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1.
Frontiers in psychology ; 14, 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2287865

ABSTRACT

Background During the COVID-19 pandemic, the frontline medical staff faced more workload and heavier physical and mental stress, which increased their job burnout and negative emotions. However, little is known about the potential factors mediating and moderating these relations. This study investigates the association between long working hours and depressive symptoms among frontline medical staff in China, and explores the potential mediating effect of job burnout, and moderating effect of family and organizational support on these associations. Methods Data of 992 frontline medical staff who participated in the prevention and control of COVID-19 was obtained from the online survey conducted in November to December 2021 in China. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionaire-9 (PHQ-9). Moderated mediating model was employed to understand the relationship between long working hours (X), depressive symptoms (Y) mediated through job burnout (M), moderated by family support (W1) and organizational support (W2), while controlling all possible covariates. Results 56.96% of participants worked more than 8 h per day. 49.8% of them had depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) and 65.8% experienced job-related burnout. Long working hours was positively associated with depressive symptoms score (β = 0.26, 95% CI:0.13 ~ 0.40). Mediation analyses revealed that job burnout significantly mediated this relationship (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.08 ~ 0.26). Moderated mediation further indicated that both two interactions of social support (family support W1, organizational support W2) and job burnout were negatively related to depressive symptoms among frontline medical staff, indicating that higher social support being less job burnout with lower depressive symptoms. Conclusion Longer working hours and higher job burnout may contribute to worse mental health among frontline medical staff. Social support could buffer the detrimental effects by reducing their job burnout. Contribution The main contribution of this study was to estimate the negative effect of long working hours on depressive symptoms among frontline medical staff and explore the potential mediating role of job burnout and moderating role of social support on these associations.

2.
Front Psychol ; 14: 1084329, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2287866

ABSTRACT

Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the frontline medical staff faced more workload and heavier physical and mental stress, which increased their job burnout and negative emotions. However, little is known about the potential factors mediating and moderating these relations. This study investigates the association between long working hours and depressive symptoms among frontline medical staff in China, and explores the potential mediating effect of job burnout, and moderating effect of family and organizational support on these associations. Methods: Data of 992 frontline medical staff who participated in the prevention and control of COVID-19 was obtained from the online survey conducted in November to December 2021 in China. Depressive symptoms were evaluated using the Patient Health Questionaire-9 (PHQ-9). Moderated mediating model was employed to understand the relationship between long working hours (X), depressive symptoms (Y) mediated through job burnout (M), moderated by family support (W1) and organizational support (W2), while controlling all possible covariates. Results: 56.96% of participants worked more than 8 h per day. 49.8% of them had depressive symptoms (PHQ-9 ≥ 5) and 65.8% experienced job-related burnout. Long working hours was positively associated with depressive symptoms score (ß = 0.26, 95% CI:0.13 ~ 0.40). Mediation analyses revealed that job burnout significantly mediated this relationship (indirect effect = 0.17, 95% CI: 0.08 ~ 0.26). Moderated mediation further indicated that both two interactions of social support (family support W1, organizational support W2) and job burnout were negatively related to depressive symptoms among frontline medical staff, indicating that higher social support being less job burnout with lower depressive symptoms. Conclusion: Longer working hours and higher job burnout may contribute to worse mental health among frontline medical staff. Social support could buffer the detrimental effects by reducing their job burnout. Contribution: The main contribution of this study was to estimate the negative effect of long working hours on depressive symptoms among frontline medical staff and explore the potential mediating role of job burnout and moderating role of social support on these associations.

3.
Microb Pathog ; : 105924, 2022 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243793

ABSTRACT

Piglet diarrhea caused by the porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a common problem on pig farms in China associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. In this study, three PEDV isolates were successfully detected after the fourth blind passage in Vero cells. The samples were obtained from infected piglet farms in Jilin (Changchun), and Shandong (Qingdao) Provinces of China and were designated as CH/CC-1/2018, CH/CC-2/2018, and CH/QD/2018. According to the analysis of the complete S protein gene sequence, the CH/CC-1/2018 and CH/CC-2/2018 were allocated to the G2b branch, while CH/QD/2018 was located in the G1a interval and was closer to the vaccine strain CV777. Successful detection and identification of the isolated strains were carried out using electron microscopy and indirect immunofluorescence. Meanwhile, animal challenge experiments and viral RNA copies determination were used to compare the pathogenicity. The results showed that CH/CC-1/2018 in Changchun was more pathogenic than CH/QD/2018 in Qingdao. In conclusion, the discovery of these new strains is conducive to the development of vaccines to prevent the pandemic of PEDV, especially that the CH/CC-1/2018, and CH/CC-2/2018 were not related to the classical vaccine strain CV777.

4.
Environmental Pollution ; : 120529, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2086166

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the levels and phenomenology of equivalent black carbon (eBC) at the city center of Augsburg, Germany (01/2018 to 12/2020). Furthermore, the potential health risk of eBC based on equivalent numbers of passively smoked cigarettes (PSC) was also evaluated, with special emphasis on the impact caused by the COVID19 lockdown restriction measures. As it could be expected, peak concentrations of eBC were commonly recorded in morning (06:00–8:00 LT) and night (19:00–22:00 LT) in all seasons, coinciding with traffic rush hours and atmospheric stagnation. The variability of eBC was highly influenced by diurnal variations in traffic and meteorology (air temperature (T), mixing-layer height (MLH), wind speed (WS)) across days and seasons. Furthermore, a marked “weekend effect” was evidenced, with an average eBC decrease of ∼35% due to lower traffic flow. During the COVID19 lockdown period, an average ∼60% reduction of the traffic flow resulted in ∼30% eBC decrease, as the health risks of eBC exposure was markedly reduced during this period. The implementation of a multilinear regression analysis allowed to explain for 53% of the variability in measured eBC, indicating that the several factors (e.g., traffic and meteorology) may contribute simultaneously to this proportion. Overall, this study will provide valuable input to the policy makers to mitigate eBC pollutant and its adverse effect on environment and human health.

5.
Atmos Pollut Res ; 13(9): 101536, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1996016

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic in Germany in 2020 brought many regulations to impede its transmission such as lockdown. Hence, in this study, we compared the annual air pollutants (CO, NO, NO2, O3, PM10, PM2.5, and BC) in Augsburg in 2020 to the record data in 2010-2019. The annual air pollutants in 2020 were significantly (p < 0.001) lower than that in 2010-2019 except O3, which was significantly (p = 0.02) higher than that in 2010-2019. In a depth perspective, we explored how lockdown impacted air pollutants in Augsburg. We simulated air pollutants based on the meteorological data, traffic density, and weekday and weekend/holiday by using four different models (i.e. Random Forest, K-nearest Neighbors, Linear Regression, and Lasso Regression). According to the best fitting effects, Random Forest was used to predict air pollutants during two lockdown periods (16/03/2020-19/04/2020, 1st lockdown and 02/11/2020-31/12/2020, 2nd lockdown) to explore how lockdown measures impacted air pollutants. Compared to the predicted values, the measured CO, NO2, and BC significantly reduced 18.21%, 21.75%, and 48.92% in the 1st lockdown as well as 7.67%, 32.28%, and 79.08% in the 2nd lockdown. It could be owing to the reduction of traffic and industrial activities. O3 significantly increased 15.62% in the 1st lockdown but decreased 40.39% in the 2nd lockdown, which may have relations with the fluctuations the NO titration effect and photochemistry effect. PM10 and PM2.5 were significantly increased 18.23% an 10.06% in the 1st lockdown but reduced 34.37% and 30.62% in the 2nd lockdown, which could be owing to their complex generation mechanisms.

6.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5706, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842949

ABSTRACT

Due to the seriousness of COVID-19, masks are considered to be as a key and effective device to cut off the spread of viruses and are widely used by people, such as doctors and patients. Hundreds of millions of masks used worldwide in daily life will inevitably cause huge pollution and damage to the environment. However, existing research has not yet provided a method to simultaneously evaluate the economic, environmental, and social aspects of sustainable design of masks, which brings great barriers and challenges for designers to make sustainability decisions on masks and consumers’ behavioral decisions on mask purchases. Consequently, on the basis of principles of sustainability evaluation of masks, this work evaluates ten masks of different materials (including two newly designed masks) by using a novel hybrid of rank-sum ratio and entropy weight method. The results indicate that some disposable masks also show better sustainability than reusable masks, and in addition, the integrated rank-sum ratio and entropy weight method can effectively realize the sustainability evaluation of masks. The main contribution is to furnish an effective decision-making reference for sustainability evaluation of masks while greatly reducing the negative impacts of masks on the environment during the epidemic.

7.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103811, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report on the safety and immunogenicity of V591, a measles vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2 trial, healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 disease were assigned to intramuscular injection of V591 or placebo (4:1 ratio). In part 1, younger adults (18-55 years) received V591 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)-levels of 1×105 or 1×106 or placebo, 56 days apart. In part 2, younger and older (>55 years) adults received a single dose of one of four (104/105/106/107) or one of two (105/106) V591 TCID50 levels, respectively, or placebo. PRIMARY OUTCOME: safety/tolerability. Secondary outcome: humoral immunogenicity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04498247. FINDINGS: From August-December 2020, 444 participants were screened and 263 randomised (210 V591; 53 placebo); 262 received at least one and 10 received two doses of V591 or placebo. Adverse events were experienced by 140/209 (67.0%) V591 dose-group participants and 37/53 (69.8%) placebo-group participants following injection 1; most frequent were fatigue (57 [27.3%] vs 20 [37.7%]), headache (57 [27.3%] vs 19 [35.8%]), myalgia (35 [16.7%] vs 10 [18.9%]), and injection-site pain (35 [16.7%] vs 4 [7.5%]). No deaths nor vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. At Day 29, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike serum neutralising antibody and IgG-responses were identified in placebo or the three lower V591 dose-groups; responses were detected with V591 1×107 TCID50, although titres were lower than convalescent serum. INTERPRETATION: V591 was generally well tolerated, but immunogenicity was insufficient to warrant continued development. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Vectors , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Measles virus , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Land ; 10(12):1323, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1592081

ABSTRACT

Urban parks are important urban public spaces that guarantee people recreation, create positive emotions and relieve stress. Emerging research has shown that natural soundscapes are associated with restorative landscapes in urban parks. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the use of physiological indexes to evaluate the effects of natural sounds versus human-based sounds on stress relief. In this study, the three physiological indexes of skin conductance level, heart rate and heart rate variability were collected in Fuzhou West Lake Park with the help of Ergo LAB data platform, and a soundscape perception evaluation questionnaire was used to assess the degree of soundscape perceptions in the sample sites. The differences in the stress relieving effects of different urban park environments were analysed by applying the median test, the Wilcoxon test was applied to analyse the effects of soundscapes and urban park environments on relieving stress, and regression analysis was used to identify the important factors of restorative soundscapes. The results found that urban park environments provide a certain degree of stress relief, but the stress relieving effects of different urban park environments vary and that natural spaces play an important role in relieving stress. Urban park soundscapes are key to restorative environmental design, with natural sounds such as birdsong and stream sound being important factors of restorative soundscapes.

9.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(5): 1248-1261, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897094

ABSTRACT

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections that can be severe and sometimes fatal. The risk for severe RSV infection is highest in infants and older adults. A safe and effective RSV vaccine for older adults represents a serious unmet medical need due to higher morbidity and mortality in this age group. In this randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 dose-escalation study, we evaluated the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of an investigational messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine encoding the RSV fusion protein (F) stabilized in the prefusion conformation. The study was conducted in healthy younger adults (ages ≥18 and ≤49 years) and healthy older adults (ages ≥60 and ≤79 years). Participants received mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo as a single intramuscular dose. For each dose level, three sentinel participants were administered open-label mRNA-1777 (V171). Seventy-two younger adults were randomized and administered 25, 100, or 200 µg mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo, and 107 older adults were randomized and administered 25, 100, 200 or 300 µg mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability and secondary objectives included humoral and cell-mediated immunogenicity. All dose levels of mRNA-1777 (V171) were generally well tolerated and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine were reported. Immunization with mRNA-1777 (V171) elicited a humoral immune response as measured by increases in RSV neutralizing antibody titers, serum antibody titers to RSV prefusion F protein, D25 competing antibody titers to RSV prefusion F protein, and cell-mediated immune responses to RSV-F peptides.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Viral Fusion Proteins
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