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1.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-454991

ABSTRACT

A challenge for the development of host-targeted anti-infectives against a large spectrum of AB-like toxin-producing bacteria encompasses the identification of chemical compounds corrupting toxin transport through both endolysosomal and retrograde pathways. Here, we performed a high-throughput screening of small chemical compounds blocking active Rac1 proteasomal degradation triggered by the Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor-1 (CNF1) toxin, followed by orthogonal screens against two AB toxins hijacking defined endolysosomal (Diphtheria toxin) or retrograde (Shiga-like toxin 1) pathways to intoxicate cells. This led to the identification of the molecule N-(3,3-diphenylpropyl)-1-propyl-4-piperidinamine, referred to as C910. This compound induces the swelling of EEA1-positive early endosomes, in absence of PIKfyve kinase inhibition, and disturbs the trafficking of CNF1 and the B-subunit of Shiga toxin along the endolysosomal or retrograde pathways, respectively. Together, we show that C910 protects cells against 8 bacterial AB toxins including large clostridial glucosylating toxins from Clostridium difficile. Of interest, C910 also reduced viral infection in vitro including influenza A virus subtype H1N1 and SARS-CoV-2. Moreover, parenteral administration of C910 to the mice resulted in its accumulation in lung tissues and reduced lethal influenza infection.

2.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-433877

ABSTRACT

Key steps in viral propagation, immune suppression, and pathology are mediated by direct, binary, physical interactions between viral and host proteins. To understand the biology of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, we generated an unbiased systematic map of binary interactions between viral and host proteins, complementing previous co-complex association maps by conveying more direct mechanistic understanding and potentially enabling targeted disruption of direct interactions. To this end, we deployed two parallel strategies, identifying 205 virus-host and 27 intraviral binary interactions amongst 171 host and 19 viral proteins, and confirming high quality of these interactions via a calibrated orthogonal assay. Host proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2 proteins are enriched in various cellular processes, including immune signaling and inflammation, protein ubiquitination, and membrane trafficking. Specific subnetworks provide new hypotheses related to viral modulation of host protein homeostasis and T-cell regulation. The binary virus-host protein interactions we identified can now be prioritized as targets for therapeutic intervention. More generally, we provide a resource of systematic maps describing which SARS-CoV-2 and human proteins interact directly.

3.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20249038

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe systemic antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 patients has been extensively studied. However, much less is known about the mucosal responses in the upper airways at the site of initial SARS-CoV-2 replication. Local antibody responses in the nasopharyngeal epithelium, that are likely to determine the course of infection, have not been analysed so far nor their correlation with antibody responses in serum. MethodsThe IgG and IgA antibody responses were analysed in the plasma as well as in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) from the first four COVID-19 patients confirmed by RT-qPCR in France. Two were pauci-symptomatic while two developed severe disease. Taking advantage of a comprehensive series of plasma and nasopharyngeal samples, we characterized their antibody profiles from the second week post symptoms onset, by using an in-house ELISA to detect anti-SARS-CoV-2 Nucleoprotein (N) IgG and IgA. ResultsAnti-N IgG and IgA antibodies were detected in the NPS of severe patients. Overall, the levels of IgA and IgG antibodies in plasma and NPS appeared specific to each patient. ConclusionsAnti-N IgG and IgA antibodies are detected in NPS, and their levels are related to antibody levels in plasma. The two patients with severe disease exhibited different antibody profiles that may reflect different disease outcome. For the pauci-symptomatic patients, one showed a low anti-N IgG and IgA response in the plasma only, while the other one did not exhibit overt serological response.

4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20213116

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAssessment of cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infections is critical for monitoring the course and the extent of the epidemic. As asymptomatic or mild cases were typically not captured by surveillance data in France, we implemented nationwide serological surveillance. We present estimates for prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the French population and the proportion of infected individuals who developed potentially protective neutralizing antibodies throughout the first epidemic wave. MethodsWe performed serial cross-sectional sampling of residual sera over three periods: prior to (9-15 March), during (6-12 April) and following (11-17 May) a nationwide lockdown. Each sample was tested for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies targeting the Nucleoprotein and Spike using two Luciferase-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assays, and for neutralising antibodies using a pseudo-neutralisation assay. We fitted a general linear mixed model of seropositivity in a Bayesian framework to derive prevalence estimates stratified by age, sex and region. FindingsIn total, sera from 11 021 individuals were analysed. Nationwide seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was estimated at 0.41% [0.05-0.88] mid-March, 4.14% [3.31-4.99] mid-April and 4.93% [4.02-5.89] mid-May. Approximately 70% of seropositive individuals had detectable neutralising antibodies. Seroprevalence was higher in regions where circulation occurred earlier and was more intense. Seroprevalence was lowest in children under 10 years of age (2.72% [1.10-4.87]). InterpretationSeroprevalence estimates confirm that the nationwide lockdown substantially curbed transmission and that the vast majority of the French population remains susceptible to SARS-CoV-2. Low seroprevalence in school age children suggests limited susceptibility and/or transmissibility in this age group. Our results show a clear picture of the progression of the first epidemic wave and provide a framework to inform the ongoing public health response as viral transmission is picking up again in France and globally. FundingSante publique France.

5.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20194860

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to estimate the risk of infection in Healthcare workers (HCWs) following a high-risk exposure without personal protective equipment (PPE). Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort in HCWs who had a high-risk exposure to SARS-CoV-2-infected subject without PPE. Daily symptoms were self-reported for 30 days, nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR were performed at inclusion and at days 3, 5, 7 and 12, SARS-CoV-2 serology was assessed at inclusion and at day 30. Confirmed infection was defined by positive RT-PCR or seroconversion, and possible infection by one general and one specific symptom for two consecutive days. Results: Between February 5th and May 30th, 2020, 154 HCWs were enrolled within 14 days following one high-risk exposure to either a hospital patient (70/154; 46.1%) and/or a colleague (95/154; 62.5%). At day 30, 25.0% had a confirmed infection (37/148; 95%CI, 18.4%; 32.9%), and 43.9% (65/148; 95%CI, 35.9%; 52.3%) had a confirmed or possible infection. Factors independently associated with confirmed or possible SARS-CoV-2 infection were being a pharmacist or administrative assistant rather than being from medical staff (adjusted OR (aOR)=3.8, CI95%=1.3;11.2, p=0.01), and exposure to a SARS-CoV-2-infected patient rather than exposure to a SARS-CoV-2-infected colleague (aOR=2.6, CI95%=1.2;5.9, p=0.02). Among the 26 HCWs with a SARS-CoV-2-positive nasopharyngeal swab, 7 (26.9%) had no symptom at the time of the RT-PCR positivity. Conclusions: The proportion of HCWs with confirmed or possible SARS-CoV-2 infection was high. There were less occurrences of high-risk exposure with patients than with colleagues, but those were associated with an increased risk of infection.

6.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-282103

ABSTRACT

Viral replication is dependent on interactions between viral polypeptides and host proteins. Identifying virus-host protein interactions can thus uncover unique opportunities for interfering with the virus life cycle via novel drug compounds or drug repurposing. Importantly, many viral-host protein interactions take place at intracellular membranes and poorly soluble organelles, which are difficult to profile using classical biochemical purification approaches. Applying proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID) with the fast-acting miniTurbo enzyme to 27 SARS-CoV-2 proteins in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line (A549), we detected 7810 proximity interactions (7382 of which are new for SARS-CoV-2) with 2242 host proteins (results available at covid19interactome.org). These results complement and dramatically expand upon recent affinity purification-based studies identifying stable host-virus protein complexes, and offer an unparalleled view of membrane-associated processes critical for viral production. Host cell organellar markers were also subjected to BioID in parallel, allowing us to propose modes of action for several viral proteins in the context of host proteome remodelling. In summary, our dataset identifies numerous high confidence proximity partners for SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, and describes potential mechanisms for their effects on specific host cell functions.

7.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-272955

ABSTRACT

The worldwide SARS-CoV-2 outbreak poses a serious challenge to human societies and economies. SARS-CoV-2 proteins orchestrate complex pathogenic mechanisms that underlie COVID-19 disease. Thus, understanding how viral polypeptides rewire host protein networks enables better-founded therapeutic research. In complement to existing proteomic studies, in this study we define the first proximal interaction network of SARS-CoV-2 proteins, at the whole proteome level in human cells. Applying a proximity-dependent biotinylation (BioID)-based approach greatly expanded the current knowledge by detecting interactions within poorly soluble compartments, transient, and/or of weak affinity in living cells. Our BioID study was complemented by a stringent filtering and uncovered 2,128 unique cellular targets (1,717 not previously associated with SARS-CoV-1 or 2 proteins) connected to the N- and C-ter BioID-tagged 28 SARS-CoV-2 proteins by a total of 5,415 (5,236 new) proximal interactions. In order to facilitate data exploitation, an innovative interactive 3D web interface was developed to allow customized analysis and exploration of the landscape of interactions (accessible at http://www.sars-cov-2-interactome.org/). Interestingly, 342 membrane proteins including interferon and interleukin pathways factors, were associated with specific viral proteins. We uncovered ORF7a and ORF7b protein proximal partners that could be related to anosmia and ageusia symptoms. Moreover, comparing proximal interactomes in basal and infection-mimicking conditions (poly(I:C) treatment) allowed us to detect novel links with major antiviral response pathway components, such as ORF9b with MAVS and ISG20; N with PKR and TARB2; NSP2 with RIG-I and STAT1; NSP16 with PARP9-DTX3L. Altogether, our study provides an unprecedented comprehensive resource for understanding how SARS-CoV-2 proteins orchestrate host proteome remodeling and innate immune response evasion, which can inform development of targeted therapeutic strategies.

8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20140178

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe extent of SARS-CoV-2 transmission among pupils in primary schools and their families is unknown. MethodsBetween 28-30 April 2020, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among pupils, their parents and relatives, and staff of primary schools exposed to SARS-CoV-2 in February and March 2020 in a city north of Paris, France. Participants completed a questionnaire that covered sociodemographic information and history of recent symptoms. A blood sample was tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a flow-cytometry-based assay. ResultsThe infection attack rate (IAR) was 45/510 (8.8%), 3/42 (7.1%), 1/28 (3.6%), 76/641 (11.9%) and 14/119 (11.8%) among primary school pupils, teachers, non-teaching staff, parents, and relatives, respectively (P = 0.29). Prior to school closure on February 14, three SARS-CoV-2 infected pupils attended three separate schools with no secondary cases in the following 14 days among pupils, teachers and non-teaching staff of the same schools. Familial clustering of cases was documented by the high proportion of antibodies among parents and relatives of infected pupils (36/59 = 61.0% and 4/9 = 44.4%, respectively). In children, disease manifestations were mild, and 24/58 (41.4%) of infected children were asymptomatic. InterpretationIn young children, SARS-CoV-2 infection was largely mild or asymptomatic and there was no evidence of onwards transmission from children in the school setting.

9.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20093963

ABSTRACT

BackgroundInfection with SARS-CoV-2 induces an antibody response targeting multiple antigens that changes over time. This complexity presents challenges and opportunities for serological diagnostics. MethodsA multiplex serological assay was developed to measure IgG and IgM antibody responses to seven SARS-CoV-2 spike or nucleoprotein antigens, two antigens for the nucleoproteins of the 229E and NL63 seasonal coronaviruses, and three non-coronavirus antigens. Antibodies were measured in serum samples from patients in French hospitals with RT-qPCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 259), and negative control serum samples collected before the start of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic (n = 335). A random forests algorithm was trained with the multiplex data to classify individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. A mathematical model of antibody kinetics informed by prior information from other coronaviruses was used to estimate time-varying antibody responses and assess the potential sensitivity and classification performance of serological diagnostics during the first year following symptom onset. A statistical estimator is presented that can provide estimates of seroprevalence in very low transmission settings. ResultsIgG antibody responses to trimeric Spike protein identified individuals with previous RT-qPCR confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection with 91.6% sensitivity (95% confidence interval (CI); 87.5%, 94.5%) and 99.1% specificity (95% CI; 97.4%, 99.7%). Using a serological signature of IgG and IgM to multiple antigens, it was possible to identify infected individuals with 98.8% sensitivity (95% CI; 96.5%, 99.6%) and 99.3% specificity (95% CI; 97.6%, 99.8%). Informed by prior data from other coronaviruses, we estimate that one year following infection a monoplex assay with optimal anti-Stri IgG cutoff has 88.7% sensitivity (95% CI: 63.4%, 97.4%), and that a multiplex assay can increase sensitivity to 96.4% (95% CI: 80.9%, 100.0%). When applied to population-level serological surveys, statistical analysis of multiplex data allows estimation of seroprevalence levels less than 1%, below the false positivity rate of many other assays. ConclusionSerological signatures based on antibody responses to multiple antigens can provide accurate and robust serological classification of individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. This provides potential solutions to two pressing challenges for SARS-CoV-2 serological surveillance: classifying individuals who were infected greater than six months ago, and measuring seroprevalence in serological surveys in very low transmission settings.

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20068858

ABSTRACT

It is of paramount importance to evaluate the prevalence of both asymptomatic and symptomatic cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection and their antibody response profile. Here, we performed a pilot study to assess the levels of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in samples taken from 491 pre-epidemic individuals, 51 patients from Hopital Bichat (Paris), 209 pauci-symptomatic individuals in the French Oise region and 200 contemporary Oise blood donors. Two in-house ELISA assays, that recognize the full-length nucleoprotein (N) or trimeric Spike (S) ectodomain were implemented. We also developed two novel assays: the S-Flow assay, which is based on the recognition of S at the cell surface by flow-cytometry, and the LIPS assay that recognizes diverse antigens (including S1 or N C-terminal domain) by immunoprecipitation. Overall, the results obtained with the four assays were similar, with differences in sensitivity that can be attributed to the technique and the antigen in use. High antibody titers were associated with neutralisation activity, assessed using infectious SARS-CoV-2 or lentiviral-S pseudotypes. In hospitalized patients, seroconversion and neutralisation occurred on 5-14 days post symptom onset, confirming previous studies. Seropositivity was detected in 29% of pauci-symptomatic individuals within 15 days post-symptoms and 3 % of blood of healthy donors collected in the area of a cluster of COVID cases. Altogether, our assays allow for a broad evaluation of SARS-CoV2 seroprevalence and antibody profiling in different population subsets.

11.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-20071134

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe Oise department in France has been heavily affected by COVID-19 in early 2020. MethodsBetween 30 March and 4 April 2020, we conducted a retrospective closed cohort study among pupils, their parents and siblings, as well as teachers and non-teaching staff of a high-school located in Oise. Participants completed a questionnaire that covered history of fever and/or respiratory symptoms since 13 January 2020 and had blood tested for the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The infection attack rate (IAR) was defined as the proportion of participants with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection based on antibody detection. Blood samples from two blood donor centres collected between 23 and 27 March 2020 in the Oise department were also tested for presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. FindingsOf the 661 participants (median age: 37 years), 171 participants had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The overall IAR was 25.9% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 22.6-29.4), and the infection fatality rate was 0% (one-sided 97.5% CI = 0 - 2.1). Nine of the ten participants hospitalised since mid-January were in the infected group, giving a hospitalisation rate of 5.3% (95% CI = 2.4 -9.8). Anosmia and ageusia had high positive predictive values for SARS-CoV-2 infection (84.7% and 88.1%, respectively). Smokers had a lower IAR compared to non-smokers (7.2% versus 28.0%, P <0.001). The proportion of infected individuals who had no symptoms during the study period was 17.0% (95% CI = - 23.4). The proportion of donors with anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in two nearby blood banks of the Oise department was 3.0% (95% CI = 1.1 - 6.4). InterpretationThe relatively low IAR observed in an area where SARS-CoV-2 actively circulated weeks before confinement measures indicates that establishing herd immunity will take time, and that lifting these measures in France will be long and complex. FundingInstitut Pasteur, CNRS, Universite de Paris, Sante publique France, Labex IBEID (ANR-10-LABX-62-IBEID), REACTing, EU grant Recover, INCEPTION project (PIA/ANR-16-CONV-0005). Research in contextO_ST_ABSEvidence before the studyC_ST_ABSThe first COVID-19 cases in France were reported on 24 January 2020. Substantial transmission has occurred since then, with the Oise department, north of Paris, one of the heaviest affected areas in the early stages of the epidemic in France. As of 13 April 2020, 98,076 cases had been diagnosed in France, including 5,379 deaths. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been widely reported, but this has largely been centred on cases requiring medical care. What remains unclear at this stage is the extent to which SARS-CoV-2 infections may be asymptomatic or present as subclinical, non-specific symptoms. While extensive contact tracing has identified asymptomatic infections using RT-PCR testing, serologic detection of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies is needed to determine the real infection attack rate and the proportion of all infections that are asymptomatic or subclinical. Added value of this studyUsing a combination of serologic assays with high sensitivity and specificity for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, we conducted a retrospective closed cohort study. In a high school linked to a cluster of COVID-19 in the Oise department, we showed an overall infection attack rate (IAR) of 40.9% in the high school group, and 10.9% in parents and siblings of the pupils. The proportion of infected individuals who had no symptoms during the study period was 17.0%. Implications of all of the available evidenceThe relatively low IAR in this area where SARS-CoV-2 actively circulated before confinement measures were introduced indicates that establishing herd immunity will take time, and that the lifting of these measures in France will be long and complex.

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