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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(4): 589-597, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1775463

ABSTRACT

All fifty US states and Washington, D.C., require children from birth through age five to be vaccinated against certain communicable diseases as a condition of attending child care settings such as day care, Head Start, preschools, pre-kindergarten, and other early childhood programs. However, the nuances and implementation of these laws vary greatly across jurisdictions. To date, a comprehensive analysis of all child care vaccination laws in the US has not been performed. We have developed the first compilation of child care vaccination laws across the US. This compilation is the culmination of an exhaustive examination of multiple components of the laws, such as which vaccines are required, provisions that enable unvaccinated children to temporarily attend child care until they are fully vaccinated, attendance provisions for unvaccinated students during an outbreak, methods of enforcement of vaccination policy, and child care personnel vaccination requirements. This comprehensive analysis provides a critical and foundational framework to inform policy makers and public health professionals involved in policy planning and implementation and policy research. It provides a benchmark for further evaluation of existing and future vaccination laws and their impact on vaccine coverage rates.


Subject(s)
Child Care , Vaccination , Child , Child Health , Child, Preschool , Health Personnel , Humans , Schools
2.
Vaccine ; 40(5): 706-713, 2022 01 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted healthcare, including immunization practice and well child visit attendance. Maintaining vaccination coverage is important to prevent disease outbreaks and morbidity. We assessed the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on pediatric and adolescent vaccination administration and well child visit attendance in the United States. METHODS: This cross-sectional study used IBM MarketScan Commercial Database (IMC) with Early View (healthcare claims database) and TriNetX Dataworks Global Network (electronic medical records database) from January 2018-March 2021. Individuals ≤ 18 years of age who were enrolled during the analysis month of interest (IMC with Early View) or had ≥ 1 health encounter at a participating institution (TriNetX Dataworks) were included. We calculated the monthly percent difference between well child visit attendance and vaccine administration rates for 10 recommended pediatric/adolescent vaccines in 2020 and 2021 compared with 2018-2019. Data were stratified by the age groups 0-2 years, 4-6 years, and 9-16 years. RESULTS: In IMC with Early View, the average monthly enrollment for children 0-18 years of age was 5.2 million. In TriNetX Dataworks, 12.2 million eligible individuals were included. Well child visits and vaccinations reached the lowest point in April 2020 compared with 2018-2019. Well child visit attendance and vaccine administration rates were inversely related to age, with initial reductions highest for adolescents and lowest for ages 0-2 years. Rates rebounded in June and September 2020 and stabilized to pre-pandemic levels in Fall 2020. Rates dropped below baseline in early 2021 for groups 0-2 years and 4-6 years. CONCLUSIONS: We found substantial disruptions in well child visit attendance and vaccination administration for children and adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 and early 2021. Continued efforts are needed to monitor recovery and catch up to avoid outbreaks and morbidity associated with vaccine-preventable diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
3.
Curr Med Res Opin ; 37(12): 2077-2087, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429027

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to significant reductions in the administration of routinely recommended vaccines among adolescents in the US including tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap); meningococcal (ACWY); and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines. The extent to which these deficits could persist in 2021 and beyond is unclear. To address this knowledge gap, this study estimated the cumulative deficits of routine vaccine doses among US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic and estimated the time and effort needed to recover from those deficits. METHODS: Monthly reductions in Tdap, meningococcal, and HPV doses administered to US adolescents during the COVID-19 pandemic were quantified using MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters data. The time and effort required to reverse the vaccination deficit under various catch-up scenarios were estimated. RESULTS: Annual doses administered of Tdap, meningococcus, and HPV vaccines decreased by 21.2%, 20.8%, and 24.0%, respectively, in 2020 compared to 2019. For 2021, the reduction in doses administered is projected to be 6%-21% compared to 2019 under different scenarios. The projected deficit of missed doses is expected to be cleared between winter 2023 and fall 2031. CONCLUSIONS: Administration rates of routine vaccines decreased significantly among US adolescents during COVID-19. Reversing these deficits to mitigate long-term health and economic consequences will require a sustained increase in vaccination rates over multiple years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diphtheria-Tetanus-acellular Pertussis Vaccines , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Adolescent , Humans , Immunization Schedule , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
4.
Vaccine ; 39(8): 1201-1204, 2021 02 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965867

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic and stay-at-home orders have caused an unprecedented decrease in the administration of routinely recommended vaccines. However, the impact of this decrease on overall vaccination coverage in a specific birth cohort is not known. METHODS: We projected measles vaccination coverage for the cohort of children becoming one year old in 2020 in the United States, for different durations of stay-at-home orders, along with varying catch-up vaccination efforts. RESULTS: A 15% sustained catch-up rate outside stay-at-home orders (compared to what would be expected via natality information) may be necessary to achieve projected vaccination coverage similar to previous years. Permanent decreases in vaccine administration could lead to projected vaccination coverage levels below 80%. CONCLUSION: Modeling measles vaccination coverage under a range of scenarios provides useful information about the potential magnitude and impact of under-immunization. Sustained catch-up efforts are needed to assure that measles vaccination coverage remains high.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Measles Vaccine/administration & dosage , Pandemics , Vaccination Coverage , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Measles/prevention & control , United States
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