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Curr Oncol ; 28(5): 3705-3716, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438539


Despite a global and nationwide decrease, Native Americans continue to experience high rates of cancer morbidity and mortality. Vaccination is one approach to decrease cancer incidence such as the case of cervical cancer. However, the availability of vaccines does not guarantee uptake, as evident in the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic. Therefore, as we consider current and future cancer vaccines, there are certain considerations to be mindful of to increase uptake among Native Americans such as the incidence of disease, social determinants of health, vaccine hesitancy, and historical exclusion in clinical trials. This paper primarily focuses on human papillomavirus (HPV) and potential vaccines for Native Americans. However, we also aim to inform researchers on factors that influence Native American choices surrounding vaccination and interventions including cancer therapies. We begin by providing an overview of the historical distrust and trauma Native Americans experience, both past and present. In addition, we offer guidance and considerations when engaging with sovereign Tribal Nations in vaccine development and clinical trials in order to increase trust and encourage vaccine uptake.

Cancer Vaccines , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(6): e1009056, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282290


In October of 2020, in response to the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, our team hosted our first fully online workshop teaching the QIIME 2 microbiome bioinformatics platform. We had 75 enrolled participants who joined from at least 25 different countries on 6 continents, and we had 22 instructors on 4 continents. In the 5-day workshop, participants worked hands-on with a cloud-based shared compute cluster that we deployed for this course. The event was well received, and participants provided feedback and suggestions in a postworkshop questionnaire. In January of 2021, we followed this workshop with a second fully online workshop, incorporating lessons from the first. Here, we present details on the technology and protocols that we used to run these workshops, focusing on the first workshop and then introducing changes made for the second workshop. We discuss what worked well, what didn't work well, and what we plan to do differently in future workshops.

COVID-19 , Computational Biology , Microbiota , Computational Biology/education , Computational Biology/organization & administration , Feedback , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
mBio ; 11(5)2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-744826


In December of 2019, a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, emerged in the city of Wuhan, China, causing severe morbidity and mortality. Since then, the virus has swept across the globe, causing millions of confirmed infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths. To better understand the nature of the pandemic and the introduction and spread of the virus in Arizona, we sequenced viral genomes from clinical samples tested at the TGen North Clinical Laboratory, the Arizona Department of Health Services, and those collected as part of community surveillance projects at Arizona State University and the University of Arizona. Phylogenetic analysis of 84 genomes from across Arizona revealed a minimum of 11 distinct introductions inferred to have occurred during February and March. We show that >80% of our sequences descend from strains that were initially circulating widely in Europe but have since dominated the outbreak in the United States. In addition, we show that the first reported case of community transmission in Arizona descended from the Washington state outbreak that was discovered in late February. Notably, none of the observed transmission clusters are epidemiologically linked to the original travel-related case in the state, suggesting successful early isolation and quarantine. Finally, we use molecular clock analyses to demonstrate a lack of identifiable, widespread cryptic transmission in Arizona prior to the middle of February 2020.IMPORTANCE As the COVID-19 pandemic swept across the United States, there was great differential impact on local and regional communities. One of the earliest and hardest hit regions was in New York, while at the same time Arizona (for example) had low incidence. That situation has changed dramatically, with Arizona now having the highest rate of disease increase in the country. Understanding the roots of the pandemic during the initial months is essential as the pandemic continues and reaches new heights. Genomic analysis and phylogenetic modeling of SARS-COV-2 in Arizona can help to reconstruct population composition and predict the earliest undetected introductions. This foundational work represents the basis for future analysis and understanding as the pandemic continues.

Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Arizona/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/classification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genome, Viral/genetics , Humans , Incidence , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/genetics