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1.
Sustainability ; 14(9):5706, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1842949

ABSTRACT

Due to the seriousness of COVID-19, masks are considered to be as a key and effective device to cut off the spread of viruses and are widely used by people, such as doctors and patients. Hundreds of millions of masks used worldwide in daily life will inevitably cause huge pollution and damage to the environment. However, existing research has not yet provided a method to simultaneously evaluate the economic, environmental, and social aspects of sustainable design of masks, which brings great barriers and challenges for designers to make sustainability decisions on masks and consumers’ behavioral decisions on mask purchases. Consequently, on the basis of principles of sustainability evaluation of masks, this work evaluates ten masks of different materials (including two newly designed masks) by using a novel hybrid of rank-sum ratio and entropy weight method. The results indicate that some disposable masks also show better sustainability than reusable masks, and in addition, the integrated rank-sum ratio and entropy weight method can effectively realize the sustainability evaluation of masks. The main contribution is to furnish an effective decision-making reference for sustainability evaluation of masks while greatly reducing the negative impacts of masks on the environment during the epidemic.

2.
EBioMedicine ; 75: 103811, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1638699

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report on the safety and immunogenicity of V591, a measles vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate. METHODS: In this multicentre, randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 1/2 trial, healthy adults with no history of COVID-19 disease were assigned to intramuscular injection of V591 or placebo (4:1 ratio). In part 1, younger adults (18-55 years) received V591 median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50)-levels of 1×105 or 1×106 or placebo, 56 days apart. In part 2, younger and older (>55 years) adults received a single dose of one of four (104/105/106/107) or one of two (105/106) V591 TCID50 levels, respectively, or placebo. PRIMARY OUTCOME: safety/tolerability. Secondary outcome: humoral immunogenicity. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04498247. FINDINGS: From August-December 2020, 444 participants were screened and 263 randomised (210 V591; 53 placebo); 262 received at least one and 10 received two doses of V591 or placebo. Adverse events were experienced by 140/209 (67.0%) V591 dose-group participants and 37/53 (69.8%) placebo-group participants following injection 1; most frequent were fatigue (57 [27.3%] vs 20 [37.7%]), headache (57 [27.3%] vs 19 [35.8%]), myalgia (35 [16.7%] vs 10 [18.9%]), and injection-site pain (35 [16.7%] vs 4 [7.5%]). No deaths nor vaccine-related serious adverse events occurred. At Day 29, no anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike serum neutralising antibody and IgG-responses were identified in placebo or the three lower V591 dose-groups; responses were detected with V591 1×107 TCID50, although titres were lower than convalescent serum. INTERPRETATION: V591 was generally well tolerated, but immunogenicity was insufficient to warrant continued development. FUNDING: Merck Sharp & Dohme, Corp., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Kenilworth, NJ, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Vectors , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Measles virus , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Double-Blind Method , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
Land ; 10(12):1323, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1592081

ABSTRACT

Urban parks are important urban public spaces that guarantee people recreation, create positive emotions and relieve stress. Emerging research has shown that natural soundscapes are associated with restorative landscapes in urban parks. However, there is still a lack of knowledge on the use of physiological indexes to evaluate the effects of natural sounds versus human-based sounds on stress relief. In this study, the three physiological indexes of skin conductance level, heart rate and heart rate variability were collected in Fuzhou West Lake Park with the help of Ergo LAB data platform, and a soundscape perception evaluation questionnaire was used to assess the degree of soundscape perceptions in the sample sites. The differences in the stress relieving effects of different urban park environments were analysed by applying the median test, the Wilcoxon test was applied to analyse the effects of soundscapes and urban park environments on relieving stress, and regression analysis was used to identify the important factors of restorative soundscapes. The results found that urban park environments provide a certain degree of stress relief, but the stress relieving effects of different urban park environments vary and that natural spaces play an important role in relieving stress. Urban park soundscapes are key to restorative environmental design, with natural sounds such as birdsong and stream sound being important factors of restorative soundscapes.

4.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 17(5): 1248-1261, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-897094

ABSTRACT

Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) causes lower respiratory tract infections that can be severe and sometimes fatal. The risk for severe RSV infection is highest in infants and older adults. A safe and effective RSV vaccine for older adults represents a serious unmet medical need due to higher morbidity and mortality in this age group. In this randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 1 dose-escalation study, we evaluated the safety, tolerability and immunogenicity of an investigational messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccine encoding the RSV fusion protein (F) stabilized in the prefusion conformation. The study was conducted in healthy younger adults (ages ≥18 and ≤49 years) and healthy older adults (ages ≥60 and ≤79 years). Participants received mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo as a single intramuscular dose. For each dose level, three sentinel participants were administered open-label mRNA-1777 (V171). Seventy-two younger adults were randomized and administered 25, 100, or 200 µg mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo, and 107 older adults were randomized and administered 25, 100, 200 or 300 µg mRNA-1777 (V171) or placebo. Primary objectives were safety and tolerability and secondary objectives included humoral and cell-mediated immunogenicity. All dose levels of mRNA-1777 (V171) were generally well tolerated and no serious adverse events related to the vaccine were reported. Immunization with mRNA-1777 (V171) elicited a humoral immune response as measured by increases in RSV neutralizing antibody titers, serum antibody titers to RSV prefusion F protein, D25 competing antibody titers to RSV prefusion F protein, and cell-mediated immune responses to RSV-F peptides.


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Viral Fusion Proteins
5.
SciFinder; 2020.
Preprint | SciFinder | ID: ppcovidwho-4450

ABSTRACT

A review. The objective of this study is to analyze the prescriptions of prevention and treatment of Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia promulgated by National Chinese Medicine Masters,in order to interpret the thought of syndrome differentiation and the law of using drugs. Methods: Search prescriptions of NCP prevention and treatment promulgated by National Medicine Masters, during Jan. 1, 2020 to Feb. 12, 2020. Results: A total of 9 national medical masters released 22 prescriptions. Zhou zhongying, Sun Guangrong,Tang Zuxuan,Li Diangui,Jin Shiyuan,Wang Qi,Xiong Jibai,Liu Zuyi promulgated 9 prevention prescriptions, including 32 herbs. The prescriptions are mainly for replenish qi, removing dampness, clearing heat and removing toxicity,supplemented by replenishing yin and clearing heat, dispersing wind and relieving exterior syndrome surface, dispersing lung and dissipating phlegm. Tang Zuxuan,Yang Chunbo,Sun Guangrong and Li Diangui promulgated 10 treating prescriptions, including 61 herbs. The prescriptions are based on the basic principle of "removing dampness, clearing heat and removing toxicity". Professor Tang treated the dampness pathogen with cold, heat and toxin according to their types;Professor Yang treated according to the transformation of dampness in the body;Professor Li specialized in "dampness, heat and toxin";Professor Sun specialized in" dispelling wind and clearing away heat".Li Diangui,Zhou Zhongying and Wang Qi promulgated 3 prescriptions of perfume bags,including 14 herbs. Every prescription uses Agastache to remove dampness by means of aromatics Conclusion: Many masters of Chinese Medicine actively participate in the prevention and treatment of NCP,their understanding of the etiol. and pathogenesis of the disease was basically the same.No matter the treatment or prevention prescriptions, they are mainly used to replenish qi, remove dampness, clearing heat and removing toxicity. According to the statistics of drug frequency, the most commonly used drugs are astragalus, agastache and honeysuckle. However, the prevention medicine and the specific treatment are different. It is worth learning and using for reference the dialectical thinking and the characteristics of medication of National Chinese Medicine Masters.

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