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1.
Nutrients ; 14(16)2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1979324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with the severity of COVID-19. The role of vitamin D in pregnant women with COVID-19 has been poorly investigated to date. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of vitamin D in affecting some clinical features in pregnancy between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative patients. METHODS: Vitamin D pathway related polymorphisms and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were quantified in pregnant women followed from the first to the third trimester of pregnancy. Vitamin D deficiency was considered with values ≤ 30 ng/mL. RESULTS: In total, 160 women were enrolled: 23 resulted positive for at least one SARS-CoV-2 related test (molecular swab or antibody tests). Vitamin D-associated polymorphisms were able to affect vitamin D levels in SARS-CoV-2 negative and positive subjects: remarkably, all the VDR TaqICC genotype patients were negative for SARS-CoV-2. In a sub-population (118 patients), vitamin D levels correlated with pregnancy-related factors, such as alpha-fetoprotein levels. Third-trimester vitamin D levels were lower in preterm births compared to full-term pregnancy: this trend was highlighted for SARS-CoV-2 positive patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study demonstrating a role of vitamin D in affecting the clinical characteristics of pregnant women during the COVID-19 era. Further studies in larger and different cohorts of patients are required to confirm these findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy , Premature Birth , Vitamin D Deficiency , Vitamin D , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/complications , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy/blood , Premature Birth/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/blood , Vitamin D Deficiency/complications
2.
Biomedicines ; 10(3)2022 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731944

ABSTRACT

Despite Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) -induced Oxidative Stress (OxS) being well documented in different organs, the molecular pathways underlying placental OxS in late-pregnancy women with SARS-CoV-2 infection are poorly understood. Herein, we performed an observational study to determine whether placentae of women testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 during the third trimester of pregnancy showed redox-related alterations involving Catalase (CAT) and Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) antioxidant enzymes as well as placenta morphological anomalies relative to a cohort of healthy pregnant women. Next, we evaluated if placental redox-related alterations and mitochondria pathological changes were correlated with the presence of maternal symptoms. We observed ultrastructural alterations of placental mitochondria accompanied by increased levels of oxidative stress markers Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) and Hypoxia Inducible Factor-1 α (HIF-1α) in SARS-CoV-2 women during the third trimester of pregnancy. Importantly, we found an increase in placental CAT and SOD antioxidant enzymes accompanied by physiological neonatal outcomes. Our findings strongly suggest a placenta-mediated OxS inhibition in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, thus contrasting the cytotoxic profile caused by Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).

3.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-318439

ABSTRACT

Background: Trauma, natural and man-made catastrophic events can be predictors of postpartum psychological distress. In a public health response due to coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the Italian government imposed a lockdown from March 9 to May 3. This extraordinary situation may have been challenging for maternal psychological health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in women giving birth during the Covid-19 pandemic and its associations with quarantine measures, obstetrical factors, and relational attachment style. Methods: Women who gave birth in a high-volume obstetric/gynaecological medical centre located in an epidemic area during the Covid-19 pandemic (March 8 to June 15) were asked to complete an online survey about their childbirth experience and the perceived effect of the pandemic. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) were administered to assess levels of postpartum depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and relational style of attachment, respectively. Multivariate analysis was applied to identify associations between quarantine measures, childbirth experience, attachment style, and EPDS and IES-R scores. Results: The survey was completed by 163 women (response rate 60.8%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.2% (EPDS cut-off score ≥11) and the PTSS rate was 42.9% (IES-R cut-off score ≥24). Dismissive and fearful avoidant attachment styles were significantly associated with the risk of depression and PTSS, respectively. Perceived pain during birth was a risk factor for postpartum depression. Perceived support provided by healthcare staff was a protective factor against depression and PTSS. Another protective factor against PTSS was quiet on the ward due to the absence of hospital visitors. Conclusion: This study reports a high prevalence of postpartum depressive and PTSS in women who gave birth during the Covid-19 pandemic. Postnatal psychological distress seemed to be associated more with the prenatal experience and other individual factors than with the pandemic hospital restrictions. Early detection during pregnancy of an insecure attachment style is fundamental to provide targeted preventive and therapeutic psychological interventions.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306757

ABSTRACT

Infection by SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to involve a wide range of organs and tissues, leading to a kaleidoscope of clinical conditions. Within this spectrum, an increased rate of preterm deliveries has been reported in women with COVID-19. High expression of proteins (ACE2/TMPRSS2) required for SARS- CoV-2 cell entry has been observed in the maternal-fetal tissues, supporting the possibility of placental viral involvement. A consecutive series of 6 placentas, delivered by 5 women with COVID-19 have been investigated. Three out of six placentas showed changes consistent with chronic villitis, while in one case chronic histiocytic intervillositis was diagnosed. Vascular abnormalities consisting of thrombo- hemorrhagic alterations were identified in the three cases with chronic villitis. These pathological findings: i) provide a basis to explain the higher rate of obstetric complications in these patients;2) suggest the need to investigate heparin use in COVID-19 affected pregnant patients to prevent adverse outcomes.

5.
J Obstet Gynaecol Res ; 48(2): 393-401, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528399

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE(S): This prospective observational cohort study aimed to evaluate whether women with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are at higher risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes compared to negative patients. STUDY DESIGN: Seromolecular testing for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at 12, 16, 21 weeks, and at delivery; the cohort was then subdivided into a first-trimester SARS-CoV-2-positive (case) group and a SARS-CoV-2-negative (control) group. The primary outcome was a composite adverse obstetric outcome, defined as the presence of either abortion, preterm delivery, preterm prelabor rupture of membranes, preeclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, stillbirth; and a composite measure of adverse neonatal events, including either 1- and 5-min Apgar score ≤ 7, neonatal intensive care unit admission and congenital birth defects. Maternal symptoms and antibody titer were secondarily assessed. RESULTS: A total of 17 of 164 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (10.3%) in the first trimester. One SARS-CoV-2-positive patient who gave birth at another hospital was excluded. Composite adverse obstetric outcome was observed in 6.2% (1/16) SARS-CoV-2-positive and 10.5% (11/105) SARS-CoV-2-negative women; composite adverse neonatal outcome in 12.5% (2/16) and 7.6% (8/105), respectively. In the newborns of women who had developed IgG antibodies, the same antibodies were detected in arterial cord blood and the nasopharyngeal swab tested negative for SARS-CoV-2. No maternal pneumonia or hospital admission due to coronavirus disease-19 were recorded. CONCLUSION: Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic women during the first trimester of pregnancy did not experience significantly more adverse events than SARS-CoV-2-negative women.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Premature Birth , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
PLoS One ; 16(8): e0254875, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344151

ABSTRACT

Evidence for the real impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on preterm birth is unclear, as available series report composite pregnancy outcomes and/or do not stratify patients according to disease severity. The purpose of the research was to determine the real impact of asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection on preterm birth not due to maternal respiratory failure. This case-control study involved women admitted to Sant Anna Hospital, Turin, for delivery between 20 September 2020 and 9 January 2021. The cumulative incidence of Coronavirus disease-19 was compared between preterm birth (case group, n = 102) and full-term delivery (control group, n = 127). Only women with spontaneous or medically-indicated preterm birth because of placental vascular malperfusion (pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications) were included. Current or past SARS-CoV-2 infection was determined by nasopharyngeal swab testing and detection of IgM/IgG antibodies in blood samples. A significant difference in the cumulative incidence of Coronavirus disease-19 between the case (21/102, 20.5%) and the control group (32/127, 25.1%) (P= 0.50) was not observed, although the case group was burdened by a higher prevalence of three known risk factors (body mass index > 24.9, asthma, chronic hypertension) for severe Coronavirus disease-19. Logistic regression analysis showed that asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection was not an independent predictor of spontaneous and medically-indicated preterm birth due to pregnancy-related hypertension and its complications (0.77; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-1.43). Pregnant patients without comorbidities need to be reassured that asymptomatic/mild SARS-CoV-2 infection does not increase the risk of preterm delivery. Preterm birth and severe Coronavirus disease-19 share common risk factors (i.e., body mass index > 24.9, asthma, chronic hypertension), which may explain the high rate of indicated preterm birth due to maternal conditions reported in the literature.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Carrier State/immunology , Premature Birth/immunology , Abortion, Spontaneous , Adult , Carrier State/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Premature Birth/epidemiology , Premature Birth/virology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(12)2021 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282458

ABSTRACT

Medical procreation impairs both the biological and psychological lives of couples. However, male and female attitudes to infertility are different and require a different approach during the IVF journey. Thus, the gender impact assessment (GIA) method was used to analyse original studies present in the literature. We found some gender-related differences and, subsequently, possible outcomes of intervention to improve healthy reproduction management and prevent infertility. In particular, it became apparent that there was the need for an in-depth male infertility assessment and a gender-specific follow-up.


Subject(s)
Infertility, Male , Female , Health Status , Humans , Infertility, Male/diagnosis , Male , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Sex Factors
8.
Virchows Arch ; 479(4): 715-728, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1209750

ABSTRACT

Infection by SARS-CoV-2 has been shown to involve a wide range of organs and tissues, leading to a kaleidoscope of clinical conditions. Within this spectrum, an involvement of the fetal-maternal unit could be expected, but, so far, the histopathological evaluation of placentas delivered by women with SARS-CoV-2 infection did not show distinct hallmarks. A consecutive series of 11 placentas, delivered by 10 women with COVID-19 admitted to our Obstetrics and Gynecology clinic have been investigated and compared to a control cohort of 58 pre-COVID-19 placentas and 28 placentas delivered by women who had a previous cesarean section. Four out of eleven placentas showed changes consistent with chronic villitis/villitis of unknown etiology (VUE), while in one case, chronic histiocytic intervillositis was diagnosed. Thrombo-hemorrhagic alterations were observed in a subset of cases. Compared to the control cohort, chronic villitis/VUE (p < 0.001), chronic deciduitis (p = 0.023), microvascular thrombosis (p = 0.003), presence of infarction areas (p = 0.047) and of accelerated villous maturation (p = 0.005) showed higher frequencies in placentas delivered by women with COVID-19. Chronic villitis/VUE (p = 0.003) and accelerated villous maturation (p = 0.019) remained statistically significant by restricting the analysis to placentas delivered after a previous cesarean section. The observed differences in terms of pathological findings could be consistent with SARS-CoV-2 pathogenesis, but just a subset of alterations remained statistically significant after adjusting for a previous cesarean section. A careful consideration of potential confounders is warranted in future studies exploring the relationship between COVID-19 and pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Placenta/pathology , Adult , COVID-19/metabolism , Chorionic Villi/pathology , Chorionic Villi/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Inflammation/pathology , Inflammation/virology , Placenta/metabolism , Placenta/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Thrombosis/pathology , Thrombosis/virology
9.
J Med Virol ; 93(1): 537-540, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1206792

ABSTRACT

Congenitally- or perinatally-acquired viral infections can be harmful to the fetus but data are limited about prevalence and outcomes of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease during the first trimester of pregnancy. We report epidemiologic data from a study investigating a cohort of women who became pregnant just before or during the COVID-19 pandemic. We recruited 138 consecutive pregnant women attending for first trimester screening (11-13 weeks of gestation) at Sant'Anna Hospital, Turin, Piedmont, Italy, during the plateau and the falling phase of the COVID-19 epidemic curve. Patients were tested for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) immunoglobulin M/immunoglobulin G antibody levels and SARS-CoV-2 detection in sera and nasopharyngeal swab samples. COVID-19 cumulative incidence during the first trimester was of 10.1% with high prevalence of asymptomatic patients (42.8%). Similar to the course of the disease in non pregnant adults, 80% to 90% of infections were not severe.The prevalence of reported symptoms was four-fold higher in SARS-CoV-2 positive patients (57%) than in those negative (13%) (P < .001), suggesting that direct self-testing should open doors to confirmatory testing for COVID-19. Our findings support the need for COVID-19 screening in early pregnancy in epidemic areas to plan materno-fetal health surveillance programs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
10.
Am J Obstet Gynecol MFM ; 3(4): 100329, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198585

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It has still to be ascertained whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection in pregnancy is associated with worse maternal and fetal outcomes compared to low risk gestations. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes in high- and low-risk pregnancies complicated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: This was a multinational retrospective cohort study involving women with laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection from 76 centers from 25 countries in Europe, the United States, South America, Asia, and Australia from April 4, 2020, to October 28, 2020. The primary outcome was a composite measure of maternal mortality and morbidity, including admission to the intensive care unit, use of mechanical ventilation, or death. The secondary outcome was a composite measure of adverse perinatal outcome, including miscarriage, fetal loss, neonatal and perinatal death, and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit. All outcomes were assessed in high- and low-risk pregnancies. Pregnancies were considered high risk in case of either preexisting chronic medical conditions in pregnancy or obstetrical disorders occurring in pregnancy. The Fisher exact test and logistic regression analysis were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 887 singleton pregnancies who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of nasal and pharyngeal swab specimens were included in the study. The risk of composite adverse maternal outcomes was higher in high-risk pregnancies than in low-risk pregnancies (odds ratio, 1.52; 95% confidence interval, 1.03-2.24; P=.035). In addition, women carrying high-risk pregnancies were at higher risk of hospital admission (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.04; P=.002), presence of severe respiratory symptoms (odds ratio, 2.13; 95% confidence interval, 0.41-3.21; P=.001), admission to the intensive care unit (odds ratio, 2.63; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-4.88), and invasive mechanical ventilation (odds ratio, 2.65; 95% confidence interval, 1.19-5.94; P=.002). When exploring perinatal outcomes, high-risk pregnancies were at high risk of adverse perinatal outcomes (odds ratio, 1.78; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-2.72; P=.009). However, such association was mainly because of the higher incidence of miscarriage in high-risk pregnancies compared with that in low-risk pregnancies (5.3% vs 1.6%, P=.008); furthermore, there was no difference in other explored outcomes between the 2 study groups. At logistic regression analysis, maternal age (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.22; P=.023) and high-risk pregnancy (odds ratio, 4.21; 95% confidence interval, 3.90-5.11; P<.001) were independently associated with adverse maternal outcomes. CONCLUSION: High-risk pregnancies complicated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection were at higher risk of adverse maternal outcomes than low-risk pregnancies complicated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy Outcome , Asia , Australia , Europe , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/diagnosis , Pregnancy Outcome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , South America
11.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 11(3)2021 Feb 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115413

ABSTRACT

This prospective observational study aimed to evaluate whether women with SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy are at higher risk of noninvasive prenatal screening test alterations and/or of congenital fetal anomalies at the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan. Maternal symptoms were secondly investigated. The study was carried out on 12-week pregnant women admitted for noninvasive prenatal testing (16 April and 22 June 2020). The cohort had seromolecular tests for SARS-CoV-2, after which they were divided into a positive case group and a negative control group. Both groups had 20-week ultrasound screening. Seventeen out of the 164 women tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (10.3%). There were no significant differences in mean nuchal translucency thickness or biochemical markers (pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, alpha-fetoprotein, human chorionic gonadotropin, unconjugated estriol) between cases and controls (p = 0.77, 0.63, 0.30, 0.40, 0.28) or in the fetal incidence of structural anomalies at the second-trimester fetal anatomy scan (p = 0.21). No pneumonia or hospital admission due to COVID-19-related symptoms were observed. Asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy did not predispose affected women to more fetal anomalies than unaffected women. COVID-19 had a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy in our healthy cohort.

12.
J Reprod Immunol ; 144: 103285, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062496

ABSTRACT

We report herein the longest-lasting study of SARS-CoV-2 antibody profile in pregnancy, from first trimester-infection to delivery. Seventeen out of 164 pregnant women tested positive for COVID-19. Throughout pregnancy, the neutralizing antibody titer remained stable, whilst a significant decline in the non-neutralizing antibodies was observed after 16 weeks of gestation. All the newborns of women who developed IgG antibodies showed the presence of the same antibodies in arterial cord blood. Knowledge on the longevity and type of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response may help to guide vaccination strategies in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/blood , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
13.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 20(1): 703, 2020 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934262

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Trauma, natural and man-made catastrophic events can be predictors of postpartum psychological distress. In a public health response due to coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak, the Italian government imposed a lockdown from March 9 to May 3. This extraordinary situation may have been challenging for maternal psychological health. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms in women giving birth during the Covid-19 pandemic and its associations with quarantine measures, obstetrical factors, and relational attachment style. METHODS: Women who gave birth in a high-volume obstetric/gynaecological medical centre located in an epidemic area during the Covid-19 pandemic (March 8 to June 15) were asked to complete an online survey about their childbirth experience and the perceived effect of the pandemic. The Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), and the Relationship Questionnaire (RQ) were administered to assess levels of postpartum depressive and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) and relational style of attachment, respectively. Multivariate analysis was applied to identify associations between quarantine measures, childbirth experience, attachment style, and EPDS and IES-R scores. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 163 women (response rate 60.8%). The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 44.2% (EPDS cut-off score ≥ 11) and the PTSS rate was 42.9% (IES-R cut-off score ≥ 24). Dismissive and fearful avoidant attachment styles were significantly associated with the risk of depression and PTSS, respectively. Perceived pain during birth was a risk factor for postpartum depression. Perceived support provided by healthcare staff was a protective factor against depression and PTSS. Another protective factor against PTSS was quiet on the ward due to the absence of hospital visitors. CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of postpartum depressive and PTSS in women who gave birth during the Covid-19 pandemic. Postnatal psychological distress seemed to be associated more with the prenatal experience and other individual factors than with the pandemic hospital restrictions. Early detection during pregnancy of an insecure attachment style is fundamental to provide targeted preventive and therapeutic psychological interventions.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Depression, Postpartum , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Pregnant Women/psychology , Psychological Distress , Quarantine/psychology , Adult , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Depression, Postpartum/epidemiology , Depression, Postpartum/etiology , Depression, Postpartum/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Parturition/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Psychology , Psychosocial Support Systems , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/prevention & control
14.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 224(4): 391.e1-391.e7, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was named coronavirus disease 2019 and classified as a global public health emergency. The evidence related to the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 on pregnancy is limited to the second and third trimester of pregnancy, whereas data on the first trimester are scant. Many viral infections can be harmful to the fetus during the first trimester of pregnancy, and whether severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is one of them is still unknown. OBJECTIVE: With this study, we evaluated severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection as a risk factor for early pregnancy loss in the first trimester of pregnancy. Furthermore, coronavirus disease 2019 course in the first trimester was assessed. STUDY DESIGN: Between February 22 and May 21, 2020, we conducted a case-control study at S. Anna Hospital, Turin, among pregnant women in their first trimester, paired for last menstruation. The cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 was compared between women with spontaneous abortion (case group, n=100) and those with ongoing pregnancy (control group, n=125). Current or past infection was determined by the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 from nasopharyngeal swab and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies in a blood sample. Patient demographics, coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms, and the main risk factors for abortion were collected. RESULTS: Of 225 women, 23 (10.2%) had a positive test result for coronavirus disease 2019. There was no difference in the cumulative incidence of coronavirus disease 2019 between the cases (11/100, 11%) and the controls (12/125, 9.6%) (P=.73). Logistic regression analysis confirmed that coronavirus disease 2019 was not an independent predictor of early pregnancy loss (odds ratio, 1.28; confidence interval, 0.53-3.08). Coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms in the first trimester were fever, anosmia, ageusia, cough, arthralgia, and diarrhea; no cases of pneumonia or hospital admission owing to coronavirus disease 2019-related symptoms were recorded. No difference in the incidence of symptoms was noted between the 2 groups. CONCLUSION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection during the first trimester of pregnancy does not seem to predispose to early pregnancy loss; its cumulative incidence did not differ between women with spontaneous abortion and women with ongoing pregnancy. Coronavirus disease 2019 appears to have a favorable maternal course at the beginning of pregnancy, consistent with what has been observed during the second and third trimesters.


Subject(s)
Abortion, Spontaneous/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Case-Control Studies , Female , Humans , Logistic Models , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Trimester, First , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
15.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 250: 246-249, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-741189

ABSTRACT

The risk of vertical transmission during vaginal delivery in COVID-19 pregnant patients is currently a topic of debate. Obstetric norms on vaginal birth assistance to reduce the potential risk of perinatal infection should be promoted by ensuring that the risk of contamination from maternal anus and faecal material is reduced during vaginal delivery.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Delivery, Obstetric/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Pregnancy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vagina/virology
16.
Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol ; 253: 148-153, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-726508

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE(S): to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on infertile couples' emotions, anxiety and future plans. STUDY DESIGN: An observational study was perfomed by Italian ART centers and online forums. In this study, infertile couples candidate to ART and whose treatment was blocked due to the COVID-19 lockdown were enrolled through an online survey. The psychological impact of COVID-19 was measured by Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and by a short form of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI); Self-perceived anxiety related either to pregnancy safety and to economic crisis measured by VAS scale. RESULTS: 627 patients completed the survey. The COVID-19 lock-down had a moderate/severe psychological impact on infertile patients (mean IES-R score 36.4 ± 16.6). The mean STAI score was 49.8 ± 15.3, with an overall incidence of STAI > 36 of 71 %. The mean VAS scale for anxiety perception was 45.3 ± 15.3. Women were more emotionally distressed, anxious and depressed than men (36.8 ± 16.4 vs 31.0 ± 18.4 for IES-R, respectively; p = 0.03). Notwithstanding the uncertainty about pregnancy safety, 64.6 % of respondents chose to maintain their reproductive programme. Economic crisis induced 11.5 % of the surveyed patients to give up their ART program. Respondents who had at least one relative affected by COVID-19 had a significantly higher IES-R score and anxiety VAS, but not higher STAI scores, than patients belonging to unaffected families. CONCLUSION(S): COVID-19 pandemic itself and the recommendation to stop ART program generated higher distress levels in infertile couples. The psychological impact of COVID-19 pandemic in infertility patients should not be underestimated, and a specific psychological support should be planned.


Subject(s)
Anxiety/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , Infertility/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Quarantine/psychology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Adult , Anxiety/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Emotions , Female , Health Status , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/prevention & control , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/psychology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
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