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PLoS One ; 16(7): e0255229, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1327982


This study is to assess the influences of climate, socio-economic determinants, and spatial distance on the confirmed cases and deaths in the raise phase of COVID-19 in China. The positive confirmed cases and deaths of COVID-19 over the population size of 100,000 over every 5 consecutive days (the CCOPSPTT and DOPSPTT for short, respectively) covered from 25th January to 29th February, 2020 in five city types (i.e., small-, medium-, large-, very large- and super large-sized cities), along with the data of climate, socio-economic determinants, spatial distance of the target city to Wuhan city (DW, for short), and spatial distance between the target city and their local province capital city (DLPC, for short) were collected from the official websites of China. Then the above-mentioned influencing factors on CCOPSPTT and DOPSPTT were analyzed separately in Hubei and other provinces. The results showed that CCOPSPTT and DOPSPTT were significantly different among five city types outside Hubei province (p < 0.05), but not obviously different in Hubei province (p > 0.05). The CCOPSPTT had significant correlation with socio-economic determinants (GDP and population), DW, climate and time after the outbreak of COVID-19 outside Hubei province (p < 0.05), while was only significantly related with GDP in Hubei province (p < 0.05). The DOPSPTT showed significant correlation with socio-economic determinants, DW, time and CCOPSPTT outside Hubei province (p < 0.05), while was significantly correlated with GDP and CCOPSPTT in Hubei province (p < 0.05). Compared with other factors, socio-economic determinants have the largest relative contribution to variance of CCOPSPTT in all studied cities (> 78%). The difference of DOPSPTT among cities was mainly affected by CCOPSPTT. Our results showed that influences of city types on the confirmed cases and death differed between Hubei and other provinces. Socio-economic determinants, especially GDP, have higher impact on the change of COVID-19 transmission compared with other factors.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Climate , Socioeconomic Factors , COVID-19/mortality , China/epidemiology , Cities/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Spatial Analysis
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(2)2021 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1016178


The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the relationship between meteorological factors (i.e., daily maximum temperature, minimum temperature, average temperature, temperature range, relative humidity, average wind speed and total precipitation) and COVID-19 transmission is affected by season and geographical location during the period of community-based pandemic prevention and control. COVID-19 infected case records and meteorological data in four cities (Wuhan, Beijing, Urumqi and Dalian) in China were collected. Then, the best-fitting model of COVID-19 infected cases was selected from four statistic models (Gaussian, logistic, lognormal distribution and allometric models), and the relationship between meteorological factors and COVID-19 infected cases was analyzed using multiple stepwise regression and Pearson correlation. The results showed that the lognormal distribution model was well adapted to describing the change of COVID-19 infected cases compared with other models (R2 > 0.78; p-values < 0.001). Under the condition of implementing community-based pandemic prevention and control, relationship between COVID-19 infected cases and meteorological factors differed among the four cities. Temperature and relative humidity were mainly the driving factors on COVID-19 transmission, but their relations obviously varied with season and geographical location. In summer, the increase in relative humidity and the decrease in maximum temperature facilitate COVID-19 transmission in arid inland cities, while at this point the decrease in relative humidity is good for the spread of COVID-19 in coastal cities. For the humid cities, the reduction of relative humidity and the lowest temperature in the winter promote COVID-19 transmission.

COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Meteorological Concepts , Seasons , Beijing , China/epidemiology , Cities , Humans , Humidity , Temperature , Wind