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1.
Atmosphere ; 11(7), 2020.
Article | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-836237

ABSTRACT

Besides the predominant ways of transmission of SARS-CoV-2 (namely, contacts and large droplets) the airborne one is increasingly taken into consideration as a result of latest research findings Nevertheless, this possibility has been already suggested by previous studies on other coronaviruses including SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV To describe the state of the art of coronaviruses and airborne transmission, a systematic review was carried out using the PRISMA methodology Overall, 64 papers were selected and classified into three main groups: laboratory experiments (12 papers), air monitoring (22) and epidemiological and airflow model studies (30) The airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is suggested by the studies of the three groups, but none has yet obtained complete evidence The sampling and detection methods have not been validated, therefore monitoring results are affected by a possible underestimation Then, epidemiological investigations only hypothesize the airborne transmission as a possible explanation for some illness cases, but without estimating its attributable risk Nevertheless, while waiting for more evidence, it is urgent to base advice on preventive measures, such as the use of masks, safe distancing and air ventilation, on the precautionary principle

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 749: 142358, 2020 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-759346

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has spread internationally and whilst the current focus of those dealing with the COVID-19 pandemic is understandably restricting its direct transmission, the potential for secondary transmission via wastewater should not be underestimated. The virus has been identified in human fecal and wastewater samples from different countries and potential cases of transmission via wastewater have been reported. Our recommendations for hospital wastewater treatment, municipal wastewater plants, sewage sludge, water reuse and aquatic environments are designed to reduce the risk of such transmission, and contribute to limiting the resurgence of COVID-19 as current restrictions are relaxed. A particular urgent recommendation focusses on supporting low-income countries in tackling the potential for secondary transmission via wastewater.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Waste Water
4.
Water Res ; 179: 115907, 2020 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175680

ABSTRACT

The main route of transmission of the human coronaviruses (HCoVs), and presumably also of the new pandemic SARS-CoV-2, is via droplets and close contacts, however their fecal elimination also suggests the possible spread via water. A scientific literature search was thus carried out to highlight the current state of the art and knowledge gaps regarding coronavirus in water. Since 1978 only 22 studies have met the inclusion criteria, and considered heterogeneous purposes, detection methods and types of water. In vitro experiments have addressed the recovery efficiency of analytical methods, survival in different types of water and the removal efficiency of water treatments. Field studies have monitored coronaviruses in surface waters, sewage, slurry, and biosolids. Overall, at the lab scale, HCoVs or surrogates can survive for several days at 4 °C, however their persistence is lower compared with non-enveloped viruses and is strongly influenced by temperature and organic or microbial pollution. HCoVs have rarely been detected in field investigations, however may be due to the low recovery efficiency of the analytical methods. The scarcity of information on HCoV in the environment suggests that research is needed to understand the fate of these viruses in the water cycle.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Public Health
5.
Sci Total Environ ; 739: 139076, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-154666

ABSTRACT

The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has been a Public Health Emergency of International Concern, which was officially declared by the World Health Organization. SARS-CoV-2 is a member of the family Coronaviridae that consists of a group of enveloped viruses with single-stranded RNA genome, which cause diseases ranging from common colds to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Although the major transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 are inhalation of aerosol/droplet and person-to-person contact, currently available evidence indicates that the viral RNA is present in wastewater, suggesting the need to better understand wastewater as potential sources of epidemiological data and human health risks. Here, we review the current knowledge related to the potential of wastewater surveillance to understand the epidemiology of COVID-19, methodologies for the detection and quantification of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater, and information relevant for human health risk assessment of SARS-CoV-2. There has been growing evidence of gastrointestinal symptoms caused by SARS-CoV-2 infections and the presence of viral RNA not only in feces of infected individuals but also in wastewater. One of the major challenges in SARS-CoV-2 detection/quantification in wastewater samples is the lack of an optimized and standardized protocol. Currently available data are also limited for conducting a quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for SARS-CoV-2 exposure pathways. However, modeling-based approaches have a potential role to play in reducing the impact of the ongoing COVID-19 outbreak. Furthermore, QMRA parameters obtained from previous studies on relevant respiratory viruses help to inform risk assessments of SARS-CoV-2. Our understanding on the potential role of wastewater in SARS-CoV-2 transmission is largely limited by knowledge gaps in its occurrence, persistence, and removal in wastewater. There is an urgent need for further research to establish methodologies for wastewater surveillance and understand the implications of the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Humans , Waste Water
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