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Lancet ; 398(10314): 1872-1873, 2021 11 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521621

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Survivors
BMC Pulm Med ; 21(1): 308, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439539


BACKGROUND: Whether procalcitonin (PCT) or C-reactive protein (CRP) combined with certain clinical characteristics can better distinguish viral from bacterial infections remains unclear. The aim of the study was to assess the ability of PCT or CRP combined with clinical characteristics to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections in hospitalized non-intensive care unit (ICU) adults with lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). METHODS: This was a post-hoc analysis of a randomized clinical trial previously conducted among LRTI patients. The ability of PCT, CRP and PCT or CRP combined with clinical symptoms to discriminate between viral and bacterial infection were assessed by portraying receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves among patients with only a viral or a typical bacterial infection. RESULTS: In total, 209 infected patients (viral 69%, bacterial 31%) were included in the study. When using CRP or PCT to discriminate between viral and bacterial LRTI, the optimal cut-off points were 22 mg/L and 0.18 ng/mL, respectively. When the optimal cut-off for CRP (≤ 22 mg/L) or PCT (≤ 0.18 ng/mL) combined with rhinorrhea was used to discriminate viral from bacterial LRTI, the AUCs were 0.81 (95% CI: 0.75-0.87) and 0.80 (95% CI: 0.74-0.86), which was statistically significantly better than when CRP or PCT used alone (p < 0.001). When CRP ≤ 22 mg/L, PCT ≤ 0.18 ng/mL and rhinorrhea were combined, the AUC was 0.86 (95% CI: 0.80-0.91), which was statistically significantly higher than when CRP (≤ 22 mg/L) or PCT (≤ 0.18 ng/mL) was combined with rhinorrhea (p = 0.011 and p = 0.021). CONCLUSIONS: Either CRP ≤ 22 mg/L or PCT ≤ 0.18 ng/mL combined with rhinorrhea could help distinguish viral from bacterial infections in hospitalized non-ICU adults with LRTI. When rhinorrhea was combined together, discrimination ability was further improved.

International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents ; 58:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1440059
Am J Respir Crit Care Med ; 2021 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430274


RATIONALE: Alteration of human respiratory microbiota had been observed in COVID-19. How the microbiota is associated with the prognosis in COVID-19 is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To characterize the feature and dynamics of the respiratory microbiota and its associations with clinical features in COVID-19 patients. Methods:We conducted metatranscriptome sequencing on 588 longitudinal oropharyngeal swab specimens collected from 192 COVID-19 patients (including 39 deceased patients), and 95 healthy controls from the same geographic area. Meanwhile, the concentration of 27 cytokines and chemokines in plasma was measured for COVID-19 patients. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The upper respiratory tract (URT) microbiota in COVID-19 patients differed from that in healthy controls, while deceased patients possessed a more distinct microbiota, both on admission and before discharge/death. The alteration of URT microbiota showed a significant correlation with the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines and mortality. Specifically, Streptococcus-dominated microbiota was enriched in recovered patients, and show high temporal stability and resistance against pathogens. In contrast, the microbiota in deceased patients was more susceptible to secondary infections, and became more deviated from the normality after admission. Moreover, the abundance of S. parasanguinis on admission was significantly correlated with prognosis in non-severe patients (lower vs. higher abundance, odds ratio=7.80, [95% CI 1.70-42.05]). Conclusions:URT microbiota dysbiosis is a remarkable manifestation of COVID-19; its association with mortality suggests it may reflect the interplay between pathogens, symbionts, and the host immune status. Whether URT microbiota could be used as a biomarker for the diagnosis and prognosis of respiratory diseases merits further investigation. This article is open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives License 4.0 (

Lancet ; 398(10302): 747-758, 2021 08 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376121


BACKGROUND: The full range of long-term health consequences of COVID-19 in patients who are discharged from hospital is largely unclear. The aim of our study was to comprehensively compare consequences between 6 months and 12 months after symptom onset among hospital survivors with COVID-19. METHODS: We undertook an ambidirectional cohort study of COVID-19 survivors who had been discharged from Jin Yin-tan Hospital (Wuhan, China) between Jan 7 and May 29, 2020. At 6-month and 12-month follow-up visit, survivors were interviewed with questionnaires on symptoms and health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and received a physical examination, a 6-min walking test, and laboratory tests. They were required to report their health-care use after discharge and work status at the 12-month visit. Survivors who had completed pulmonary function tests or had lung radiographic abnormality at 6 months were given the corresponding tests at 12 months. Non-COVID-19 participants (controls) matched for age, sex, and comorbidities were interviewed and completed questionnaires to assess prevalent symptoms and HRQoL. The primary outcomes were symptoms, modified British Medical Research Council (mMRC) score, HRQoL, and distance walked in 6 min (6MWD). Multivariable adjusted logistic regression models were used to evaluate the risk factors of 12-month outcomes. FINDINGS: 1276 COVID-19 survivors completed both visits. The median age of patients was 59·0 years (IQR 49·0-67·0) and 681 (53%) were men. The median follow-up time was 185·0 days (IQR 175·0-198·0) for the 6-month visit and 349·0 days (337·0-361·0) for the 12-month visit after symptom onset. The proportion of patients with at least one sequelae symptom decreased from 68% (831/1227) at 6 months to 49% (620/1272) at 12 months (p<0·0001). The proportion of patients with dyspnoea, characterised by mMRC score of 1 or more, slightly increased from 26% (313/1185) at 6-month visit to 30% (380/1271) at 12-month visit (p=0·014). Additionally, more patients had anxiety or depression at 12-month visit (26% [331/1271] at 12-month visit vs 23% [274/1187] at 6-month visit; p=0·015). No significant difference on 6MWD was observed between 6 months and 12 months. 88% (422/479) of patients who were employed before COVID-19 had returned to their original work at 12 months. Compared with men, women had an odds ratio of 1·43 (95% CI 1·04-1·96) for fatigue or muscle weakness, 2·00 (1·48-2·69) for anxiety or depression, and 2·97 (1·50-5·88) for diffusion impairment. Matched COVID-19 survivors at 12 months had more problems with mobility, pain or discomfort, and anxiety or depression, and had more prevalent symptoms than did controls. INTERPRETATION: Most COVID-19 survivors had a good physical and functional recovery during 1-year follow-up, and had returned to their original work and life. The health status in our cohort of COVID-19 survivors at 12 months was still lower than that in the control population. FUNDING: Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the National Key Research and Development Program of China, Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development of Pulmonary Tuberculosis, the China Evergrande Group, Jack Ma Foundation, Sino Biopharmaceutical, Ping An Insurance (Group), and New Sunshine Charity Foundation.

COVID-19/complications , Survivors , Aged , Anxiety/etiology , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/psychology , Depression/etiology , Exercise Tolerance , Fatigue/etiology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Lung/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2 , Walk Test
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 9: 100191, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364336
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e049515, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346064


INTRODUCTION: Current antibiotic prescription for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD) is generally based on the Anthonisen criteria in The Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (GOLD) guideline that have a potential risk of antibiotics overuse. The dilemma is to identify patients who are most likely to benefit from antibiotics while avoiding unnecessary antibiotic use. Procalcitonin (PCT), a more sensitive and specific biomarker of bacterial infection than other conventional laboratory tests, has the potential to determine those patients in whom antibiotics would be beneficial. It is unclear whether PCT-guided antibiotic therapy is safe and effective for patients hospitalised with AECOPD. The study hypothesis is that PCT-guided antibiotic therapy could reduce the antibiotic prescription rate for AECOPD, compared with the GOLD guideline recommendations, without negatively impacting the treatment success rate. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: In this multicenter, open-label, randomised controlled trial, we aim to enrol 500 hospitalised patients with AECOPD that will be randomly assigned to either a PCT-guided group or a GOLD guideline-guided group. The coprimary endpoints are antibiotic prescription rate for AECOPD within 30 days post randomisation and treatment success rate at day 30 post randomisation. The secondary outcomes include: antibiotic prescription rate at day 1 post randomisation; hospital antibiotic exposure; length of hospital stay; rate of subsequent exacerbation and hospital readmission; overall mortality within 30 days post randomisation; changes in lung function and the score of COPD assessment test and modified Medical Research Council; and rate of intensive care unit admission. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This trial has been approved by the ethic committee of China-Japan Friendship Hospital. The findings of the study will be disseminated in peer-reviewed journals. If the results of the study are positive, PCT-guided antibiotic therapy is likely to change the guidelines for antibiotic recommendations for patients with AECOPD. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04682899.

Bacterial Infections , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Inpatients , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Procalcitonin , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
Lancet ; 396(10259): 1310-1311, 2020 10 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337018
Eur Respir J ; 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1334739
BMJ Open ; 11(7): e044940, 2021 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327656


OBJECTIVE: To analyse the epidemiological characteristics of family clusters of COVID-19 and the three stages of the comprehensive non-pharmaceutical interventions and measures implemented in Shenzhen. METHODS: The epidemic curve of COVID-19 was drawn and the impact of the comprehensive non-pharmaceutical interventions and measures was analysed by the different periods of the epidemic. RESULTS: A total of 427 cases (417 confirmed cases and 10 asymptomatic infectious cases) were reported in Shenzhen, of which 259 (60.7%) were clustered cases. 97 cluster events were drawn and most cluster events (97.3%) occurred in families. There were three stages of the COVID-19 epidemic in Shenzhen. The epidemic increased rapidly, but the peak lasted for a short time, while the decline in incidence was rapid and large. CONCLUSIONS: Family clusters were the main feature of the COVID-19 outbreak in Shenzhen in 2020, and the Shenzhen government rolled out a quick response to the epidemic. Non-pharmaceutical interventions and measures were proven to have effectively contained community transmission, limit the transmission to aggregation and reduce the scale of transmission within a household.

COVID-19 , Epidemics , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
Chest ; 160(1): e86, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1324076
Lancet ; 398(10296): 188-190, 2021 07 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313500
Respirology ; 26(8): 745-767, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1301542


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is ongoing and many drugs have been studied in clinical trials. From a pathophysiological perspective, anti-viral drugs may be more effective in the early stage while immunomodulators may be more effective in severe patients in later stages of infection. While drugs such as lopinavir-ritonavir, hydroxychloroquine and azithromycin have proved to be ineffective in randomized controlled trials, corticosteroids, neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, remdesivir, tocilizumab and baricitinib have been reported to benefit certain groups of patients with COVID-19. In this review, we will present the key clinical evidence and progress in promising COVID-19 therapeutics, as well as summarize the experience and lessons learned from the development of the current therapeutics.

Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans
Lancet Infect Dis ; 2021 Jun 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284635
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(11): e901-e913, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249298


There have been arguments on whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) treatment alters the risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and disease severity. We identified a total of 102 eligible studies for systematic review, in which 49 studies adjusting for confounders were included in the meta-analysis. We found no association between prior ACEI/ARB use and risk of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in the general population (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.00; 95% confidence interval [CI], .94-1.05). The risk of mortality (aOR, .87; 95% CI, .66-1.04) and severe outcomes (aOR, .95; 95% CI, .73-1.24) were also unchanged among COVID-19 patients taking ACEIs/ARBs. These findings remained consistent in subgroup analyses stratified by populations, drug exposures, and other secondary outcomes. This systematic review provides evidence-based support to current medical guidelines and position statements that ACEIs/ARBs should not be discontinued. Additionally, there has been no evidence for initiating ACEI/ARB regimen as prevention or treatment of COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Hypertension , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e360-e370, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240696


BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FINDINGS: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27-0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14-0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. INTERPRETATION: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).

Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , COVID-19/prevention & control , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Neisseria meningitidis , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Public Health Practice , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae
Clin Infect Dis ; 72(10): e545-e551, 2021 05 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1232187


BACKGROUND: The characteristics of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) and antibody against major antigen proteins related to clinical outcomes in severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients were still less known. METHODS: NAbs and antibodies targeting nucleocapsid (N), spike protein (S), and the receptor-binding domain (RBD) in longitudinal plasma samples from the LOTUS China trial were measured by microneutralization assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Viral load was determined by real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). A total of 576 plasma and 576 throat swabs were collected from 191 COVID-19 patients. Antibody titers related to adverse outcome and clinical improvement were analyzed. Multivariable adjusted generalized linear mixed model for random effects were developed. RESULTS: After day 28 post symptoms onset, the rate of antibody positivity reached 100% for RBD-immunoglobulin M (IgM), 97.8% for S-IgM, 100% for N-immunoglobulin G (IgG), 100% for RBD-IgG, 91.1% for N-IgM, and 91.1% for NAbs. The NAbs titers increased over time in both survivors and nonsurvivors and correlated to IgG antibodies against N, S, and RBD, whereas its presence showed no statistical correlation with death. N-IgG (slope -2.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] -3.04 to -1.18, P < .0001), S-IgG (slope -2.44, 95% CI -3.35 to -1.54, P < .0001), and RBD-IgG (slope -1.43, 95% CI -1.98 to -.88, P < .0001) were negatively correlated with viral load. S-IgG titers were lower in nonsurvivors than survivors (P = .020) at week 4 after symptoms onset. CONCLUSIONS: IgM and IgG against N, S, and RBD and NAbs developed in most severe COVID-19 patients and do not correlate clearly with clinical outcomes. The levels of IgG antibodies against N, S, and RBD were related to viral clearance.

COVID-19 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , China/epidemiology , Humans , Immunoglobulin M , SARS-CoV-2
Lancet ; 397(10287): 1807-1808, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228178

COVID-19 , Humans , Kidney , SARS-CoV-2
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(10): 1335-1336, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225438