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Headache ; 63(2): 183-184, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2192618

COVID-19 , Humans , Headache , SARS-CoV-2
Cephalalgia ; 43(1): 3331024221131337, 2023 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194918


OBJECTIVE: The objective is to summarize the knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and management of secondary headache attributed to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination; as well as to delineate their impact on primary headache disorders. METHODS: This is a narrative review of the literature regarding primary and secondary headache disorders in the setting of COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a literature search in 2022 on PubMed, with the keywords "COVID 19" or "vaccine" and "headache" to assess the appropriateness of all published articles for their inclusion in the review. RESULTS: Headache is a common and sometimes difficult-to-treat symptom of both the acute and post-acute phase of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Different pathophysiological mechanisms may be involved, with the trigeminovascular system as a plausible target. Specific evidence-based effective therapeutic options are lacking at present. Headache attributed to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations is also common, its pathophysiology being unclear. People with primary headache disorders experience headache in the acute phase of COVID-19 and after vaccination more commonly than the general population. Pandemic measures, forcing lifestyle changes, seemed to have had a positive impact on migraine, and changes in headache care (telemedicine) have been effectively introduced. CONCLUSIONS: The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is a global challenge, having an impact on the development of secondary headaches, both in people with or without primary headaches. This has created opportunities to better understand and treat headache and to potentiate strategies to manage patients and ensure care.

COVID-19 , Migraine Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Headache/epidemiology , Headache/etiology , Headache/diagnosis , Migraine Disorders/complications
Headache ; 62(8): 1019-1028, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2019282


OBJECTIVE: To study the relationship between coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality and headache among patients evaluated for COVID-19 in Emergency Departments and hospitals. BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has disparate impacts on those who contract it. Headache, a COVID-19 symptom, has been associated with positive disease prognosis. We sought to determine whether headache is associated with relative risk of COVID-19 survival. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed was performed independently by three reviewers to identify all COVID-19 clinical inpatient series in accordance with the PRISMA guideline. Studies were included if the study design, COVID-19 confirmation method, disease survival ratio, and presence of headache symptom were accessible. We included 48 cohort studies with a total of 43,169 inpatients with COVID-19: 81.4% survived (35,132/43,169) versus 18.6% non-survived (8037/43,169). A meta-analysis of the included studies was then performed. The study was registered on PROSPERO (ID: CRD42021260151). RESULTS: When considering headache as a symptom of COVID-19, we observed a significantly higher survival rate (risk ratio: 1.90 [1.46, 2.47], p < 0.0001) among COVID-19 inpatients with headache compared to those without headache. CONCLUSION: Headache among patients with COVID-19 presenting to hospitals may be a marker of host processes which enhance COVID-19 survival. Future studies should further confirm these findings, in order to better understand this relation and to try to address possible limitations related to the inclusion of more severe patients who would be unable to report symptoms (e.g., patients who were intubated).

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Headache , Humans , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2
Headache ; 62(6): 648-649, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1879032
Cephalalgia ; 42(8): 804-809, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685877


BACKGROUND: Headache is a frequent symptoms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Its long-term evolution remains unknown. We aim to evaluate the long-term duration of headache in patients that presented headache during the acute phase of COVID-19. METHODS: This is a post-hoc multicenter ambisective study including patients from six different third-level hospitals between 1 March and 27 April 2020. Patients completed 9 months of neurological follow-up. RESULTS: We included 905 patients. Their median age was 51 (IQR 45-65), 66.5% were female, and 52.7% had a prior history of primary headache. The median duration of headache was 14 (6-39) days; however, the headache persisted after 3 months in 19.0% (95% CI: 16.5-21.8%) and after 9 months in 16.0% (95% confidence interval: 13.7-18.7%). Headache intensity during the acute phase was associated with a more prolonged duration of headache (Hazard ratio 0.655; 95% confidence interval: 0.582-0.737). CONCLUSION: The median duration of headache was 2 weeks, but in approximately a fifth of patients it became persistent and followed a chronic daily pattern.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
Curr Pain Headache Rep ; 25(11): 73, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1527506


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Headache is a common symptom of COVID-19 with emerging literature being published on the subject. Although it may seem unspecific, scientific evidence has allowed a better definition of this headache type, revealing relevant associations with other COVID-19 symptoms and prognoses. We therefore sought to highlight the most remarkable findings concerning headache secondary to COVID-19, specifically focusing on epidemiology, characteristics, pathophysiology, and treatments. RECENT FINDINGS: The real prevalence of headache as a symptom of COVID-19 is still unclear ranging from 10 to 70%. Headache mainly has a tension-type-like phenotype, although 25% of individuals present with migraine-like features that also occur in patients without personal migraine history. This finding suggests that a likely pathophysiological mechanism is the activation of the trigeminovascular system. SARS-CoV-2 neurotropism can occur by trans-synaptic invasion through the olfactory route from the nasal cavity, leading to anosmia which has been associated with headache. SARS-CoV-2 protein has been found not only in olfactory mucosa and bulbs but also in trigeminal branches and the trigeminal ganglion, supporting this hypothesis. However, other mechanisms such as brain vessels inflammation due to SARS-CoV-2 damage to the endothelium or systemic inflammation in the context of cytokine storm cannot be ruled out. Interestingly, headache has been associated with lower COVID-19 mortality. No specific treatment for COVID-19 headache is available at present. Studies show that investigating COVID-19 headache represents an opportunity not only to better understand COVID-19 in general but also to advance in the knowledge of both secondary and primary headaches. Future research is therefore warranted.

COVID-19/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Headache/therapy , Humans , Inflammation , Migraine Disorders/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tension-Type Headache/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/physiopathology , Trigeminal Ganglion/virology , Trigeminal Nerve/physiopathology , Trigeminal Nerve/virology , Viral Tropism
Headache ; 61(8): 1277-1280, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345953


One year after the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), referrals for persistent headache, often defined as "post-COVID headache," have become increasingly common in outpatient headache clinics. However, it is important to take into consideration that this term may include a spectrum of clinically different headache types. We describe three cases of migraine-like headaches in individuals with a history of mild COVID-19 infection to demonstrate some of the different phenotypes of persistent headaches seen. These cases highlight the importance of a careful evaluation when assessing the complexities of "post-COVID headache" as well as the need to further investigate the different, underlying, pathophysiological mechanisms.

COVID-19/complications , Migraine Disorders/virology , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
Cephalalgia ; 40(13): 1410-1421, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088416


OBJECTIVE: To define headache characteristics and evolution in relation to COVID-19 and its inflammatory response. METHODS: This is a prospective study, comparing clinical data and inflammatory biomarkers of COVID-19 patients with and without headache, recruited at the Emergency Room. We compared baseline with 6-week follow-up to evaluate disease evolution. RESULTS: Of 130 patients, 74.6% (97/130) had headache. In all, 24.7% (24/97) of patients had severe pain with migraine-like features. Patients with headache had more anosmia/ageusia (54.6% vs. 18.2%; p < 0.0001). Clinical duration of COVID-19 was shorter in the headache group (23.9 ± 11.6 vs. 31.2 ± 12.0 days; p = 0.028). In the headache group, IL-6 levels were lower at the ER (22.9 (57.5) vs. 57.0 (78.6) pg/mL; p = 0.036) and more stable during hospitalisation. After 6 weeks, of 74 followed-up patients with headache, 37.8% (28/74) had ongoing headache. Of these, 50% (14/28) had no previous headache history. Headache was the prodromal symptom of COVID-19 in 21.4% (6/28) of patients with persistent headache (p = 0.010). CONCLUSIONS: Headache associated with COVID-19 is a frequent symptom, predictive of a shorter COVID-19 clinical course. Disabling headache can persist after COVID-19 resolution. Pathophysiologically, its migraine-like features may reflect an activation of the trigeminovascular system by inflammation or direct involvement of SARS-CoV-2, a hypothesis supported by concomitant anosmia.

Coronavirus Infections/complications , Headache/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Prodromal Symptoms , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2