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Cells ; 11(6)2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760407


A distinct set of channels and transporters regulates the ion fluxes across the lysosomal membrane. Malfunctioning of these transport proteins and the resulting ionic imbalance is involved in various human diseases, such as lysosomal storage disorders, cancer, as well as metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases. As a consequence, these proteins have stimulated strong interest for their suitability as possible drug targets. A detailed functional characterization of many lysosomal channels and transporters is lacking, mainly due to technical difficulties in applying the standard patch-clamp technique to these small intracellular compartments. In this review, we focus on current methods used to unravel the functional properties of lysosomal ion channels and transporters, stressing their advantages and disadvantages and evaluating their fields of applicability.

Ion Channels , Lysosomal Storage Diseases , Humans , Intracellular Membranes/metabolism , Ion Channels/metabolism , Ions/metabolism , Lysosomal Storage Diseases/metabolism , Lysosomes/metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques
Phys Chem Chem Phys ; 23(34): 18461-18474, 2021 Sep 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373454


Subcellular and organellar mechanisms have manifested a prominent importance for a broad variety of processes that maintain cellular life at its most basic level. Mammalian two-pore channels (TPCs) appear to be cornerstones of these processes in endo-lysosomes by controlling delicate ion-concentrations in their interiors. With evolutionary remarkable architecture and one-of-a-kind selectivity filter, TPCs are an extremely attractive topic per se. In the light of the current COVID-19 pandemic, hTPC2 emerges to be more than attractive. As a key regulator of the endocytosis pathway, it is potentially essential for diverse viral infections in humans, as demonstrated. Here, by means of multiscale molecular simulations, we propose a model of sodium transport from the lumen to the cytosol where the central cavity works as a reservoir. Since the inhibition of hTPC2 is proven to stop SARS-CoV2 in vitro, shedding light on the hTPC2 function and mechanism is the first step towards the selection of potential inhibiting candidates.

Ion Channel Gating , Ligand-Gated Ion Channels/physiology , Sodium/metabolism , COVID-19 , Ligand-Gated Ion Channels/metabolism , Ligands , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Cells ; 10(5)2021 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1223961


The flavonoid naringenin (Nar), present in citrus fruits and tomatoes, has been identified as a blocker of an emerging class of human intracellular channels, namely the two-pore channel (TPC) family, whose role has been established in several diseases. Indeed, Nar was shown to be effective against neoangiogenesis, a process essential for solid tumor progression, by specifically impairing TPC activity. The goal of the present review is to illustrate the rationale that links TPC channels to the mechanism of coronavirus infection, and how their inhibition by Nar could be an efficient pharmacological strategy to fight the current pandemic plague COVID-19.

COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcium Channel Blockers/pharmacology , Calcium Channels/metabolism , Flavanones/pharmacology , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Arabidopsis/metabolism , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Endosomes/drug effects , Endosomes/metabolism , Endosomes/virology , Flavanones/therapeutic use , Humans , Lysosomes/drug effects , Lysosomes/metabolism , Lysosomes/virology , Neoplasms/blood supply , Neoplasms/pathology , Neovascularization, Pathologic/drug therapy , Neovascularization, Pathologic/pathology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vacuoles/metabolism , Virus Internalization/drug effects