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1.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 295-299, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595734

ABSTRACT

Thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is mandatory, unless contraindicated. Given the links between inflammation and thrombosis, the use of higher doses of anticoagulants could improve outcomes. We conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial in adult patients hospitalized with nonsevere COVID-19 pneumonia and elevated D-dimer. Patients were randomized to therapeutic-dose bemiparin (115 IU/kg daily) versus standard prophylaxis (bemiparin 3,500 IU daily), for 10 days. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, intensive care unit admission, need of mechanical ventilation support, development of moderate/severe acute respiratory distress, and venous or arterial thrombosis within 10 days of enrollment. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding (International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria). A prespecified interim analysis was performed when 40% of the planned study population was reached. From October 2020 to May 2021, 70 patients were randomized at 5 sites and 65 were included in the primary analysis; 32 patients allocated to therapeutic dose and 33 to standard prophylactic dose. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 7 patients (22%) in the therapeutic-dose group and 6 patients (18%) in the prophylactic-dose (absolute risk difference 3.6% [95% confidence interval [CI], -16% -24%]; odds ratio 1.26 [95% CI, 0.37-4.26]; p = 0.95). Discharge in the first 10 days was possible in 66 and 79% of patients, respectively. No major bleeding event was registered. Therefore, in patients with COVID-19 hospitalized with nonsevere pneumonia but elevated D-dimer, the use of a short course of therapeutic-dose bemiparin does not appear to improve clinical outcomes compared with standard prophylactic doses. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04604327.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580639

ABSTRACT

Detection of SARS-CoV-2 is routinely performed in naso/oropharyngeal swabs samples from patients via RT-qPCR. The RT-LAMP technology has also been used for viral RNA detection in respiratory specimens with both high sensitivity and specificity. Recently, we developed a novel RT-LAMP test for SARS-CoV-2 RNA detection in nasopharyngeal swab specimens (named, N15-RT-LAMP) that can be performed as a single-tube colorimetric method, in a real-time platform, and as dry-LAMP. To date, there has been very little success in detecting SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine by RT-qPCR, and the information regarding urine viral excretion is still scarce and not comprehensive. Here, we tested our N15-RT-LAMP on the urine of 300 patients admitted to the Hospital of Salamanca, Spain with clinical suspicion of COVID-19, who had a nasopharyngeal swab RT-qPCR-positive (n = 100), negative (n = 100), and positive with disease recovery (n = 100) result. The positive group was also tested by RT-qPCR for comparison to N15-RT-LAMP. Only a 4% positivity rate was found in the positive group via colorimetric N15-RT-LAMP and 2% via RT-qPCR. Our results are consistent with those obtained in other studies that the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine is a very rare finding. The absence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in urine in the recovered patients might suggest that the urinary route is very rarely used for viral particle clearance.

3.
J Clin Med ; 11(1)2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580634

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The evidence for the efficacy of glucocorticoids combined with tocilizumab (TCZ) in COVID-19 comes from observational studies or subgroup analysis. Our aim was to compare outcomes between hospitalized COVID-19 patients who received high-dose corticosteroid pulse therapy and TCZ and those who received TCZ. METHODS: A retrospective single-center study was performed on consecutive hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 between 1 March and 23 April 2020. Patients treated with either TCZ (400-600 mg, one to two doses) and methylprednisolone pulses (MPD-TCZ group) or TCZ alone were analyzed for the occurrence of a combined endpoint of death and need for invasive mechanical ventilation during admission. The independence of both treatment groups was tested using machine learning classifiers, and relevant variables that were potentially different between the groups were measured through a mean decrease accuracy algorithm. RESULTS: An earlier date of admission was significantly associated with worse outcomes regardless of treatment type. Twenty patients died (27.0%) in the TCZ group, and 33 (44.6%) died or required intubation (n = 74), whereas in the MPD-TCZ group, 15 (11.0%) patients died and 29 (21.3%) patients reached the combined endpoint (n = 136; p = 0.006 and p < 0.001, respectively). Machine learning methodology using a random forest classifier confirmed significant differences between the treatment groups. CONCLUSIONS: MPD and TCZ improved outcomes (death and invasive mechanical ventilation) among hospitalized COVID-19 patients, but confounding variables such as the date of admission during the COVID-19 pandemic should be considered in observational studies.

4.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455355

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of dexamethasone in patients infected with Strongyloides stercoralis can cause severe complications. It is necessary to investigate the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and strongyloidiasis infection. METHODS: A retrospective, longitudinal, descriptive study was undertaken to review all patients admitted with a diagnosis of COVID-19 infection at the Complejo Asistencial Universitario de Salamanca, Spain, during 1 March-31 December 2020. RESULTS: A total of 2567 patients received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Eighty-six patients from endemic areas were included. Seven patients had strongyloidiasis. Five patients were female. The mean age (±SD) was 39 (±10.8) y. Six patients were Latin-American and only one patient was from Africa. Six patients had previous symptoms compatible with strongyloidiasis infections. Only three patients received dexamethasone (6 mg once daily) for 10 d. In all cases, the clinical courses of the patients were satisfactory. No patient died or was admitted to the ICU. CONCLUSIONS: Screening programmes using serological techniques should be implemented in COVID-19 patients to prevent strongyloidiasis. Our study suggested that drugs used against COVID-19 in patients with strongyloidiasis did not affect the evolution of the disease. However, more studies are necessary to elucidate the role of dexamethasone in COVID-19 patients infected with Strongyloides.

5.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 140(1): 123-133, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1362119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intensity of the thromboprophylaxis needed as a potential factor for preventing inpatient mortality due to coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To explore the association between anticoagulation intensity and COVID-19 survival. DESIGN AND SETTING: Retrospective observational study in a tertiary-level hospital in Spain. METHODS: Low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) status was ascertained based on prescription at admission. To control for immortal time bias, anticoagulant use was analyzed as a time-dependent variable. RESULTS: 690 patients were included (median age, 72 years). LMWH was administered to 615 patients, starting from hospital admission (89.1%). 410 (66.7%) received prophylactic-dose LMWH; 120 (19.5%), therapeutic-dose LMWH; and another 85 (13.8%) who presented respiratory failure, high D-dimer levels (> 3 mg/l) and non-worsening of inflammation markers received prophylaxis of intermediate-dose LMWH. The overall inpatient-mortality rate was 38.5%. The anticoagulant nonuser group presented higher mortality risk than each of the following groups: any LMWH users (HR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.40-3.15); the prophylactic-dose heparin group (HR 2.39; 95% CI, 1.57-3.64); and the users of heparin dose according to biomarkers (HR 6.52; 95% CI, 2.95-14.41). 3.4% of the patients experienced major hemorrhage. 2.8% of the patients developed an episode of thromboembolism. CONCLUSIONS: This observational study showed that LMWH administered at the time of admission was associated with lower mortality among unselected adult COVID-19 inpatients. The magnitude of the benefit may have been greatest for the intermediate-dose subgroup. Randomized controlled trials to assess the benefit of heparin within different therapeutic regimes for COVID-19 patients are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Venous Thromboembolism , Adult , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0240200, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1197366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficient and early triage of hospitalized Covid-19 patients to detect those with higher risk of severe disease is essential for appropriate case management. METHODS: We trained, validated, and externally tested a machine-learning model to early identify patients who will die or require mechanical ventilation during hospitalization from clinical and laboratory features obtained at admission. A development cohort with 918 Covid-19 patients was used for training and internal validation, and 352 patients from another hospital were used for external testing. Performance of the model was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver-operating-characteristic curve (AUC), sensitivity and specificity. RESULTS: A total of 363 of 918 (39.5%) and 128 of 352 (36.4%) Covid-19 patients from the development and external testing cohort, respectively, required mechanical ventilation or died during hospitalization. In the development cohort, the model obtained an AUC of 0.85 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.82 to 0.87) for predicting severity of disease progression. Variables ranked according to their contribution to the model were the peripheral blood oxygen saturation (SpO2)/fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) ratio, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate, procalcitonin, C-reactive protein, updated Charlson comorbidity index and lymphocytes. In the external testing cohort, the model performed an AUC of 0.83 (95% CI, 0.81 to 0.85). This model is deployed in an open source calculator, in which Covid-19 patients at admission are individually stratified as being at high or non-high risk for severe disease progression. CONCLUSIONS: This machine-learning model, applied at hospital admission, predicts risk of severe disease progression in Covid-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/classification , Machine Learning , Adult , Aged , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Cohort Studies , Female , Forecasting , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Statistical , ROC Curve , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Triage/methods
8.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 7(5)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638814

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To report outcomes on patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and related disorders with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) illness. METHODS: From March 16 to April 30, 2020, patients with MS or related disorders at NYU Langone MS Comprehensive Care Center were identified with laboratory-confirmed or suspected COVID-19. The diagnosis was established using a standardized questionnaire or by review of in-patient hospital records. RESULTS: We identified 76 patients (55 with relapsing MS, of which 9 had pediatric onset; 17 with progressive MS; and 4 with related disorders). Thirty-seven underwent PCR testing and were confirmed positive. Of the entire group, 64 (84%) patients were on disease-modifying therapy (DMT) including anti-CD20 therapies (n = 34, 44.7%) and sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulators (n = 10, 13.5%). The most common COVID-19 symptoms were fever and cough, but 21.1% of patients had neurologic symptom recrudescence preceding or coinciding with the infection. A total of 18 (23.7%) were hospitalized; 8 (10.5%) had COVID-19 critical illness or related death. Features more common among those hospitalized or with critical illness or death were older age, presence of comorbidities, progressive disease, and a nonambulatory status. No DMT class was associated with an increased risk of hospitalization or fatal outcome. CONCLUSIONS: Most patients with MS with COVID-19 do not require hospitalization despite being on DMTs. Factors associated with critical illness were similar to the general at-risk patient population. DMT use did not emerge as a predictor of poor COVID-19 outcome in this preliminary sample.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Young Adult
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