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1.
Zool Res ; 42(3): 335-338, 2021 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231642

ABSTRACT

The global outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), as of 8 May 2021, has surpassed 150 700 000 infections and 3 279 000 deaths worldwide. Evidence indicates that SARS-CoV-2 RNA can be detected on particulate matter (PM), and COVID-19 cases are correlated with levels of air pollutants. However, the mechanisms of PM involvement in the spread of SARS-CoV-2 remain poorly understood. Here, we found that PM exposure increased the expression level of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and transmembrane serine protease 2 (TMPRSS2) in several epithelial cells and increased the adsorption of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Instillation of PM in a hACE2 mouse model significantly increased the expression of ACE2 and Tmprss2 and viral replication in the lungs. Furthermore, PM exacerbated the pulmonary lesions caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection in the hACE2 mice. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that PM is an epidemiological factor of COVID-19, emphasizing the necessity of wearing anti-PM masks to cope with this global pandemic.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19/chemically induced , COVID-19/immunology , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Adsorption/drug effects , Animals , Disease Susceptibility/chemically induced , Disease Susceptibility/immunology , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Mice , Mice, Inbred Strains , Particulate Matter/chemistry , RNA, Viral/analysis , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects
2.
Transl Lung Cancer Res ; 9(4): 1516-1527, 2020 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-782600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Radiological manifestations of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) featured ground-glass opacities (GGOs), especially in the early stage, which might create confusion in differential diagnosis with early lung cancer. We aimed to specify the radiological characteristics of COVID-19 and early lung cancer and to unveil the discrepancy between them. METHODS: One hundred and fifty-seven COVID-19 patients and 374 early lung cancer patients from four hospitals in China were retrospectively enrolled. Epidemiological, clinical, radiological, and pathological characteristics were compared between the two groups using propensity score-matched (PSM) analysis. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients had more distinct symptoms, tended to be younger (P<0.0001), male (P<0.0001), and had a higher body mass index (P=0.014). After 1:1 PSM, 121 matched pairs were identified. Regarding radiological characteristics, patients with a single lesion accounted for 17% in COVID-19 and 89% in lung cancer (P<0.0001). Most lesions were peripherally found in both groups. Lesions in COVID-19 involved more lobes (median 3.5 vs. 1; P<0.0001) and segments (median 6 vs. 1; P<0.0001) and tended to have multiple types (67%) with patchy form (54%). Early lung cancer was more likely to have a single type (92%) with oval form (66%). Also, COVID-19 and early lung cancer either had some distinctive features on computed tomography (CT) images. CONCLUSIONS: Both COVID-19 and early lung cancers showed GGOs, with similar but independent features. The imaging characteristics should be fully understood and combined with epidemiological history, pathogen detection, laboratory tests, short-term CT reexamination, and pathological results to aid differential diagnosis.

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