To this end, we have designed a vaccine based on recombinantly expressed receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2, fused to the C-terminus of C. perfringens enterotoxin, which is known to target Claudin-4, a matrix molecule highly expressed on mucosal microfold (M) cells of the nasal and bronchial-associated lymphoid tissues. To further enhance immune responses, the vaccine was adjuvanted with a novel toll-like receptor 3/RIG-I agonist (Riboxxim™), consisting of synthetic short double stranded RNA. Intranasal prime-boost immunization of mice induced robust mucosal and systemic anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2 strains Wuhan-Hu-1, and several variants (B.1.351/beta, B.1.1.7/alpha, B.1.617.2/delta), as well as systemic T-cell responses. A combination vaccine with M-cell targeted recombinant HA1 from an H1N1 G4 influenza strain also induced mucosal and systemic antibodies against influenza. Taken together, the data show that development of an intranasal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine based on recombinant RBD adjuvanted with a TLR3 agonist is feasible, also as a combination vaccine against influenza.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Animals , Humans , Mice , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Adjuvants, Pharmaceutic , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Clostridium perfringens , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Gastric Mucosa , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Influenza Vaccines , M Cells , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 3
8.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 11(1)2022 Dec 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228548

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses infections, culminating in the recent severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic beginning in 2019, have highlighted the importance of effective vaccines to induce an antibody response with cross-neutralizing activity. COVID-19 vaccines have been rapidly developed to reduce the burden of SARS-CoV-2 infections and disease severity. Cross-protection from seasonal human coronaviruses (hCoVs) infections has been hypothesized but is still controversial. Here, we investigated the neutralizing activity against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and the variants of concern (VOCs) in individuals vaccinated with two doses of either BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or AZD1222, with or without a history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Antibody neutralizing activity to SARS-CoV-2 and the VOCs was higher in BNT162b2-vaccinated subjects who were previously infected with SARS-CoV-2 and conferred broad-spectrum protection. The Omicron BA.1 variant was the most resistant among the VOCs. COVID-19 vaccination did not confer protection against hCoV-HKU1. Conversely, antibodies induced by mRNA-1273 vaccination displayed a boosting in their neutralizing activity against hCoV-NL63, whereas AZD1222 vaccination increased antibody neutralization against hCoV-229E, suggesting potential differences in antigenicity and immunogenicity of the different spike constructs used between various vaccination platforms. These data would suggest that there may be shared epitopes between the HCoVs and SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins.

10.
Front Immunol ; 13: 842468, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080127

ABSTRACT

The role of the mucosal pulmonary antibody response in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outcome remains unclear. Here, we found that in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 48 patients with severe COVID-19-infected with the ancestral Wuhan virus, mucosal IgG and IgA specific for S1, receptor-binding domain (RBD), S2, and nucleocapsid protein (NP) emerged in BAL containing viruses early in infection and persist after virus elimination, with more IgA than IgG for all antigens tested. Furthermore, spike-IgA and spike-IgG immune complexes were detected in BAL, especially when the lung virus has been cleared. BAL IgG and IgA recognized the four main RBD variants. BAL neutralizing titers were higher early in COVID-19 when virus replicates in the lung than later in infection after viral clearance. Patients with fatal COVID-19, in contrast to survivors, developed higher levels of mucosal spike-specific IgA than IgG but lost neutralizing activities over time and had reduced IL-1ß in the lung. Altogether, mucosal spike and NP-specific IgG and S1-specific IgA persisting after lung severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) clearance and low pulmonary IL-1ß correlate with COVID-19 fatal outcome. Thus, mucosal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies may have adverse functions in addition to protective neutralization. Highlights: Mucosal pulmonary antibody response in COVID-19 outcome remains unclear. We show that in severe COVID-19 patients, mucosal pulmonary non-neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 IgA persit after viral clearance in the lung. Furthermore, low lung IL-1ß correlate with fatal COVID-19. Altogether, mucosal IgA may exert harmful functions beside protective neutralization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunoglobulin A , Immunoglobulin G , Lung , Nucleocapsid Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
J Infect ; 85(5): 545-556, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007862

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To investigate serological differences between SARS-CoV-2 reinfection cases and contemporary controls, to identify antibody correlates of protection against reinfection. METHODS: We performed a case-control study, comparing reinfection cases with singly infected individuals pre-vaccination, matched by gender, age, region and timing of first infection. Serum samples were tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike (anti-S), anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid (anti-N), live virus microneutralisation (LV-N) and pseudovirus microneutralisation (PV-N). Results were analysed using fixed effect linear regression and fitted into conditional logistic regression models. RESULTS: We identified 23 cases and 92 controls. First infections occurred before November 2020; reinfections occurred before February 2021, pre-vaccination. Anti-S levels, LV-N and PV-N titres were significantly lower among cases; no difference was found for anti-N levels. Increasing anti-S levels were associated with reduced risk of reinfection (OR 0·63, CI 0·47-0·85), but no association for anti-N levels (OR 0·88, CI 0·73-1·05). Titres >40 were correlated with protection against reinfection for LV-N Wuhan (OR 0·02, CI 0·001-0·31) and LV-N Alpha (OR 0·07, CI 0·009-0·62). For PV-N, titres >100 were associated with protection against Wuhan (OR 0·14, CI 0·03-0·64) and Alpha (0·06, CI 0·008-0·40). CONCLUSIONS: Before vaccination, protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection was directly correlated with anti-S levels, PV-N and LV-N titres, but not with anti-N levels. Detectable LV-N titres were sufficient for protection, whilst PV-N titres >100 were required for a protective effect. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN11041050.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Case-Control Studies , Humans , Reinfection/prevention & control , Vaccination
12.
EMBO Rep ; 23(10): e54322, 2022 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002704

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants has exacerbated the COVID-19 global health crisis. Thus far, all variants carry mutations in the spike glycoprotein, which is a critical determinant of viral transmission being responsible for attachment, receptor engagement and membrane fusion, and an important target of immunity. Variants frequently bear truncations of flexible loops in the N-terminal domain (NTD) of spike; the functional importance of these modifications has remained poorly characterised. We demonstrate that NTD deletions are important for efficient entry by the Alpha and Omicron variants and that this correlates with spike stability. Phylogenetic analysis reveals extensive NTD loop length polymorphisms across the sarbecoviruses, setting an evolutionary precedent for loop remodelling. Guided by these analyses, we demonstrate that variations in NTD loop length, alone, are sufficient to modulate virus entry. We propose that variations in NTD loop length act to fine-tune spike; this may provide a mechanism for SARS-CoV-2 to navigate a complex selection landscape encompassing optimisation of essential functionality, immune-driven antigenic variation and ongoing adaptation to a new host.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
13.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 409, 2022 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1947504

ABSTRACT

RaTG13 is a close relative of SARS-CoV-2, the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, sharing 96% sequence similarity at the genome-wide level. The spike receptor binding domain (RBD) of RaTG13 contains a number of amino acid substitutions when compared to SARS-CoV-2, likely impacting affinity for the ACE2 receptor. Antigenic differences between the viruses are less well understood, especially whether RaTG13 spike can be efficiently neutralised by antibodies generated from infection with, or vaccination against, SARS-CoV-2. Using RaTG13 and SARS-CoV-2 pseudotypes we compared neutralisation using convalescent sera from previously infected patients or vaccinated healthcare workers. Surprisingly, our results revealed that RaTG13 was more efficiently neutralised than SARS-CoV-2. In addition, neutralisation assays using spike mutants harbouring single and combinatorial amino acid substitutions within the RBD demonstrated that both spike proteins can tolerate multiple changes without dramatically reducing neutralisation. Moreover, introducing the 484 K mutation into RaTG13 resulted in increased neutralisation, in contrast to the same mutation in SARS-CoV-2 (E484K). This is despite E484K having a well-documented role in immune evasion in variants of concern (VOC) such as B.1.351 (Beta). These results indicate that the future spill-over of RaTG13 and/or related sarbecoviruses could be mitigated using current SARS-CoV-2-based vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , COVID-19/therapy , Chiroptera/metabolism , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , COVID-19 Serotherapy
14.
J Med Virol ; 94(10): 4820-4829, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1941180

ABSTRACT

The virus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), responsible for the global coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, spread rapidly around the world causing high morbidity and mortality. However, there are four known, endemic seasonal coronaviruses in humans (HCoVs), and whether antibodies for these HCoVs play a role in severity of COVID-19 disease has generated a lot of interest. Of these seasonal viruses NL63 is of particular interest as it uses the same cell entry receptor as SARS-CoV-2. We use functional, neutralizing assays to investigate cross-reactive antibodies and their relationship with COVID-19 severity. We analyzed the neutralization of SARS-CoV-2, NL63, HKU1, and 229E in 38 COVID-19 patients and 62 healthcare workers, and a further 182 samples to specifically study the relationship between SARS-CoV-2 and NL63. We found that although HCoV neutralization was very common there was little evidence that these antibodies neutralized SARS-CoV-2. Despite no evidence in cross-neutralization, levels of NL63 neutralizing antibodies become elevated after exposure to SARS-CoV-2 through infection or following vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus NL63, Human , Antibodies, Viral , Cross Reactions , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
15.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(8): 1161-1179, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921616

ABSTRACT

Vaccines based on the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 are a cornerstone of the public health response to COVID-19. The emergence of hypermutated, increasingly transmissible variants of concern (VOCs) threaten this strategy. Omicron (B.1.1.529), the fifth VOC to be described, harbours multiple amino acid mutations in spike, half of which lie within the receptor-binding domain. Here we demonstrate substantial evasion of neutralization by Omicron BA.1 and BA.2 variants in vitro using sera from individuals vaccinated with ChAdOx1, BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273. These data were mirrored by a substantial reduction in real-world vaccine effectiveness that was partially restored by booster vaccination. The Omicron variants BA.1 and BA.2 did not induce cell syncytia in vitro and favoured a TMPRSS2-independent endosomal entry pathway, these phenotypes mapping to distinct regions of the spike protein. Impaired cell fusion was determined by the receptor-binding domain, while endosomal entry mapped to the S2 domain. Such marked changes in antigenicity and replicative biology may underlie the rapid global spread and altered pathogenicity of the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , Humans , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Viral Envelope Proteins/metabolism , Virus Internalization
16.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755572

ABSTRACT

The rise of SARS-CoV-2 variants has made the pursuit to define correlates of protection more troublesome, despite the availability of the World Health Organisation (WHO) International Standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin sera, a key reagent used to standardise laboratory findings into an international unitage. Using pseudotyped virus, we examine the capacity of convalescent sera, from a well-defined cohort of healthcare workers (HCW) and Patients infected during the first wave from a national critical care centre in the UK to neutralise B.1.1.298, variants of interest (VOI) B.1.617.1 (Kappa), and four VOCs, B.1.1.7 (Alpha), B.1.351 (Beta), P.1 (Gamma) and B.1.617.2 (Delta), including the B.1.617.2 K417N, informally known as Delta Plus. We utilised the WHO International Standard for anti-SARS-CoV-2 Immunoglobulin to report neutralisation antibody levels in International Units per mL. Our data demonstrate a significant reduction in the ability of first wave convalescent sera to neutralise the VOCs. Patients and HCWs with more severe COVID-19 were found to have higher antibody titres and to neutralise the VOCs more effectively than individuals with milder symptoms. Using an estimated threshold for 50% protection, 54 IU/mL, we found most asymptomatic and mild cases did not produce titres above this threshold.

17.
Front Immunol ; 12: 748291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555236

ABSTRACT

Precision monitoring of antibody responses during the COVID-19 pandemic is increasingly important during large scale vaccine rollout and rise in prevalence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-related Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants of concern (VOC). Equally important is defining Correlates of Protection (CoP) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 disease. Data from epidemiological studies and vaccine trials identified virus neutralising antibodies (Nab) and SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific (notably RBD and S) binding antibodies as candidate CoP. In this study, we used the World Health Organisation (WHO) international standard to benchmark neutralising antibody responses and a large panel of binding antibody assays to compare convalescent sera obtained from: a) COVID-19 patients; b) SARS-CoV-2 seropositive healthcare workers (HCW) and c) seronegative HCW. The ultimate aim of this study is to identify biomarkers of humoral immunity that could be used to differentiate severe from mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections. Some of these biomarkers could be used to define CoP in further serological studies using samples from vaccination breakthrough and/or re-infection cases. Whenever suitable, the antibody levels of the samples studied were expressed in International Units (IU) for virus neutralisation assays or in Binding Antibody Units (BAU) for ELISA tests. In this work we used commercial and non-commercial antibody binding assays; a lateral flow test for detection of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG/IgM; a high throughput multiplexed particle flow cytometry assay for SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S), Nucleocapsid (N) and Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) proteins); a multiplex antigen semi-automated immuno-blotting assay measuring IgM, IgA and IgG; a pseudotyped microneutralisation test (pMN) and an electroporation-dependent neutralisation assay (EDNA). Our results indicate that overall, severe COVID-19 patients showed statistically significantly higher levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralising antibodies (average 1029 IU/ml) than those observed in seropositive HCW with mild or asymptomatic infections (379 IU/ml) and that clinical severity scoring, based on WHO guidelines was tightly correlated with neutralisation and RBD/S antibodies. In addition, there was a positive correlation between severity, N-antibody assays and intracellular virus neutralisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Convalescence , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Serological Testing/standards , Calibration , Humans , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/immunology , Reference Standards , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Front Immunol ; 12: 772239, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528825

ABSTRACT

This contribution explores in a new statistical perspective the antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 141 coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients exhibiting a broad range of clinical manifestations. This cohort accurately reflects the characteristics of the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Italy. We determined the IgM, IgA, and IgG levels towards SARS-CoV-2 S1, S2, and NP antigens, evaluating their neutralizing activity and relationship with clinical signatures. Moreover, we longitudinally followed 72 patients up to 9 months postsymptoms onset to study the persistence of the levels of antibodies. Our results showed that the majority of COVID-19 patients developed an early virus-specific antibody response. The magnitude and the neutralizing properties of the response were heterogeneous regardless of the severity of the disease. Antibody levels dropped over time, even though spike reactive IgG and IgA were still detectable up to 9 months. Early baseline antibody levels were key drivers of the subsequent antibody production and the long-lasting protection against SARS-CoV-2. Importantly, we identified anti-S1 IgA as a good surrogate marker to predict the clinical course of COVID-19. Characterizing the antibody response after SARS-CoV-2 infection is relevant for the early clinical management of patients as soon as they are diagnosed and for implementing the current vaccination strategies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin A/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/immunology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
19.
Bio Protoc ; 11(21): e4236, 2021 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527087

ABSTRACT

This protocol details a rapid and reliable method for the production and titration of high-titre viral pseudotype particles with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (and D614G or other variants of concern, VOC) on a lentiviral vector core, and use for neutralisation assays in target cells expressing angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2). It additionally provides detailed instructions on substituting in new spike variants via gene cloning, lyophilisation and storage/shipping considerations for wide deployment potential. Results obtained with this protocol show that SARS-CoV-2 pseudotypes can be produced at equivalent titres to SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) pseudotypes, neutralised by human convalescent plasma and monoclonal antibodies, and stored at a range of laboratory temperatures and lyophilised for distribution and subsequent application.

20.
J Infect Dis ; 224(8): 1305-1315, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1493821

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A notable feature of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is that children are less susceptible to severe disease. Children are known to experience more infections with endemic human coronaviruses (HCoVs) compared to adults. Little is known whether HCoV infections lead to cross-reactive anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies. METHODS: We investigated the presence of cross-reactive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies to spike 1 (S1), S1-receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD), and nucleocapsid protein (NP) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and neutralizing activity by a SARS-CoV-2 pseudotyped virus neutralization assay, in prepandemic sera collected from children (n = 50) and adults (n = 45), and compared with serum samples from convalescent COVID-19 patients (n = 16). RESULTS: A significant proportion of children (up to 40%) had detectable cross-reactive antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 S1, S1-RBD, and NP antigens, and the anti-S1 and anti-S1-RBD antibody levels correlated with anti-HCoV-HKU1 and anti-HCoV-OC43 S1 antibody titers in prepandemic samples (P < .001). There were marked increases of anti-HCoV-HKU1 and - OC43 S1 (but not anti-NL63 and -229E S1-RBD) antibody titers in serum samples from convalescent COVID-19 patients (P < .001), indicating an activation of cross-reactive immunological memory to ß-coronavirus spike. CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated cross-reactive anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in prepandemic serum samples from children and young adults. Promoting this cross-reactive immunity and memory response derived from common HCoV may be an effective strategy against SARS-COV-2 and future novel coronaviruses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Convalescence , Coronavirus 229E, Human/immunology , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus OC43, Human/immunology , Cross Reactions , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunologic Memory , Male , Middle Aged , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Young Adult
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