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1.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2167110

ABSTRACT

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a newly identified clinical entity still not very well known in terms of epidemiology, pathogenesis, and long-term outcome. Pulmonary involvement with acute respiratory failure is an unusual life-threatening complication of MIS-C, often a reason for admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and the use of mechanical ventilation. We present a case of a 7-year-old male patient, previously healthy, hospitalized for MIS-C, treated with intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), high dose methylprednisolone, and anakinra. After 2 days of the aforementioned therapy, the patient presented with hypoxia (SatO2: 85% in ambient air room) and breathing difficulties. A chest computed tomography (CT) scan showed the presence of multiple bilateral basal parenchymal thickening and small basal pleural effusion and an arterial blood gas analysis revealed severe hypoxia (PaO2/FiO2 ratio, 170 mmHg). Because of a worsening of respiratory distress, the patient was transferred to the PICU, where invasive mechanical ventilation and a continuous infusion of anakinra (12 mg/kg/day) were started. An echocardiogram was performed, which showed an increase in pulmonary pressure (40 mmHg) with normal heart ejection fraction (55%), and the hypothesis of pulmonary vasculitis involving the pulmonary arterioles was made. Therefore, therapy with sildenafil (0.15 mg/kg/day) was promptly set up, with an immediate improvement of the clinical picture of respiratory failure, reduction of pulmonary pressure (23 mmHg), and subsequent extubation at 36 h with a regular clinical course until discharge. As far as we know, our case represents the first report of pulmonary vasculitis in an MIS-C patient. The use of sildenafil and high-dose continuous anakinra may represent a rescue therapy in cases of MIS-C with pulmonary vasculitis or with difficulty in extubation, allowing a short-term hospitalization in intensive care and improving the long-term outcome in these patients.

2.
Arch Dis Child ; 2022 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bronchiolitis is the leading acute respiratory tract infection in infants during the winter season. Since the beginning of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a reduction in the number of bronchiolitis diagnoses has been registered. OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to describe the incidence and clinical features of bronchiolitis during the 2020-2021 winter season in a large cohort of children in Europe and Israel, and to clarify the role of SARS-CoV-2. SETTING, PATIENTS, INTERVENTIONS: We conducted a multicentre observational cross-sectional study in 23 paediatric emergency departments in Europe and Israel. Clinical and demographic data about all the cases of infants diagnosed with bronchiolitis from 1 October 2020 to 30 April 2021 were collected. For each enrolled patient, diagnostic tests, treatments and outcomes were reported. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome was the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2-positive bronchiolitis. RESULTS: Three hundred and fourteen infants received a diagnosis of bronchiolitis during the study period. Among 535 infants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2, 16 (3%) had bronchiolitis. Median age, male sex predominance, weight, history of prematurity and presence of comorbidities did not differ between the SARS-CoV-2-positive and SARS-CoV-2-negative groups. Rhinovirus was the most common involved pathogen, while respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) was detected in one case. SARS-CoV-2 bronchiolitis had a mild clinical course, with one patient receiving oxygen supplementation and none requiring paediatric or neonatal intensive care unit admission. CONCLUSIONS: During the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, a marked decrease in the number of bronchiolitis diagnoses and the disappearance of the RSV winter epidemic were observed. SARS-CoV-2-related bronchiolitis was rare and mostly displayed a mild clinical course.

3.
Children (Basel) ; 9(6)2022 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1884024

ABSTRACT

Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is the most common cause of hospitalization in young children. In the last 2 years, public health measures aimed at controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 have affected the epidemiology and seasonality of RSV worldwide. The aim of this descriptive retrospective observational study was to describe the characteristics of children hospitalized with RSV in an academic tertiary care hospital in Southern Italy in 2021. We also investigate the seasonal trends of RSV from 2017 to 2021. The demographic characteristics, comorbidities, clinical data, and coinfections were retrospectively evaluated. Compared with previous seasons, the 2021 outbreak of RSV was characterized by an increased number of patients, with a delayed peak observed in November. Overall, 179 children, including 128 (71.5%) aged <12 months, were hospitalized for RSV infection between August and December 2021. Ten children (5.6%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), all aged <5 months. One patient (0.5%) aged <1 month with severe comorbidities died. The severity of symptoms was significantly associated with younger age, underlying chronic disease, and the length of hospital stay (p < 0.05 each). History of prematurity was not significantly associated with the presence of coinfections. Because of the high burden of RSV infection and the expected larger RSV epidemics resulting from a greater number of RSV-naïve children, systematic epidemiological and virological surveillance is needed. Appropriate pathways for access to RSV prevention in all infants should also be introduced.

4.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 76, 2022 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1846857

ABSTRACT

BNT162b2 vaccine, developed by BioNTech and Pfizer ha recently approved for use in children aged 5 to 11 years. Recent data show evidence of safety on the administration and serious adverse events have been rarely reported. However, allergic systemic reactions could occur. In some cases, a correct allergic evaluation allows identifying patients at risk of developing an anaphylactic reaction. Risk assessment of allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines is useful to limit contraindications to vaccination and help to safely vaccinate people supposed to be at risk of allergic reactions.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , Asthma , COVID-19 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Child , Consensus , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Ital J Pediatr ; 48(1): 42, 2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1736431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Two sequelae of pediatric COVID-19 have been identified, the multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and the long COVID. Long COVID is much less precisely defined and includes all the persistent or new clinical manifestations evidenced in subjects previously infected by SARS-CoV-2 beyond the period of the acute infection and that cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. In this Intersociety Consensus, present knowledge on pediatric long COVID as well as how to identify and manage children with long COVID are discussed. MAIN FINDINGS: Although the true prevalence of long COVID in pediatrics is not exactly determined, it seems appropriate to recommend evaluating the presence of symptoms suggestive of long COVID near the end of the acute phase of the disease, between 4 and 12 weeks from this. Long COVID in children and adolescents should be suspected in presence of persistent headache and fatigue, sleep disturbance, difficulty in concentrating, abdominal pain, myalgia or arthralgia. Persistent chest pain, stomach pain, diarrhea, heart palpitations, and skin lesions should be considered as possible symptoms of long COVID. It is recommended that the primary care pediatrician visits all subjects with a suspected or a proven diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection after 4 weeks to check for the presence of symptoms of previously unknown disease. In any case, a further check-up by the primary care pediatrician should be scheduled 3 months after the diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection to confirm normality or to address emerging problems. The subjects who present symptoms of any organic problem must undergo a thorough evaluation of the same, with a possible request for clinical, laboratory and / or radiological in-depth analysis in case of need. Children and adolescents with clear symptoms of mental stress will need to be followed up by existing local services for problems of this type. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric long COVID is a relevant problem that involve a considerable proportion of children and adolescents. Prognosis of these cases is generally good as in most of them symptoms disappear spontaneously. The few children with significant medical problems should be early identified after the acute phase of the infection and adequately managed to assure complete resolution. A relevant psychological support for all the children during COVID-19 pandemic must be organized by health authorities and government that have to treat this as a public health issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Consensus , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/therapy
6.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 58(2)2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704407

ABSTRACT

The constant battle between viruses and their hosts leads to their reciprocal evolution. Viruses regularly develop survival strategies against host immunity, while their ability to replicate and disseminate is countered by the antiviral defense mechanisms that host mount. Although most viral infections are generally controlled by the host's immune system, some viruses do cause overt damage to the host. The outcome can vary widely depending on the properties of the infecting virus and the circumstances of infection but also depends on several factors controlled by the host, including host genetic susceptibility to viral infections. In this narrative review, we provide a brief overview of host immunity to viruses and immune-evasion strategies developed by viruses. Moreover, we focus on inborn errors of immunity, these being considered a model for studying host response mechanisms to viruses. We finally report exemplary inborn errors of both the innate and adaptive immune systems that highlight the role of proteins involved in the control of viral infections.


Subject(s)
Virus Diseases , Viruses , Humans , Immune Evasion , Immunity, Innate , Virus Replication , Viruses/genetics
7.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S7): e2021529, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543090

ABSTRACT

In recent years there has been an important implementation in the medical field of both Mobile Health, such as the use of mobile communication devices, and of other telemedicine tools in general, with the aim of supporting the supervision of diseases from the moment of the first diagnosis to the therapeutic follow-up. In fact, Digital Health can also have a very positive impact on the management of allergic patients, who are known to have the greatest need for regular monitoring, simplifying contact between doctor and patient, but there is still a need to improve implementation regulations, define certification programs and adequate reimbursement systems, as well as to guarantee a high level of attention to the protection of sensitive data. The hope is that one positive outcome of the Covid-19 pandemic will be an acceleration, by all stakeholders involved, of the process of the modernization of health care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Telemedicine , Humans , Hypersensitivity/diagnosis , Hypersensitivity/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S7): e2021522, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543089

ABSTRACT

The first cases of as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported in Wuhan, China in December 2019. The World Health Organization declared the global pandemic in March 2020. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) showed high rates of mortality in the adult population, whereas a mild course was observed in childhood. Allergic diseases, characterized by a type-2 polarization of the immune system, were considered one of the major risk factor of severe COVID-19. Large amounts of clinical data and expert opinions have been collected since the pandemic outbreak. This review summarizes the latest insights on COVID-19 and allergy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hypersensitivity , Adult , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Hypersensitivity/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S7): e2021524, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543088

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection has a severe course in a small percentage of children. Remdesivir has shown promising results in reducing hospitalisation time in adults, but data on mortality rate are conflicting and few studies are available on its use use in antivirals in children. We performed a quick narrative review of the available literature data regarding the usage of remdesivir in children and neonates. In children, remdesivir showed good safety profile, however bradicardia events have been reported in children. Remdesivir is currently recommended by several guidelines in some subgroups of children with severe COVID-19, and should also be considered in critically ill patients, always in the context of the overall clinical picture and drug availability.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Acta Biomed ; 92(S7): e2021519, 2021 11 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1543087

ABSTRACT

Hypersensitivity reactions to polyethylene glycol (PEG) is an emerging challenge and the interest about this disease is growing since PEG is considered one of the possible causes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) vaccine-associated anaphylaxis. PEG is used in a wide variety of pharmaceutical, medical, industrial, cosmetic, and food products and can be an active ingredient or used as an excipient. PEG is present in several medications, and it may or may not be present in different formulations and dosages of the same drug. Lack of standardization nomenclature, inadequate labelling of products and lack of knowledge about PEG involvement in hypersensitivity reactions expose patients at risk of presenting multiple reactions before a diagnosis could be made. In this review we describe the main cases published in literature and propose an allergy work-up and management.


Subject(s)
Anaphylaxis , COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , Child , Humans , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Euro Surveill ; 26(14)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1175519

ABSTRACT

BackgroundVery few studies describe factors associated with COVID-19 diagnosis in children.AimWe here describe characteristics and risk factors for COVID-19 diagnosis in children tested in 20 paediatric centres across Italy.MethodsWe included cases aged 0-18 years tested between 23 February and 24 May 2020. Our primary analysis focused on children tested because of symptoms/signs suggestive of COVID-19.ResultsAmong 2,494 children tested, 2,148 (86.1%) had symptoms suggestive of COVID-19. Clinical presentation of confirmed COVID-19 cases included besides fever (82.4%) and respiratory signs or symptoms (60.4%) also gastrointestinal (18.2%), neurological (18.9%), cutaneous (3.8%) and other unspecific influenza-like presentations (17.8%). In multivariate analysis, factors significantly associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity were: exposure history (adjusted odds ratio (AOR): 39.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 17.52-90.55; p < 0.0001), cardiac disease (AOR: 3.10; 95% CI: 1.19-5.02; p < 0.0001), fever (AOR: 3.05%; 95% CI: 1.67-5.58; p = 0.0003) and anosmia/ageusia (AOR: 4.08; 95% CI: 1.69-9.84; p = 0.002). Among 190 (7.6%) children positive for SARS-CoV-2, only four (2.1%) required respiratory support and two (1.1%) were admitted to intensive care; all recovered.ConclusionRecommendations for SARS-CoV-2 testing in children should consider the evidence of broader clinical features. Exposure history, fever and anosmia/ageusia are strong risk factors in children for positive SARS-CoV-2 testing, while other symptoms did not help discriminate positive from negative individuals. This study confirms that COVID-19 was a mild disease in the general paediatric population in Italy. Further studies are needed to understand risk, clinical spectrum and outcomes of COVID-19 in children with pre-existing conditions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Risk Factors
12.
Ital J Pediatr ; 47(1): 16, 2021 Jan 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1045011

ABSTRACT

Aim of these revised recommendations for the general management of Kawasaki disease is to encourage its prompter recognition and warrant the most appropriate therapy, based on ascertained scientific data, raising awareness of the complications related to misdiagnosis or delayed treatment. A set of 20 synthetic operative statements is herein provided, including the definition of Kawasaki disease, its protean presentations, clinical course and seminal treatment modalities of all disease phases. The application of these recommendations should improve prognosis of Kawasaki disease and prevent the progression to permanent vascular abnormalities, thereby diminishing morbidity and mortality.


Subject(s)
Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/diagnosis , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Child , Diagnosis, Differential , Disease Progression , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Italy , Prognosis
13.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31 Suppl 26: 75-78, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006222

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a complex new viral disease, in which a strict balance between anti-viral immune response and the ensuing organ inflammation has a critical role in determining the clinical course. In adults, compelling evidence exists indicating that an uncontrolled inflammatory response ("cytokine storm") is pivotal in determining disease progression and mortality. Children may rarely present with severe disease. Modulating factors related to the host's genetic factors, age-related susceptibility, and the capability to mount appropriate immune responses might play a role in control virus load at an early stage and regulating the inflammatory reaction. Elucidating these mechanisms seems crucial in developing target therapies according to patient's age, immunologic status, and disease evolution in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome , Humans , Pneumonia/complications
14.
Acta Biomed ; 91(11-S): e2020003, 2020 09 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809555

ABSTRACT

n December 2019, in Wuhan (Hubei, China), the first COVID-19 cases due to SARS-COV-2 had been reported. On July 1st 2020, more than 10.268.839 million people had developed the disease, with at least 506.064 deaths. At present, Italy is the third country considering the number of cases (n=240.760), after Spain, and the second for the cumulative number of deaths (n=249.271), after the United States. As regard pediatric COVID-19 cases, more than 4000 cases (have been reported; however, these figures are likely to be underestimated since they are influenced by the number of diagnostic tests carried out. Three pediatric deaths have been reported in Italy to date. We aimed to review the peculiar aspects of SARS-COV-2 infection in the pediatric population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Risk Assessment/methods , COVID-19 , Child , Global Health , Humans , Morbidity/trends , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Ital J Pediatr ; 46(1): 84, 2020 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-599459

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has surprised the entire population. The world has had to face an unprecedented pandemic. Only, Spanish flu had similar disastrous consequences. As a result, drastic measures (lockdown) have been adopted worldwide. Healthcare service has been overwhelmed by the extraordinary influx of patients, often requiring high intensity of care. Mortality has been associated with severe comorbidities, including chronic diseases. Patients with frailty were, therefore, the victim of the SARS-COV-2 infection. Allergy and asthma are the most prevalent chronic disorders in children and adolescents, so they need careful attention and, if necessary, an adaptation of their regular treatment plans. Fortunately, at present, young people are less suffering from COVID-19, both as incidence and severity. However, any age, including infancy, could be affected by the pandemic.Based on this background, the Italian Society of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology has felt it necessary to provide a Consensus Statement. This expert panel consensus document offers a rationale to help guide decision-making in the management of children and adolescents with allergic or immunologic diseases.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Management , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Societies, Medical , Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decision Making , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic/methods , SARS-CoV-2
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