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1.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(11): 1515-1517, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086872
2.
EClinicalMedicine ; 54:101668-101668, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2047130

ABSTRACT

Background Data on the long-term trajectories of lung function are scarce in COVID-19 survivors. Methods We re-analyzed the data from a prospective longitudinal cohort follow-up study of COVID-19 survivors over 2 years after infection. All participants were divided into scale 3, scale 4 and scale 5-6 groups according to seven-category ordinal scale. The changes of pulmonary function tests (PFTs), the Modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) Dyspnea Scale, 6-min walking test health-related quality of life (HRQoL) across the three serial follow-up visits were evaluated, and compared among three groups. We performed liner regression to determine potential factors that were associated with changes of PFTs and distance walked in 6 minutes (6MWD). Findings In this study, 288 participants generally presented an improvement of PFTs parameters from 6 months to 1 year after infection. The scale 5-6 group displayed a significantly higher increase of PFTs compared with scale 3 and scale 4 groups (all p<0.0167), and corticosteroids therapy was identified as a protective factor for the PFTs improvement with a correlation coefficient of 2.730 (0.215–5.246) for forced vital capacity (FVC), 2.909 (0.383–5.436) for total lung capacity (TLC), and 3.299 (0.211–6.387) for diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide (DLco), respectively. From 1-year to 2-year follow-up, the PFTs parameters generally decreased, which was not observed to be associated with changes of 6MWD and HRQoL. Dyspnea (mMRC≥1) generally decreased over time (23.3% [61/262] for 6-month, 27.9% [67/240] for 1-year, 13.4% [35/261] for 2-year), and 6MWD increased continuously (500.0 m vs 505.0 m vs 525.0 m). Interpretation Corticosteroids therapy during hospitalization was a protective factor for PFTs improvement from 6 months to 1 year. The relatively fast decline trend of PFTs from 1 year to 2 years needs to be paid attention and further validated in the future follow-up study. Fundings This work was supported by Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (CIFMS 2021-I2M-1-048) and the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2021YFC0864700).

3.
Eur J Pediatr ; 181(12): 4019-4037, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027501

ABSTRACT

Children are the future of the world, but their health and future are facing great uncertainty because of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In order to improve the management of children with COVID-19, an international, multidisciplinary panel of experts developed a rapid advice guideline at the beginning of the outbreak of COVID-19 in 2020. After publishing the first version of the rapid advice guideline, the panel has updated the guideline by including additional stakeholders in the panel and a comprehensive search of the latest evidence. All recommendations were supported by systematic reviews and graded using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Expert judgment was used to develop good practice statements supplementary to the graded evidence-based recommendations. The updated guideline comprises nine recommendations and one good practice statement. It focuses on the key recommendations pertinent to the following issues: identification of prognostic factors for death or pediatric intensive care unit admission; the use of remdesivir, systemic glucocorticoids and antipyretics, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula or non-invasive ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure; breastfeeding; vaccination; and the management of pediatric mental health. CONCLUSION: This updated evidence-based guideline intends to provide clinicians, pediatricians, patients and other stakeholders with evidence-based recommendations for the prevention and management of COVID-19 in children and adolescents. Larger studies with longer follow-up to determine the effectiveness and safety of systemic glucocorticoids, IVIG, noninvasive ventilation, and the vaccines for COVID-19 in children and adolescents are encouraged. WHAT IS KNOWN: • Several clinical practice guidelines for children with COVID-19 have been developed, but only few of them have been recently updated. • We developed an evidence-based guideline at the beginning of the COVID-19 outbreak and have now updated it based on the results of a comprehensive search of the latest evidence. WHAT IS NEW: • The updated guideline provides key recommendations pertinent to the following issues: identification of prognostic factors for death or pediatric intensive care unit admission; the use of remdesivir, systemic glucocorticoids and antipyretics, intravenous immunoglobulin for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children, and high-flow oxygen by nasal cannula or non-invasive ventilation for acute hypoxemic respiratory failure; breastfeeding; vaccination; and the management of pediatric mental health.


Subject(s)
Antipyretics , COVID-19 , Respiratory Insufficiency , Adolescent , Child , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous , Oxygen
4.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(9): e2231790, 2022 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2027281

ABSTRACT

Importance: Relatively little is known about the persistence of symptoms in patients with COVID-19 for more than 1 year after their acute illness. Objective: To assess the health outcomes among hospitalized COVID-19 survivors over 2 years and to identify factors associated with increased risk of persistent symptoms. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a longitudinal cohort study of patients who survived COVID-19 at 2 COVID-19-designated hospitals in Wuhan, China, from February 12 to April 10, 2020. All patients were interviewed via telephone at 1 year and 2 years after discharge. The 2-year follow-up study was conducted from March 1 to April 6, 2022. Statistical analysis was conducted from April 20 to May 5, 2022. The severity of disease was defined by World Health Organization guideline for COVID-19. Exposures: COVID-19. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was symptom changes over 2 years after hospital discharge. All patients completed a symptom questionnaire for evaluation of symptoms, along with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test (CAT) at 1-year and 2-year follow-up visits. Results: Of 3988 COVID-19 survivors, a total of 1864 patients (median [IQR] age, 58.5 [49.0-68.0] years; 926 male patients [49.7%]) were available for both 1-year and 2-year follow-up visits. The median (IQR) time from discharge to follow-up at 2 years was 730 (719-743) days. At 2 years after hospital discharge, 370 patients (19.8%) still had symptoms, including 224 (12.0%) with persisting symptoms and 146 (7.8%) with new-onset or worsening of symptoms. The most common symptoms were fatigue, chest tightness, anxiety, dyspnea, and myalgia. Most symptoms resolved over time, but the incidence of dyspnea showed no significant change (1-year vs 2-year, 2.6% [49 patients] vs 2.0% [37 patients]). A total of 116 patients (6.2%) had CAT total scores of at least 10 at 2 years after discharge. Patients who had been admitted to the intensive care unit had higher risks of persistent symptoms (odds ratio, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.02-7.06; P = .04) and CAT scores of 10 or higher (odds ratio, 2.83; 95% CI, 1.21-6.66; P = .02). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study, 2 years after hospital discharge, COVID-19 survivors had a progressive decrease in their symptom burden, but those with severe disease during hospitalization, especially those who required intensive care unit admission, had higher risks of persistent symptoms. These results are related to the original strain of the virus, and their relevance to infections with the Omicron variant is not known.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , China/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
5.
Chest ; 160(1): e86, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1578734
6.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 22: 100496, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2007922
7.
Matern Fetal Med ; 4(1): 72-86, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1985144

ABSTRACT

Viral infections during pregnancy are associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, including maternal and fetal mortality, pregnancy loss, premature labor, and congenital anomalies. Mammalian gestation encounters an immunological paradox wherein the placenta balances the tolerance of an allogeneic fetus with protection against pathogens. Viruses cannot easily transmit from mother to fetus due to physical and immunological barriers at the maternal-fetal interface posing a restricted threat to the fetus and newborns. Despite this, the unknown strategies utilized by certain viruses could weaken the placental barrier to trigger severe maternal and fetal health issues especially through vertical transmission, which was not fully understood until now. In this review, we summarize diverse aspects of the major viral infections relevant to pregnancy, including the characteristics of pathogenesis, related maternal-fetal complications, and the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms of vertical transmission. We highlight the fundamental signatures of complex placental defense mechanisms, which will prepare us to fight the next emerging and re-emerging infectious disease in the pregnancy population.

8.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(5): e348-e356, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984300

ABSTRACT

Background: The memory immune response is crucial for preventing reinfection or reducing disease severity. However, the robustness and functionality of the humoral and T-cell response to SARS-CoV-2 remains unknown 12 months after initial infection. The aim of this study is to investigate the durability and functionality of the humoral and T-cell response to the original SARS-CoV-2 strain and variants in recovered patients 12 months after infection. Methods: In this longitudinal cohort study, we recruited participants who had recovered from COVID-19 and who were discharged from the Wuhan Research Center for Communicable Disease Diagnosis and Treatment at the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, Wuhan, China, between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. Patients received a follow-up visit between Dec 16, 2020, and Jan 27, 2021. We evaluated the presence of IgM, IgA, and IgG antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 nucleoprotein, Spike protein, and the receptor-binding domain 12 months after initial infection, using ELISA. Neutralising antibodies against the original SARS-CoV-2 strain, and the D614G, beta (B.1.351), and delta (B.1.617.2) variants were analysed using a microneutralisation assay in a subset of plasma samples. We analysed the magnitude and breadth of the SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T-cell responses using the interferon γ (IFNγ) enzyme-linked immune absorbent spot (ELISpot) assay and intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assay. The antibody response and T-cell response (ie, IFN-γ, interleukin-2 [IL-2], and tumour necrosis factor α [TNFα]) were analysed by age and disease severity. Antibody titres were also analysed according to sequelae symptoms. Findings: We enrolled 1096 patients, including 289 (26·4%) patients with moderate initial disease, 734 (67·0%) with severe initial disease, and 73 (6·7%) with critical initial disease. Paired plasma samples were collected from 141 patients during the follow-up visits for the microneutralisation assay. PBMCs were collected from 92 of 141 individuals at the 12-month follow-up visit, of which 80 were analysed by ELISpot and 92 by ICS assay to detect the SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T-cell responses. N-IgG (899 [82·0%]), S-IgG (1043 [95·2%]), RBD-IgG (1032 [94·2%]), and neutralising (115 [81·6%] of 141) antibodies were detectable 12 months after initial infection in most individuals. Neutralising antibodies remained stable 6 and 12 months after initial infection in most individuals younger than 60 years. Multifunctional T-cell responses were detected for all SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins tested. There was no difference in the magnitude of T-cell responses or cytokine profiles in individuals with different symptom severity. Moreover, we evaluated both antibody and T-cell responses to the D614G, beta, and delta viral strains. The degree of reduced in-vitro neutralising antibody responses to the D614G and delta variants, but not to the beta variant, was associated with the neutralising antibody titres after SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also found poor neutralising antibody responses to the beta variant; 83 (72·2%) of 115 patients showed no response at all. Moreover, the neutralising antibody titre reduction of the recovered patient plasma against the delta variant was similar to that of the D614G variant and lower than that of the beta variant. By contrast, T-cell responses were cross-reactive to the beta variant in most individuals. Importantly, T-cell responses could be detected in all individuals who had lost the neutralising antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 12 months after the initial infection. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2-specific neutralising antibody and T-cell responses were retained 12 months after initial infection. Neutralising antibodies to the D614G, beta, and delta viral strains were reduced compared with those for the original strain, and were diminished in general. Memory T-cell responses to the original strain were not disrupted by new variants. This study suggests that cross-reactive SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell responses could be particularly important in the protection against severe disease caused by variants of concern whereas neutralising antibody responses seem to reduce over time. Funding: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, National Natural Science Foundation, and UK Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Longitudinal Studies , T-Lymphocytes
10.
Lancet Respir Med ; 10(9): e82, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886191
11.
Lancet ; 399(10334): 1442-1443, 2022 04 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1867911

Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 9(6): ofac170, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860897

ABSTRACT

Background: Detailed characteristics of rheumatic symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were still unknown. We aim to investigate the proportions, characteristics, and risk factors of this condition. Methods: In this prospective, longitudinal cohort study, discharged patients with COVID-19 were interviewed face-to-face at 12 months after symptom onset. Rheumatic symptoms following COVID-19 included newly occurring joint pain and/or joint swelling. The risk factors of developing rheumatic symptoms were identified by multivariable logistic regression analysis. Results: In total, 1296 of 2469 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Among them, 160 (12.3% [95% confidence interval {CI}, 10.6%-14.3%]) suffered from rheumatic symptoms following COVID-19 at 12-month follow-up. The most frequently involved joints were the knee joints (38%), followed by hand (25%) and shoulder (19%). Rheumatic symptoms were independent of the severity of illness and corticosteroid treatment during the acute phase, while elderly age (odds ratio [OR], 1.22 [95% CI, 1.06-1.40]) and female sex (OR, 1.58 [95% CI, 1.12-2.23]) were identified as the risk factors for this condition. Conclusions: Our investigation showed a considerable proportion of rheumatic symptoms following COVID-19 in discharged patients, which highlights the need for continuing attention. Notably, rheumatic symptoms following COVID-19 were independent of the severity of illness and corticosteroid treatment during the acute phase.

13.
Small ; 18(26): e2200854, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1858927

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is profoundly influencing the global healthcare system and people's daily lives. The high resource consumption of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is resulting in insufficient surveillance of coinfection or resurgence of other critical respiratory epidemics, which is of public concern. To facilitate evaluation of the current coinfection situation, a microfluidic system (MAPnavi) is developed for the rapid (<40 min) and sensitive diagnosis of multiple respiratory viruses from swab samples in a fully sealed and automated manner, in which a nested-recombinase polymerase amplification and the CRISPR-based amplification system is first proposed to ensure the sensitivity and specificity. This novel system has a remarkably low limit of detection (50-200 copies mL-1 ) and is successfully applied to detect 171 clinical samples (98.5% positive predictive agreement; 100% negative predictive agreement), and the results identify 45.6% coinfection among clinical samples from patients with COVID-19. This approach has the potential to shift diagnostic and surveillance efforts from targeted testing for a high-priority virus to comprehensive testing of multiple virus sets and to greatly benefit the implementation of decentralized testing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Viruses , COVID-19/diagnosis , CRISPR-Cas Systems/genetics , Coinfection/diagnosis , Humans , Microfluidics , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity
14.
Frontiers in microbiology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1812768

ABSTRACT

Background Influenza and COVID-19 are respiratory infectious diseases that are characterized by high contagiousness and high mutation and pose a serious threat to global health. After Influenza A virus (IAV) and SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe cases may develop into acute lung injury. Immune factors act as an important role during infection and inflammation. However, the molecular immune mechanisms still remain unclear. We aimed to explore immune-related host factors and core biomarker for severe infection, to provide a new therapeutic target of host factor in patients. Methods Gene expression profiles were obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus and the Seurat R package was used for data process of single-cell transcriptome. Differentially expressed gene analysis and cell cluster were used to explore core host genes and source cells of genes. We performed Gene Ontology enrichment, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis, and gene set enrichment analysis to explore potential biological functions of genes. Gene set variation analysis was used to evaluate the important gene set variation score for different samples. We conduct Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to test plasma concentrations of Lipocalin 2 (LCN2). Results Multiple virus-related, cytokine-related, and chemokine-related pathways involved in process of IAV infection and inflammatory response mainly derive from macrophages and neutrophils. LCN2 mainly in neutrophils was significantly upregulated after either IAV or SARS-CoV-2 infection and positively correlated with disease severity. The plasma LCN2 of influenza patients were elevated significantly compared with healthy controls by ELISA and positively correlated with disease severity of influenza patients. Further bioinformatics analysis revealed that LCN2 involved in functions of neutrophils, including neutrophil degranulation, neutrophil activation involved in immune response, and neutrophil extracellular trap formation. Conclusion The neutrophil-related LCN2 could be a promising biomarker for predicting severity of patients with IAV and SARS-CoV-2 infection and may as a new treatment target in severe patients.

16.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1787130

ABSTRACT

Background Detailed characteristics of rheumatic symptoms of COVID-19 were still unknown. We aim to investigate the proportions, characteristics, and risk factors of this condition. Methods In this prospective, longitudinal cohort study, discharged patients with COVID-19 were face-to-face interviewed at 12 months after symptom onset. Rheumatic symptoms following COVID-19 included newly occurring joint pain, and (/or) joint swelling after COVID-19. The risk factors of developing rheumatic symptoms were identified by multivariable logistic regressions. Results In total, 1296 of 2469 discharged patients with COVID-19 were enrolled in this study. Among them, 160 (12.3% [95% CI 10.6, 14.3]) suffered from rheumatic symptoms following COVID-19 at 12-month follow-up. The most frequently involved joints were the knee joints (38%), followed by hand (25%) and shoulder (19%). Rheumatic symptoms were independent of the severity of illness and corticosteroid treatment during acute phase, while elderly (OR 1.22, 95%CI 1.06, 1.40) and women (OR 1.58, 95%CI 1.12, 2.23) were identified as the risk factors for this condition. Conclusions Our investigation showed a considerable proportion of rheumatic symptoms following COVID-19 in discharged patients, which highlights the need for continuing attention. Notably, rheumatic symptoms following COVID-19 were independent of the severity of illness and corticosteroid treatment during acute phase.

17.
Chin Med J (Engl) ; 133(9): 1015-1024, 2020 May 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1722617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human infections with zoonotic coronaviruses (CoVs), including severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, have raised great public health concern globally. Here, we report a novel bat-origin CoV causing severe and fatal pneumonia in humans. METHODS: We collected clinical data and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) specimens from five patients with severe pneumonia from Wuhan Jinyintan Hospital, Hubei province, China. Nucleic acids of the BAL were extracted and subjected to next-generation sequencing. Virus isolation was carried out, and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees were constructed. RESULTS: Five patients hospitalized from December 18 to December 29, 2019 presented with fever, cough, and dyspnea accompanied by complications of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Chest radiography revealed diffuse opacities and consolidation. One of these patients died. Sequence results revealed the presence of a previously unknown ß-CoV strain in all five patients, with 99.8% to 99.9% nucleotide identities among the isolates. These isolates showed 79.0% nucleotide identity with the sequence of SARS-CoV (GenBank NC_004718) and 51.8% identity with the sequence of MERS-CoV (GenBank NC_019843). The virus is phylogenetically closest to a bat SARS-like CoV (SL-ZC45, GenBank MG772933) with 87.6% to 87.7% nucleotide identity, but is in a separate clade. Moreover, these viruses have a single intact open reading frame gene 8, as a further indicator of bat-origin CoVs. However, the amino acid sequence of the tentative receptor-binding domain resembles that of SARS-CoV, indicating that these viruses might use the same receptor. CONCLUSION: A novel bat-borne CoV was identified that is associated with severe and fatal respiratory disease in humans.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray , Treatment Outcome
18.
Sci Bull (Beijing) ; 67(10): 999-1002, 2022 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692906
19.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319973

ABSTRACT

Background: The pandemic of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing globally, which is a big challenge for public health. Alteration of human microbiota had been observed in COVID-19. However, it is unknown how the microbiota is associated with the fatality in COVID-19.Methods: We conducted metatranscriptome sequencing on 588 longitudinal oropharyngeal swab specimens collected from 192 COVID-19 patients recruited in the LOTUS clinical trial (Registration number: ChiCTR2000029308) (including 39 deceased patients), and 95 healthy controls from the same geographic area.Findings: The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota in COVID-19 patients differed from that in healthy controls, while deceased patients possessed a more distinct microbiota. Streptococcus was enriched in recovered patients, whereas potential pathogens, including Candida and Enterococcus, were more abundant in deceased patients. Moreover, the microbiota dominated by Streptococcus was more stable than that dominated by other species. In contrast, the URT microbiota in deceased patients showed a more significant alteration and became more deviated from the norm after admission. The abundance of Streptococcus on admission, particularly that of S. parasanguis, was identified as a strong predictor of fatality by Cox and L1 regularized logistic regression analysis, thus could be used as a potential prognostic biomarker of COVID-19.Interpretation Alteration of the URT microbiota was observed in COVID-19 patients and was associated with the fatality rate. A higher abundance of Streptococcus, especially S. parasanguis, on admission in oropharyngeal swabs predicts a better outcome. The generalization of the results in other populations and underlying mechanisms need further investigations.Trial Registration: Participants were enrolled in ChiCTR2000029308.Funding: This study was funded in part by the National Major Science & Technology Project for Control and Prevention of Major Infectious Diseases in China (2017ZX10103004, 2018ZX10301401), the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences (CAMS) Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences (2019-I2M-2-XX, 2016-I2M-1-014, 2018-I2M-1-003), The Non-profit Central Research Institute Fund of CAMS (2020HY320001, 2019PT310029), Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Genomics (ICG), and Beijing Advanced Innovation Center for Structural Biology (ICSB).Declaration of Interests: All authors declare no competing interests.Ethics Approval Statement: The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board of Jin Yin-Tan Hospital (KY2020-02.01). Written informed consent was obtained from all patients or their legal representatives if they were too unwell to provide consent.

20.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312520

ABSTRACT

Background: A novel coronavirus emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China towards the end of 2019 (SARS-CoV-2 or COVID-19 virus). Large scale spread within China and internationally led the World Health Organisation to declare a Public Health Emergency of International Concern on 30 th January 2020. The clinical manifestations of COVID-19 virus infection include asymptomatic infection, mild upper respiratory symptoms, severe viral pneumonia with respiratory failure and even death. There are no antivirals of proven clinical efficacy in coronavirus infections. Remdesivir (GS-5734), a nucleoside analogue, has inhibitory effects on animal and human highly pathogenic coronaviruses, including MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV, in in-vitro and in-vivo experiments. It is also inhibitory against the COVID-19 virus in-vitro. The aim of this study is to assess the efficacy and safety of remdesivir in adult patients with severe pneumonia caused by COVID-19 virus infection. Methods: The protocol is prepared in accordance with the SPIRIT (Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials) guidelines. This is a phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. Adults (≥18 years) with laboratory confirmed COVID-19 virus infection, and severe pneumonia signs or symptoms, and radiologically confirmed severe pneumonia are randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to intravenous remdesivir or placebo for 10 days. The primary endpoint is time to clinical improvement (censored at Day 28), defined as the time (in days) from randomization of study treatment (remdesivir or placebo) until a decline of two categories on a six-category ordinal scale of clinical status (1 ꞊ discharged;6 ꞊ death) or live discharge from hospital. One interim analysis for efficacy and futility will be conducted once half of the total number of events required had been observed. Discussion: This is the first randomized, placebo-controlled trial in 2019-nCoV. Enrolment began in sites in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China on 6 th February 2020. Trial registration : ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04257656, 6 th February 2020.

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