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Nutrients ; 14(8)2022 Apr 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785849


The coronavirus pandemic has acted as a reset on global economies, providing us with the opportunity to build back greener and ensure global warming does not surpass 1.5 °C. It is time for developed nations to commit to red meat reduction targets and shift to plant-based dietary patterns. Transitioning to plant-based diets (PBDs) has the potential to reduce diet-related land use by 76%, diet-related greenhouse gas emissions by 49%, eutrophication by 49%, and green and blue water use by 21% and 14%, respectively, whilst garnering substantial health co-benefits. An extensive body of data from prospective cohort studies and controlled trials supports the implementation of PBDs for obesity and chronic disease prevention. The consumption of diets high in fruits, vegetables, legumes, whole grains, nuts, fish, and unsaturated vegetable oils, and low in animal products, refined grains, and added sugars are associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality. Meat appreciation, health concerns, convenience, and expense are prominent barriers to PBDs. Strategic policy action is required to overcome these barriers and promote the implementation of healthy and sustainable PBDs.

Diet , Vegetables , Animals , Fruit , Humans , Prospective Studies , Whole Grains
Sleep Med Rev ; 55: 101382, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752844


The aims of the study were to review the rapidly emerging COVID-19 literature to determine 1) the relationship between obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and adverse COVID-19 outcomes and, 2) potential causal mechanisms 3) what effect COVID-19 has had on OSA diagnosis and 4) what effect COVID-19 has had on treatment and management of OSA during this period. PubMed was systematically searched up to 020620. Studies were included if they had examined the relationship between COVID-19 and OSA. Studies were included that were in English and had the full text available. The findings from this study suggest that many of the risk factors and co-morbidities associated for OSA which include obesity, hypertension and diabetes mellitus are associated with poor COVID-19 outcomes. There are plausible mechanisms by which OSA may independently increase one's risk of morbidity and mortality associated with COVID-19 and data from the newly published CORONADO study suggests that OSA treated patients may be at increased risk of death from COVID-19. It is clear that the pandemic has had a major effect on the treatment management and diagnosis of OSA and moving forward it may be necessary to explore new diagnosis and treatment pathways for these individuals.

COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/epidemiology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/therapy , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure , Diabetes Mellitus , Humans , Hypertension , Melatonin , Obesity , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/mortality
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 30(8): 1227-1235, 2020 07 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437313


The presence of cardiovascular co-morbidities and the known effects of coronaviruses on the cardiovascular system have called attention to the potential implications for patients with cardiovascular risk factors. This evidence-based viewpoint will address two questions: (a) are individuals with underlying cardiovascular risk factors (e.g. high blood pressure or diabetes) or overt disease (e.g. coronary heart disease, heart failure, kidney disease) more likely to develop severe Covid-19 and to die than those without underlying conditions? (b) does the regular use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-i) or angiotensin-receptor blockers (ARB) make patients more likely to get infected and to die of Covid-19? With a necessary cautionary note that the evidence around the links between Covid-19 and cardiovascular disease is accruing at a fast pace, to date we can conclude that: (a) the greater susceptibility of individuals with underlying cardiovascular conditions to develop more severe Covid-19 with higher mortality rate is likely to be confounded, in part, by age and the type of co-morbidities. Patients with heart failure or chronic kidney disease might show an excess risk; (b) neither ACE-i nor ARB are associated with greater risk of SARS-Cov2 infection, or severity or risk of death in patients with Covid-19. Patients on these drugs should not stop them, unless under strict medical supervision and with the addition of a suitable replacement medicine.

Betacoronavirus , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Coronavirus Infections/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Prognosis , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , SARS-CoV-2