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Circulation ; 143(8): 837-851, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1883363


More than 40 years after the 1978 Bethesda Conference on the Declining Mortality from Coronary Heart Disease provided the scientific community with a blueprint for systematic analysis to understand declining rates of coronary heart disease, there are indications the decline has ended or even reversed despite advances in our knowledge about the condition and treatment. Recent data show a more complex situation, with mortality rates for overall cardiovascular disease, including coronary heart disease and stroke, decelerating, whereas those for heart failure are increasing. To mark the 40th anniversary of the Bethesda Conference, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the American Heart Association cosponsored the "Bending the Curve in Cardiovascular Disease Mortality: Bethesda + 40" symposium. The objective was to examine the immediate and long-term outcomes of the 1978 conference and understand the current environment. Symposium themes included trends and future projections in cardiovascular disease (in the United States and internationally), the evolving obesity and diabetes epidemics, and harnessing emerging and innovative opportunities to preserve and promote cardiovascular health and prevent cardiovascular disease. In addition, participant-led discussion explored the challenges and barriers in promoting cardiovascular health across the lifespan and established a potential framework for observational research and interventions that would begin in early childhood (or ideally in utero). This report summarizes the relevant research, policy, and practice opportunities discussed at the symposium.

Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Congresses as Topic , Coronary Disease/epidemiology , Coronary Disease/mortality , Coronary Disease/pathology , Diabetes Complications/epidemiology , Humans , Morbidity/trends , Obesity/complications , Obesity/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/mortality , Stroke/pathology , Survival Rate/trends , United States/epidemiology , Urbanization
J Food Prot ; 85(3): 518-526, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560770


ABSTRACT: There is limited examination about coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-related food handling concerns and practices that cause chemical or microbial contamination and illness, particularly among those with food insecurity. We investigated consumer food handling concerns and practices during the COVID-19 pandemic and whether they differed by food insecurity status. An online survey was distributed among Chicago, IL, residents between 15 July and 21 August 2020 (n = 437). Independent t tests and Fisher's exact tests were used to identify differences in food handling concerns and practices between those with and without food insecurity (alpha = 0.05). Survey items included questions about food handling practices that were considered safe or neutral (i.e., washing hands and produce with water, sanitizing food packaging) and unsafe (i.e., using cleaning agents to wash foods, leaving perishable foods outside) by using 5-point Likert-style scales or categorical responses (i.e., yes, no). Participant responses fell between "slightly" and "somewhat" concerned about contracting COVID-19 from food and food packaging (mean ± standard error [SE]: 2.7 ± 0.1). Although participants reported washing their hands before eating and before preparing foods at least "most of the time" (mean ± SE: 4.4 ± 0.0 and 4.5 ± 0.0, respectively), only one-third engaged in unsafe practices. The majority of participants (68%) indicated that they altered food handling practices due to the COVID-19 pandemic and received information about food safety from social media (61%). When investigating differences in concerns and practices by food insecurity status, food insecure participants were more concerned about COVID-19 foodborne transmission for all food items (all P < 0.001) and more frequently performed unsafe food handling practices than those with food security (all P < 0.001). Results from this study suggest more investigation is needed to understand barriers to safe food handling knowledge and practices, particularly among those with food insecurity.

COVID-19 , Food Handling , Food Security , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258970, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480462


BACKGROUND: Studies of outpatients with mild or moderate COVID-19 are uncommon. We studied: 1) association of symptoms with reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results; and 2) association of initial RT-PCR cycle threshold (Ct) in relation to duration of RT-PCR positivity in outpatients with mild or moderate COVID-19. METHODS: This was a cohort study of outpatients with confirmed COVID-19 and at least one symptom. Participants had repeat nasopharyngeal swabs and symptom checklists every 3-5 days until two consecutive RT-PCR tests were negative. RT-PCR tests were used to assess viral load. Antibody tests for COVID-19 were performed at 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks after symptom onset. RESULTS: Twenty-five patients (nine females) were enrolled, ranging in age from 19-58 (median age 28 years). All patients reported at least one symptom, with a median of six symptoms per patient. Symptoms persisted for 6-67 days (median duration 18 days). In all 25 patients, blood samples collected a median of 13 days after symptom onset were positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 15 (60%). After a median of 28 days following symptom onset, 23/23 patients with available samples tested positive for antibodies. The longest duration of positive RT-PCR test was 49 days from first positive PCR test (Mean = 27.4, SD = 12.5, Median = 24). Initial Ct was significantly associated with longer duration (ß = -1.3, SE = 0.3, p<0.01 per 1 cycle higher) of RT-PCR positivity. CONCLUSIONS: In mildly or moderately ill COVID-19 outpatients, RT-PCT tests remained positive for as long as 49 days and test positivity and symptom duration correlated with initial viral load.

Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 , Outpatients , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Viral Load , Adult , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged