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J Med Virol ; 95(2): e28512, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2209118


To date, no comprehensive marker to monitor the immune status of patients is available. Given that Torque teno virus (TTV), a known human virome component, has previously been identified as a marker of immunocompetence, it was retrospectively investigated whether TTV viral load may also represent a marker of ability to develop antibody in response to COVID-19-BNT162B2 vaccine in solid organ transplant recipients (SOT). Specifically, 273 samples from 146 kidney and 26 lung transplant recipients after successive doses of vaccine were analyzed. An inverse correlation was observed within the TTV copy number and anti-Spike IgG antibody titer with a progressive decrease in viremia the further away from the transplant date. Analyzing the data obtained after the second dose, a significant difference in TTV copy number between responsive and nonresponsive patients was observed, considering a 5 log10 TTV copies/mL threshold to discriminate between the two groups. Moreover, for 86 patients followed in their response to the second and third vaccination doses a 6 log10 TTV copies/mL threshold was used to predict responsivity to the booster dose. Although further investigation is necessary, possibly extending the analysis to other patient categories, this study suggests that TTV can be used as a good marker of vaccine response in transplant patients.

COVID-19 , DNA Virus Infections , Torque teno virus , Humans , Torque teno virus/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , Transplant Recipients , Retrospective Studies , BNT162 Vaccine , Seroconversion , Kidney , Lung , Viral Load , DNA, Viral
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(10)2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2066607


The aim of the study was to explore the humoral and T-cell response in lung transplant (LuT) patients. Two-time points were considered, before (T0) and after (Tpost) the third dose of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, comparing LuT with healthy donors (HD). LuT patients showed a lower serologic response against SARS-CoV-2 compared with HD at both time-points (p = 0.0001 and p = 0.0011, respectively). A lower percentage of IFNγ+orIL2+orTNFα+CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells LuT patients was observed in LuT patients compared with HD at T0 (CD4+: p = 0.0001; CD8+: p = 0.0005) and Tpost (CD4+: p = 0.0028; CD8+: p = 0.0114), as well as in the percentage of IFNγ+IL2+TNFα+CD4+ T-cells (T0: p = 0.0247; Tpost: p = 0.0367). Finally, at Tpost, a lower percentage of IFNγ+IL2+TNFα+ CD8+ T-cells in LuT patients compared with HD was found (p = 0.0147). LuT patients were stratified according to the lowest cut-off value for the detection of a humoral response (4.81 BAU/mL) at T0, into responder (R) and non-responder (NR) groups. In the R group, no differences in the percentage of IFNγ+or IL2+orTNFα+ and IFNγ+IL2+TNFα+CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells compared with HD at both time-points were observed. Otherwise, in the NR group, lower percentages of IFNγ+IL2+TNFα+CD4+ T-cells compared with the R group (T0: p = 0.0159; Tpost: p = 0.0159), as well as compared with the HD, at both time-points, were observed (T0: p = 0.0064; Tpost: p = 0.0064). These data seem to confirm that some LuT patients can mount cellular responses even in the absence of a positive humoral response (>33.8 BAU/mL), although this cellular response is dysfunctional and partially detrimental.