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1.
Cell Rep ; 40(9): 111284, 2022 08 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1982703

ABSTRACT

Preexisting immunity cross-reactive to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) in SARS-CoV-1 survivors suggests that a coronavirus disease 2019 vaccine may boost such preexisting cross-reactive memory T cells. We measure SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV-1 spike-specific neutralizing antibody and T cell responses in a single dose of Ad5-nCoV-immunized SARS-CoV-1 survivors 6 months after vaccination. Compared with Ad5-nCoV-immunized naive healthy individuals (NHIs), vaccination of Ad5-nCoV in SARS-CoV-1 survivors boosts the antibody response against SARS-CoV-1 but induces a limited neutralizing antibody that is capable of neutralizing SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern, and nearly all serum samples lose neutralization to Omicron subvariants. Immunized SARS-CoV-1 survivors produce a T cell response to SARS-CoV-2 comparable with that of Ad5-nCoV-immunized NHIs. However, a robust cross-reactive T cell response to SARS-CoV-1 is identified in immunized SARS-CoV-1 survivors compared with Ad5-nCoV-immunized NHIs. These findings suggest that vaccination with Ad5-nCoV elicits a stronger neutralizing antibody and cross-reactive T cell responses against SARS-CoV-1 in SARS-CoV-1 survivors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Survivors , Vaccination
2.
Nat Microbiol ; 7(8): 1259-1269, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972611

ABSTRACT

Pangolins are the most trafficked wild animal in the world according to the World Wildlife Fund. The discovery of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins has piqued interest in the viromes of these wild, scaly-skinned mammals. We sequenced the viromes of 161 pangolins that were smuggled into China and assembled 28 vertebrate-associated viruses, 21 of which have not been previously reported in vertebrates. We named 16 members of Hunnivirus, Pestivirus and Copiparvovirus pangolin-associated viruses. We report that the L-protein has been lost from all hunniviruses identified in pangolins. Sequences of four human-associated viruses were detected in pangolin viromes, including respiratory syncytial virus, Orthopneumovirus, Rotavirus A and Mammalian orthoreovirus. The genomic sequences of five mammal-associated and three tick-associated viruses were also present. Notably, a coronavirus related to HKU4-CoV, which was originally found in bats, was identified. The presence of these viruses in smuggled pangolins identifies these mammals as a potential source of emergent pathogenic viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Animals , Humans , Mammals , Pangolins , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
5.
J Glob Health ; 10(2): 020513, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106360

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is challenging the public health response system worldwide, especially in poverty-stricken, war-torn, and least developed countries (LDCs). METHODS: We characterized the epidemiological features and spread dynamics of COVID-19 in Niger, quantified the effective reproduction number (Rt ), evaluated the impact of public health control measures, and estimated the disease burden. RESULTS: As of 4 July 2020, COVID-19 has affected 29 communes of Niger with 1093 confirmed cases, among whom 741 (67.8%) were males. Of them 89 cases died, resulting in a case fatality rate (CFR) of 8.1%. Both attack rates and CFRs were increased with age (P < 0.0001). Health care workers accounted for 12.8% cases. Among the reported cases, 39.3% were isolated and treated at home, and 42.3% were asymptomatic. 74.6% cases were clustered in Niamey, the capital of Niger. The Rt fluctuated in correlation to control measures at different outbreak stages. After the authorities initiated the national response and implemented the strictest control measures, Rt quickly dropped to below the epidemic threshold (<1), and maintained low level afterward. The national disability-adjusted life years attributable to COVID-19 was 1267.38 years in total, of which years of life lost accounted for over 99.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Classic public health control measures such as prohibition of public gatherings, travelling ban, contact tracing, and isolation and quarantine at home, are proved to be effective to contain the outbreak in Niger, and provide guidance for controlling the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic in LDCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Adult , Developing Countries , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Niger/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(4)2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1085096

ABSTRACT

Western countries are experiencing surges in COVID-19 cases and deaths due to increasing public transportation during holiday seasons. This study aimed to explore whether mainland China will face an epidemic rebound during the Spring Festival holiday, when millions of Chinese people travel across the country, and investigate which nucleic acid testing (NAT) strategy is optimal to contain the epidemic. A microsimulation model was used to simulate SARS-CoV-2 transmission among railway travelers and evaluated the effects of various NAT strategies. An extended susceptible-exposed-infectious-recovered (SEIR) model was built to forecast local transmission during the Spring Festival period under different scenarios of testing strategies. The total number of infections, testing burden, and medical expenditure were calculated to devise an optimal strategy during the Spring Festival travel rush. Assuming the daily incidence of 20 per 10 million persons, our model simulated that there would be 97 active infections on the day of travel among 10 million railway passengers without NAT and symptom screening. Pre-travel testing could reduce the number of active infections. Compared with no NAT, testing passengers from risk tier 2-4 regions 3 days before travelling could significantly reduce the risk of transmission, and it is more economical and efficient than testing for all passengers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Holidays , Travel , COVID-19/transmission , China/epidemiology , Computer Simulation , Humans , Seasons
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(19)2020 09 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000266

ABSTRACT

Healthcare workers (HCWs) worldwide are putting themselves at high risks of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by treating a large number of patients while lacking protective equipment. We aim to provide a scientific basis for preventing and controlling the COVID-19 infection among HCWs. We used data on COVID-19 cases in the city of Wuhan to compare epidemiological characteristics between HCWs and non-HCWs and explored the risk factors for infection and deterioration among HCWs based on hospital settings. The attack rate (AR) of HCWs in the hospital can reach up to 11.9% in Wuhan. The time interval from symptom onset to diagnosis in HCWs and non-HCWs dropped rapidly over time. From mid-January, the median time interval of HCW cases was significantly shorter than in non-HCW cases. Cases of HCWs and non-HCWs both clustered in northwestern urban districts rather than in rural districts. HCWs working in county-level hospitals in high-risk areas were more vulnerable to COVID-19. HCW cases working in general, ophthalmology, and respiratory departments were prone to deteriorate compared with cases working in the infection department. The AR of COVID-19 in HCWs are higher than in non-HCWs. Multiple factors in hospital settings may play important roles in the transmission of COVID-19. Effective measures should be enhanced to prevent HCWs from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Health Personnel , Occupational Exposure , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e043411, 2020 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873549

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the epidemiological characteristics and transmission dynamics in relation to interventions against the COVID-19 and severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) outbreak in mainland China. DESIGN: Comparative study based on a unique data set of COVID-19 and SARS. SETTING: Outbreak in mainland China. PARTICIPANTS: The final database included 82 858 confirmed cases of COVID-19 and 5327 cases of SARS. METHODS: We brought together all existing data sources and integrated them into a comprehensive data set. Individual information on age, sex, occupation, residence location, date of illness onset, date of diagnosis and clinical outcome was extracted. Control measures deployed in mainland China were collected. We compared the epidemiological and spatial characteristics of COVID-19 and SARS. We estimated the effective reproduction number to explore differences in transmission dynamics and intervention effects. RESULTS: Compared with SARS, COVID-19 affected more extensive areas (1668 vs 230 counties) within a shorter time (101 vs 193 days) and had higher attack rate (61.8 vs 4.0 per million persons). The COVID-19 outbreak had only one epidemic peak and one epicentre (Hubei Province), while the SARS outbreak resulted in two peaks and two epicentres (Guangdong Province and Beijing). SARS-CoV-2 was more likely to infect older people (median age of 52 years), while SARS-CoV tended to infect young adults (median age of 34 years). The case fatality rate (CFR) of either disease increased with age, but the CFR of COVID-19 was significantly lower than that of SARS (5.6% vs 6.4%). The trajectory of effective reproduction number dynamically changed in relation to interventions, which fell below 1 within 2 months for COVID-19 and within 5.5 months for SARS. CONCLUSIONS: China has taken more prompt and effective responses to combat COVID-19 by learning lessons from SARS, providing us with some epidemiological clues to control the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic worldwide.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Population Surveillance/methods , Adult , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate/trends , Young Adult
9.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 230: 113610, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730640

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of 2019 novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is challenging global public health response system. We aim to identify the risk factors for the transmission of COVID-19 using data on mainland China. We estimated attack rate (AR) at county level. Logistic regression was used to explore the role of transportation in the nationwide spread. Generalized additive model and stratified linear mixed-effects model were developed to identify the effects of multiple meteorological factors on local transmission. The ARs in affected counties ranged from 0.6 to 9750.4 per million persons, with a median of 8.8. The counties being intersected by railways, freeways, national highways or having airports had significantly higher risk for COVID-19 with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) of 1.40 (p = 0.001), 2.07 (p < 0.001), 1.31 (p = 0.04), and 1.70 (p < 0.001), respectively. The higher AR of COVID-19 was significantly associated with lower average temperature, moderate cumulative precipitation and higher wind speed. Significant pairwise interactions were found among above three meteorological factors with higher risk of COVID-19 under low temperature and moderate precipitation. Warm areas can also be in higher risk of the disease with the increasing wind speed. In conclusion, transportation and meteorological factors may play important roles in the transmission of COVID-19 in mainland China, and could be integrated in consideration by public health alarm systems to better prevent the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Meteorological Concepts , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Temperature
10.
Nature ; 583(7815): 282-285, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-17844

ABSTRACT

The ongoing outbreak of viral pneumonia in China and across the world is associated with a new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-21. This outbreak has been tentatively associated with a seafood market in Wuhan, China, where the sale of wild animals may be the source of zoonotic infection2. Although bats are probable reservoir hosts for SARS-CoV-2, the identity of any intermediate host that may have facilitated transfer to humans is unknown. Here we report the identification of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses in Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) seized in anti-smuggling operations in southern China. Metagenomic sequencing identified pangolin-associated coronaviruses that belong to two sub-lineages of SARS-CoV-2-related coronaviruses, including one that exhibits strong similarity in the receptor-binding domain to SARS-CoV-2. The discovery of multiple lineages of pangolin coronavirus and their similarity to SARS-CoV-2 suggests that pangolins should be considered as possible hosts in the emergence of new coronaviruses and should be removed from wet markets to prevent zoonotic transmission.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Eutheria/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Betacoronavirus/classification , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Reservoirs/virology , Genomics , Humans , Malaysia , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic , SARS-CoV-2 , Sequence Alignment , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
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