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1.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-321221

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 has not impacted people or countries uniformly. This disparity has prompted investigations to identify clinical and genetic predictors of COVID-19 mortality. Headache, a COVID-19 symptom, has been associated with positive disease prognosis in small cohorts, but larger confirmatory data-sets are lacking. Moreover, the global predisposition to experience primary headache disorders might be correlated with variances in COVID-19 mortality rates. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies of COVID-19 inpatient survival that also reported headache as a COVID-19 symptom. Separately, using a generalized additive model regression (GAM), we analysed data across 171 nations to identify variables which impact COVID-19 mortality rates. We performed similar analyses of seasonal influenza mortality. Prevalence data were extracted from the Global Health Data Exchange. Findings: We meta-analysed 48 studies and observed a significantly higher risk ratio of survival (RR:2·178 [1·882-2·520], p<0·0001) among COVID-19 inpatients with headache. In the global population-level analysis, we observed that a higher prevalence of headache disorders was associated with a higher COVID-19 mortality rate, and represented the main variable contributing to differences in COVID-19 mortality rates between countries (37·8%;F value=10·68). By contrast, we observed a negative trend between the prevalence of headache disorders and influenza death rates.Interpretation: Headache as a COVID-19 symptom enhances survival, whereas headache as a primary disorder is more prevalent in nations with higher COVID-19 mortality. Further studies should investigate (1) mechanisms whereby headache is associated with survival from certain viral infections and (2) whether selection pressures from viruses may have contributed to the evolution of primary headache disorders as adaptations.Funding: No funding was receivedDeclaration of Interests: Dr Shapiro has received in the past 12 months financial or editorial compensation as a research consultant for Eli Lilly and Lundbeck. Mr Gallardo reports no disclosures. Dr Caronna reports no disclosures. Dr Pozo-Rosich has received honoraria as a consultant and speaker for: Allergan-AbbVie, Almirall, Biohaven, Chiesi, Eli Lilly, Medscape, Neurodiem, Novartis and Teva. Her research group has received research grants from Novartis;has received funding for clinical trials from Alder, Amgen, Electrocore, Eli Lilly, Novartis, Teva. She is a trustee member of the board of the International Headache Society and the Council of the European Headache Federation. She is in the editorial board of Revista de Neurologia. She is an editor for Cephalalgia, Headache, Neurologia, Frontiers of Neurology and advisor for The Journal of Headache and Pain. She is a member of the Clinical Trials Guidelines Committee of the International Headache Society. She has edited the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Headache of the Spanish Neurological Society. She is the founder of www.midolordecabeza.org. PP-R does not own stocks from any pharmaceutical company. There are no conflicts of interest in regard to this manuscript.

2.
Cephalalgia ; : 3331024211068074, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685877

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Headache is a frequent symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Its long-term evolution remains unknown. We aim to evaluate the long-term duration of headache in patients that presented headache during the acute phase of COVID-19. METHODS: This is a post-hoc multicenter ambisective study including patients from six different third-level hospitals between 1 March and 27 April 2020. Patients completed 9 months of neurological follow-up. RESULTS: We included 905 patients. Their median age was 51 (IQR 45-65), 66.5% were female, and 52.7% had a prior history of primary headache. The median duration of headache was 14 (6-39) days; however, the headache persisted after 3 months in 19.0% (95% CI: 16.5-21.8%) and after 9 months in 16.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7-18.7%). Headache intensity during the acute phase was associated with a more prolonged duration of headache (Hazard ratio 0.655; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.737). CONCLUSION: The median duration of headache was 2 weeks, but in approximately a fifth of patients it became persistent and followed a chronic daily pattern.

3.
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(11): 73, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527506

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache is a common symptom of COVID-19 with emerging literature being published on the subject. Although it may seem unspecific, scientific evidence has allowed a better definition of this headache type, revealing relevant associations with other COVID-19 symptoms and prognoses. We therefore sought to highlight the most remarkable findings concerning headache secondary to COVID-19, specifically focusing on epidemiology, characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The real prevalence of headache as a symptom of COVID-19 is still unclear ranging from 10 to 70%. Headache mainly has a tension-type-like phenotype, although 25% of individuals present with migraine-like features that also occur in patients without personal migraine history. This finding suggests that a likely pathophysiological mechanism is the activation of the trigeminovascular system. SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism can occur by trans-synaptic invasion through the olfactory route from the nasal cavity, leading to anosmia which has been associated with headache. SARS-CoV-2 protein has been found not only in olfactory mucosa and bulbs but also in trigeminal branches and the trigeminal ganglion, supporting this hypothesis. However, other mechanisms such as brain vessels inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2 damage to the endothelium or systemic inflammation in the context of cytokine storm cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, headache has been associated with lower COVID-19 mortality. No specific treatment for COVID-19 headache is available at present. Studies show that investigating COVID-19 headache represents an opportunity not only to better understand COVID-19 in general but also to advance in the knowledge of both secondary and primary headaches. Future research is therefore warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Migraine Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tension-Type Headache/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/virology , Trigeminal Nerve/physiopathology , Trigeminal Nerve/virology , Viral Tropism
4.
Headache ; 61(8): 1277-1280, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345953

ABSTRACT

One year after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), referrals for persistent headache, often defined as "post-COVID headache," have become increasingly common in outpatient headache clinics. However, it is important to take into consideration that this term may include a spectrum of clinically different headache types. We describe three cases of migraine-like headaches in individuals with a history of mild COVID-19 infection to demonstrate some of the different phenotypes of persistent headaches seen. These cases highlight the importance of a careful evaluation when assessing the complexities of "post-COVID headache" as well as the need to further investigate the different, underlying, pathophysiological mechanisms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Migraine Disorders/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Cephalalgia ; 40(13): 1410-1421, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088416

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To define headache characteristics and evolution in relation to COVID-19 and its inflammatory response. METHODS: This is a prospective study, comparing clinical data and inflammatory biomarkers of COVID-19 patients with and without headache, recruited at the Emergency Room. We compared baseline with 6-week follow-up to evaluate disease evolution. RESULTS: Of 130 patients, 74.6% (97/130) had headache. In all, 24.7% (24/97) of patients had severe pain with migraine-like features. Patients with headache had more anosmia/ageusia (54.6% vs. 18.2%; p < 0.0001). Clinical duration of COVID-19 was shorter in the headache group (23.9 ± 11.6 vs. 31.2 ± 12.0 days; p = 0.028). In the headache group, IL-6 levels were lower at the ER (22.9 (57.5) vs. 57.0 (78.6) pg/mL; p = 0.036) and more stable during hospitalisation. After 6 weeks, of 74 followed-up patients with headache, 37.8% (28/74) had ongoing headache. Of these, 50% (14/28) had no previous headache history. Headache was the prodromal symptom of COVID-19 in 21.4% (6/28) of patients with persistent headache (p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Headache associated with COVID-19 is a frequent symptom, predictive of a shorter COVID-19 clinical course. Disabling headache can persist after COVID-19 resolution. Pathophysiologically, its migraine-like features may reflect an activation of the trigeminovascular system by inflammation or direct involvement of SARS-CoV-2, a hypothesis supported by concomitant anosmia.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prodromal Symptoms , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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