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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-316537

ABSTRACT

Treating COVID-19 remains challenging, in part due to limited understanding of severe immunopathology. We performed a holistic and unbiased analysis of 17 immune cell types using flow cytometry immunophenotyping in 802 blood samples from 513 COVID-19 patients obtained at presentation and follow-up, 44 cases with other infection and 36 healthy donors. After adjusting to the corresponding age-range, we found that most COVID-19 patients showed normal patterns of immune response to infection. However, 14% displayed an immune signature at presentation with skewing of all cell types except neutrophils and plasmablasts, which was significantly associated with severe outcome. Divergent immune trajectories were observed in 8 cell types of cases with favorable vs fatal outcome. B-cells had the strongest impact in patients’ survival and, together with non-classical monocytes, had independent prognostic value regardless of age and comorbidities. Collectively, these results shed light into the immunopathology of COVID-19 and provide new tools for risk-stratification.Funding: This study was supported by the Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red – Área de Oncología - del Instituto de Salud Carlos III (CIBERONC;CB16/12/00369), Instituto de Salud Carlos III/Subdirección General de Investigación Sanitaria (FIS No. PI17/01243), Fondo Europeo de Desarrollo Regional (FEDER) and Asociación Española Contra el Cáncer (FCAECC, Predoctoral Grant Junta Provincial Navarra). This study was supported internationally by the Cancer Research UK, FCAECC and AIRC under the Accelerator Award Programme, and the European Research Council (ERC) 2015 Starting Grant (MYELOMANEXT). Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no competing conflict of interest.Ethical Approval: The Clinica Universidad de Navarra Ethics Committee approved the protocol and informed consent forms, required prior to patient enrollment. The study was conducted per the ethical principles of the Declaration of Helsinki.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307956

ABSTRACT

Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro at concentrations not readily achievable with currently approved doses. There is limited evidence to support its clinical use in COVID-19 patients. We conducted a Pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to determine the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin to reduce the proportion of PCR positives, viral load at day 7 post treatment.Consecutive patients with confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and mild COVID-19 (no pneumonia) and no risk factors for complicated disease attending the emergency room of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive ivermectin, 400 mcg/kg, single dose (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR from nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. The primary outcome was supported by determination of the viral load and infectivity of each sample. The differences between ivermectin and placebo were calculated using Fisher’s exact test and presented as a relative risk ratio.All patients recruited completed the trial (median age, 26 [range, 18-54] years;12 [50%] women;100% had symptoms at recruitment, 70% reported headache, 62% reported fever, 50% reported general malaise and 25% reported cough). At day 7, there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positive patients (RR 0.92, 95% CI: 0.77-1.09, p = 1.0). The ivermectin group had lower median viral loads at days 4 and 7 post treatment as well as lower median IgG titers at day 21 post treatment. Hyposmia/anosmia (76 vs 158 patient-days) and cough (68 vs 97 patient-days) were less frequent in the ivermectin group.Among patients with mild COVID-19 and no risk factors for severe disease receiving a single 400 mcg/kg dose of ivermectin within 48 hours of fever or cough onset there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positives. There was however a marked reduction of anosmia/hyposmia, a reduction of cough and a tendency to lower viral loads and lower IgG titers which warrants assessment in larger trials. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04390022 https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04390022

3.
Thromb Haemost ; 122(2): 295-299, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595734

ABSTRACT

Thromboprophylaxis with low molecular weight heparin in hospitalized patients with COVID-19 is mandatory, unless contraindicated. Given the links between inflammation and thrombosis, the use of higher doses of anticoagulants could improve outcomes. We conducted an open-label, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial in adult patients hospitalized with nonsevere COVID-19 pneumonia and elevated D-dimer. Patients were randomized to therapeutic-dose bemiparin (115 IU/kg daily) versus standard prophylaxis (bemiparin 3,500 IU daily), for 10 days. The primary efficacy outcome was a composite of death, intensive care unit admission, need of mechanical ventilation support, development of moderate/severe acute respiratory distress, and venous or arterial thrombosis within 10 days of enrollment. The primary safety outcome was major bleeding (International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis criteria). A prespecified interim analysis was performed when 40% of the planned study population was reached. From October 2020 to May 2021, 70 patients were randomized at 5 sites and 65 were included in the primary analysis; 32 patients allocated to therapeutic dose and 33 to standard prophylactic dose. The primary efficacy outcome occurred in 7 patients (22%) in the therapeutic-dose group and 6 patients (18%) in the prophylactic-dose (absolute risk difference 3.6% [95% confidence interval [CI], -16% -24%]; odds ratio 1.26 [95% CI, 0.37-4.26]; p = 0.95). Discharge in the first 10 days was possible in 66 and 79% of patients, respectively. No major bleeding event was registered. Therefore, in patients with COVID-19 hospitalized with nonsevere pneumonia but elevated D-dimer, the use of a short course of therapeutic-dose bemiparin does not appear to improve clinical outcomes compared with standard prophylactic doses. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04604327.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/drug therapy , Heparin, Low-Molecular-Weight/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295461

ABSTRACT

Background: Excessive inflammation is pathogenic in pneumonitis associated to severe COVID-19. Neutrophils are among the most abundantly present leukocytes in the inflammatory infiltrates and may form neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) under the local influence of cytokines. NETs constitute a defence mechanism against bacteria but have also been shown to mediate tissue damage in a number of diseases. <br><br>Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, sixteen immediate post-mortem lung biopsies were methodologically analysed as exploratory and validation cohorts. NETs were quantitatively analysed by multiplexed immunofluorescence and correlated with local levels of IL-8 mRNA expression and the density of CD8+ T-cell infiltration. SARS-CoV-2 presence in tissue was quantified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry.<br><br>Findings: NETs were found in the lung interstitium and surrounding the bronchiolar epithelium with interindividual and spatial heterogeneity. NET density did not correlate with SARS-CoV-2 tissue viral load. NETs were associated with local IL-8 mRNA levels. NETs were also detected in pulmonary thrombi and in only one out of eight liver tissues in spatial fashion. NET focal presence negatively correlated with CD8+ T-cell infiltration in the lungs. <br><br>Interpretation: Abundant neutrophils undergoing NETosis are found in the lungs of patients with fatal COVID-19, showing no correlation with viral loads. The strong association between NETs and IL-8 focal expression points to this chemokine as the potential causative factor. The function of cytotoxic T-lymphocytes in the immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 may be interfered by the presence of NETs.<br><br>Funding Information: This study was supported by Banco Bilbao Vizcaya (BBVA) Foundation, “Ayudas a Equipos de Investigación Científica SARS-CoV-2 y COVID-19”. <br><br>Declaration of Interests: I.M. reports receiving commercial research grants from BMS, Bioncotech, Alligator, Pfizer, Leadartis and Roche;has received speakers bureau honoraria from MSD;and is a consultant or advisory board member for BMS, Roche, Genmab, F-Star, Bioncotech, Bayer, Numab, Pieris, Alligator, and Merck Serono. C.E.A reports research grants from AstraZeneca. All other authors declare no competing interests.<br><br>Ethics Approval Statement: This study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Navarra, Spain (Approval 2020.192). Tissue collections were obtained with consent from a first-degree relative, following a protocol approved by the ethics committee of the University of Navarra (Protocol 2020.192p).

5.
Front Immunol ; 12: 767376, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1556073

ABSTRACT

Evidence supports a role of complement anaphylatoxin C5a in the pathophysiology of COVID-19. However, information about the evolution and impact of C5a levels after hospital discharge is lacking. We analyzed the association between circulating C5a levels and the clinical evolution of hospitalized patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Serum C5a levels were determined in 32 hospitalized and 17 non-hospitalized patients from Clinica Universidad de Navarra. One hundred and eighty eight serial samples were collected during the hospitalization stay and up to three months during the follow-up. Median C5a levels were 27.71 ng/ml (25th to 75th percentile: 19.35-34.96) for samples collected during hospitalization, versus 16.76 ng/ml (12.90-25.08) for samples collected during the follow-up (p<0.001). There was a negative correlation between serum C5a levels and the number of days from symptom onset (p<0.001). C5a levels also correlated with a previously validated clinical risk score (p<0.001), and was associated with the severity of the disease (p<0.001). An overall reduction of C5a levels was observed after hospital discharge. However, elevated C5a levels persisted in those patients with high COVID-19 severity (i.e. those with a longest stay in the hospital), even after months from hospital discharge (p=0.020). Moreover, high C5a levels appeared to be associated with the presence of long-term respiratory symptoms (p=0.004). In conclusion, serum C5a levels remain high in severe cases of COVID-19, and are associated with the presence of respiratory symptoms after hospital discharge. These results may suggest a role for C5a in the long-term effects of COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Complement C5a/metabolism , Patient Discharge/statistics & numerical data , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Hospitalization , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration Disorders/blood , Respiration Disorders/etiology , Respiration Disorders/immunology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 10(1): 1931-1946, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429140

ABSTRACT

Identification of relevant epitopes is crucial for the development of subunit peptide vaccines inducing neutralizing and cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2. Our aim was the characterization of epitopes in the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein to generate a peptide vaccine. Epitope mapping using a panel of 10 amino acid overlapped 15-mer peptides covering region 401-515 from RBD did not identify linear epitopes when tested with sera from infected individuals or from RBD-immunized mice. However, immunization of mice with these 15-mer peptides identified four peptides located at region 446-480 that induced antibodies recognizing the peptides and RBD/S1 proteins. Immunization with peptide 446-480 from S protein formulated with Freund's adjuvant or with CpG oligodeoxinucleotide/Alum induced polyepitopic antibody responses in BALB/c and C56BL/6J mice, recognizing RBD (titres of 3 × 104-3 × 105, depending on the adjuvant) and displaying neutralizing capacity (80-95% inhibition capacity; p < 0.05) against SARS-CoV-2. Murine CD4 and CD8T-cell epitopes were identified in region 446-480 and vaccination experiments using HLA transgenic mice suggested the presence of multiple human T-cell epitopes. Antibodies induced by peptide 446-480 showed broad recognition of S proteins and S-derived peptides belonging to SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern. Importantly, vaccination with peptide 446-480 or with a cyclic version of peptide 446-488 containing a disulphide bridge between cysteines 480 and 488, protected humanized K18-hACE2 mice from a lethal dose of SARS-CoV-2 (62.5 and 75% of protection; p < 0.01 and p < 0.001, respectively). This region could be the basis for a peptide vaccine or other vaccine platforms against Covid-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/standards , Cross Reactions/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Immunization , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Transgenic , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
7.
Front Immunol ; 12: 659018, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1236672

ABSTRACT

Information on the immunopathobiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly increasing; however, there remains a need to identify immune features predictive of fatal outcome. This large-scale study characterized immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection using multidimensional flow cytometry, with the aim of identifying high-risk immune biomarkers. Holistic and unbiased analyses of 17 immune cell-types were conducted on 1,075 peripheral blood samples obtained from 868 COVID-19 patients and on samples from 24 patients presenting with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections and 36 healthy donors. Immune profiles of COVID-19 patients were significantly different from those of age-matched healthy donors but generally similar to those of patients with non-SARS-CoV-2 infections. Unsupervised clustering analysis revealed three immunotypes during SARS-CoV-2 infection; immunotype 1 (14% of patients) was characterized by significantly lower percentages of all immune cell-types except neutrophils and circulating plasma cells, and was significantly associated with severe disease. Reduced B-cell percentage was most strongly associated with risk of death. On multivariate analysis incorporating age and comorbidities, B-cell and non-classical monocyte percentages were independent prognostic factors for survival in training (n=513) and validation (n=355) cohorts. Therefore, reduced percentages of B-cells and non-classical monocytes are high-risk immune biomarkers for risk-stratification of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Immunity, Innate , Lymphopenia/immunology , Lymphopenia/mortality , Lymphopenia/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Monocytes/immunology , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , Young Adult
8.
Transl Res ; 232: 60-74, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081356

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients elicit strong responses to the nucleocapsid (N) protein of SARS-CoV-2 but binding antibodies are also detected in prepandemic individuals, indicating potential crossreactivity with common cold human coronaviruses (HCoV) and questioning its utility in seroprevalence studies. We investigated the immunogenicity of the full-length and shorter fragments of the SARS-CoV-2 N protein, and the crossreactivity of antibodies with HCoV. We identified a C-terminus region in SARS-CoV2 N of minimal sequence homology with HCoV that was more specific for SARS-CoV-2 and highly immunogenic. IgGs to the full-length SARS-CoV-2 N also recognized N229E N, and IgGs to HKU1 N recognized SARS-CoV-2 N. Crossreactivity with SARS-CoV-2 was stronger for alpha- rather than beta-HCoV despite having less sequence identity, revealing the importance of conformational recognition. Higher preexisting IgG to OC43 N correlated with lower IgG to SARS-CoV-2 N in rRT-PCR negative individuals, reflecting less exposure and indicating a potential protective association. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 N were higher in patients with more severe and longer duration of symptoms and in females. IgGs remained stable for at least 3 months, while IgAs and IgMs declined faster. In conclusion, N protein is a primary target of SARS-CoV-2-specific and HCoV crossreactive antibodies, both of which may affect the acquisition of immunity to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Male , Rhinovirus/immunology , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(2)2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1041778

ABSTRACT

Reliable serological tests are required to determine the prevalence of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and to characterize immunity to the disease in order to address key knowledge gaps in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Quantitative suspension array technology (qSAT) assays based on the xMAP Luminex platform overcome the limitations of rapid diagnostic tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) with their higher precision, dynamic range, throughput, miniaturization, cost-efficiency, and multiplexing capacity. We developed three qSAT assays for IgM, IgA, and IgG against a panel of eight SARS-CoV-2 antigens, including spike protein (S), nucleocapsid protein (N), and membrane protein (M) constructs. The assays were optimized to minimize the processing time and maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. We evaluated their performances using 128 prepandemic plasma samples (negative controls) and 104 plasma samples from individuals with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis (positive controls), of whom 5 were asymptomatic, 51 had mild symptoms, and 48 were hospitalized. Preexisting IgG antibodies recognizing N, M, and S proteins were detected in negative controls, which is suggestive of cross-reactivity to common-cold coronaviruses. The best-performing antibody/antigen signatures had specificities of 100% and sensitivities of 95.78% at ≥14 days and 95.65% at ≥21 days since the onset of symptoms, with areas under the curve (AUCs) of 0.977 and 0.999, respectively. Combining multiple markers as assessed by qSAT assays has the highest efficiency, breadth, and versatility to accurately detect low-level antibody responses for obtaining reliable data on the prevalence of exposure to novel pathogens in a population. Our assays will allow gaining insights into antibody correlates of immunity and their kinetics, required for vaccine development to combat the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Immunoglobulin Isotypes/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Cross Reactions , Female , Humans , Immunoassay , Male , Middle Aged , Reproducibility of Results , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Structural Proteins/immunology
10.
EClinicalMedicine ; 32: 100720, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1036790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ivermectin inhibits the replication of SARS-CoV-2 in vitro at concentrations not readily achievable with currently approved doses. There is limited evidence to support its clinical use in COVID-19 patients. We conducted a Pilot, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin reduce the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 when administered early after disease onset. METHODS: Consecutive patients with non-severe COVID-19 and no risk factors for complicated disease attending the emergency room of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra between July 31, 2020 and September 11, 2020 were enrolled. All enrollments occurred within 72 h of onset of fever or cough. Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive ivermectin, 400 mcg/kg, single dose (n = 12) or placebo (n = 12). The primary outcome measure was the proportion of patients with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by PCR from nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. The primary outcome was supported by determination of the viral load and infectivity of each sample. The differences between ivermectin and placebo were calculated using Fisher's exact test and presented as a relative risk ratio. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04390022. FINDINGS: All patients recruited completed the trial (median age, 26 [IQR 19-36 in the ivermectin and 21-44 in the controls] years; 12 [50%] women; 100% had symptoms at recruitment, 70% reported headache, 62% reported fever, 50% reported general malaise and 25% reported cough). At day 7, there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positive patients (RR 0·92, 95% CI: 0·77-1·09, p = 1·0). The ivermectin group had non-statistically significant lower viral loads at day 4 (p = 0·24 for gene E; p = 0·18 for gene N) and day 7 (p = 0·16 for gene E; p = 0·18 for gene N) post treatment as well as lower IgG titers at day 21 post treatment (p = 0·24). Patients in the ivermectin group recovered earlier from hyposmia/anosmia (76 vs 158 patient-days; p < 0.001). INTERPRETATION: Among patients with non-severe COVID-19 and no risk factors for severe disease receiving a single 400 mcg/kg dose of ivermectin within 72 h of fever or cough onset there was no difference in the proportion of PCR positives. There was however a marked reduction of self-reported anosmia/hyposmia, a reduction of cough and a tendency to lower viral loads and lower IgG titers which warrants assessment in larger trials. FUNDING: ISGlobal, Barcelona Institute for Global Health and Clínica Universidad de Navarra.

11.
Thorax ; 75(12): 1116-1118, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-729415

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, an outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome associated to SARS-CoV2 was reported in Wuhan, China. To date, little is known on histopathological findings in patients infected with the new SARS-CoV2. Lung histopathology shows features of acute and organising diffuse alveolar damage. Subtle cellular inflammatory infiltrate has been found in line with the cytokine storm theory. Medium-size vessel thrombi were frequent, but capillary thrombi were not present. Despite the elevation of biochemical markers of cardiac injury, little histopathological damage could be confirmed. Viral RNA from paraffin sections was detected at least in one organ in 90% patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Biopsy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Spain/epidemiology
12.
Trials ; 21(1): 498, 2020 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591348

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective is to determine the efficacy of a single dose of ivermectin, administered to low risk, non-severe COVID-19 patients in the first 48 hours after symptom onset to reduce the proportion of patients with detectable SARS-CoV-2 RNA by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) test from nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. The secondary objectives are: 1.To assess the efficacy of ivermectin to reduce the SARS-CoV-2 viral load in the nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post treatment.2.To assess the efficacy of ivermectin to improve symptom progression in treated patients.3.To assess the proportion of seroconversions in treated patients at day 21.4.To assess the safety of ivermectin at the proposed dose.5.To determine the magnitude of immune response against SARS-CoV-2.6.To assess the early kinetics of immunity against SARS-CoV-2. TRIAL DESIGN: SAINT is a single centre, double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, superiority trial with two parallel arms. Participants will be randomized to receive a single dose of 400 µg/kg ivermectin or placebo, and the number of patients in the treatment and placebo groups will be the same (1:1 ratio). PARTICIPANTS: The population for the study will be patients with a positive nasopharyngeal swab PCR test for SARS-CoV-2, with non-severe COVID-19 disease, and no risk factors for progression to severity. Vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, minors (i.e.; under 18 years old), and seniors (i.e.; over 60 years old) will be excluded. Inclusion criteria 1. Patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in the emergency room of the Clínica Universidad de Navarra (CUN) with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR. 2. Residents of the Pamplona basin ("Cuenca de Pamplona"). 3. The patient must be between the ages of 18 and 60 years of age. 4. Negative pregnancy test for women of child bearing age*. 5. The patient or his/her representative, has given informed consent to participate in the study. 6. The patient should, in the PI's opinion, be able to comply with all the requirements of the clinical trial (including home follow up during isolation). Exclusion criteria 1. Known history of ivermectin allergy. 2. Hypersensitivity to any component of ivermectin. 3. COVID-19 pneumonia. Diagnosed by the attending physician.Identified in a chest X-ray. 4. Fever or cough present for more than 48 hours. 5. Positive IgG against SARS-CoV-2 by rapid diagnostic test. 6. Age under 18 or over 60 years. 7. The following co-morbidities (or any other disease that might interfere with the study in the eyes of the PI): Immunosuppression.Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.Diabetes.Hypertension.Obesity.Acute or chronic renal failure.History of coronary disease.History of cerebrovascular disease.Current neoplasm. 8. Recent travel history to countries that are endemic for Loa loa (Angola, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, Equatorial, Guinea, Gabon, Republic of Congo, Nigeria and Sudan). 9. Current use of CYP 3A4 or P-gp inhibitor drugs such as quinidine, amiodarone, diltiazem, spironolactone, verapamil, clarithromycin, erythromycin, itraconazole, ketoconazole, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, indinavir, ritonavir or cobicistat. Use of critical CYP3A4 substrate drugs such as warfarin. *Women of child bearing age may participate if they use a safe contraceptive method for the entire period of the study and at least one month afterwards. A woman is considered to not have childbearing capacity if she is post-menopausal (minimum of 2 years without menstruation) or has undergone surgical sterilization (at least one month before the study). The trial is currently planned at a single center, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, in Navarra (Spain), and the immunology samples will be analyzed at the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), in Barcelona (Spain). Participants will be recruited by the investigators at the emergency room and/or COVID-19 area of the CUN. They will remain in the trial for a period of 28 days at their homes since they will be patients with mild disease. In the interest of public health and to contain transmission of infection, follow-up visits will be conducted in the participant's home by a clinical trial team comprising nursing and medical members. Home visits will assess clinical and laboratory parameters of the patients. INTERVENTION AND COMPARATOR: Ivermectin will be administered to the treatment group at a 400µg/Kg dose (included in the EU approved label of Stromectol and Scabioral). The control group will receive placebo. There is no current data on the efficacy of ivermectin against the virus in vivo, therefore the use of placebo in the control group is ethically justified. MAIN OUTCOMES: Primary Proportion of patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR from a nasopharyngeal swab at day 7 post-treatment. Secondary 1.Mean viral load as determined by PCR cycle threshold (Ct) at baseline and on days 4, 7, 14, and 21.2.Proportion of patients with fever and cough at days 4, 7, 14, and 21 as well as proportion of patients progressing to severe disease or death during the trial.3.Proportion of patients with seroconversion at day 21.4.Proportion of drug-related adverse events during the trial.5.Median levels of IgG, IgM, IgA measured by Luminex, frequencies of innate and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells assessed by flow cytometry, median levels of inflammatory and activation markers measured by Luminex and transcriptomics.6.Median kinetics of IgG, IgM, IgA levels during the trial, until day 28. RANDOMISATION: Eligible patients will be allocated in a 1:1 ratio using a randomization list generated by the trial statistician using blocks of four to ensure balance between the groups. A study identification code with the format "SAINT-##" (##: from 01 to 24) will be generated using a sequence of random numbers so that the randomization number does not match the subject identifier. The sequence and code used will be kept in an encrypted file accessible only to the trial statistician. A physical copy will be kept in a locked cabinet at the CUN, accessible only to the person administering the drug who will not enrol or attend to patient care. A separate set of 24 envelopes for emergency unblinding will be kept in the study file. BLINDING (MASKING): The clinical trial team and the patients will be blinded. The placebo will not be visibly identical, but it will be administered by staff not involved in the clinical care or participant follow up. NUMBERS TO BE RANDOMISED (SAMPLE SIZE): The sample size is 24 patients: 12 participants will be randomised to the treatment group and 12 participants to the control group. TRIAL STATUS: Current protocol version: 1.0 dated 16 of April 2020. Recruitment is envisioned to begin by May 14th and end by June 14th. TRIAL REGISTRATION: EudraCT number: 2020-001474-29, registered April 1st. Clinicaltrials.gov: submitted, pending number FULL PROTOCOL: The full protocol is attached as an additional file, accessible from the Trials website (Additional file 1). In the interest in expediting dissemination of this material, the familiar formatting has been eliminated; this Letter serves as a summary of the key elements of the full protocol.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Ivermectin/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Double-Blind Method , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pilot Projects , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Viral Load , Young Adult
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