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Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2221, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575100


The current pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus infection is known as Covid-19 (coronavirus disease 2019). This disease can be asymptomatic or can affect multiple organ systems. Damage induced by the virus is related to dysfunctional activity of the immune system, but the activity of molecules such as C-reactive protein (CRP) as a factor capable of inducing an inflammatory status that may be involved in the severe evolution of the disease, has not been extensively evaluated. A systematic review was performed using the NCBI-PubMed database to find articles related to Covid-19 immunity, inflammatory response, and CRP published from December 2019 to December 2020. High levels of CRP were found in patients with severe evolution of Covid-19 in which several organ systems were affected and in patients who died. CRP activates complement, induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and induces apoptosis which, together with the inflammatory status during the disease, can lead to a severe outcome. Several drugs can decrease the level or block the effect of CRP and might be useful in the treatment of Covid-19. From this review it is reasonable to conclude that CRP is a factor that can contribute to severe evolution of Covid-19 and that the use of drugs able to lower CRP levels or block its activity should be evaluated in randomized controlled clinical trials.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/drug therapy , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , ADAM17 Protein/antagonists & inhibitors , ADAM17 Protein/genetics , ADAM17 Protein/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/genetics , C-Reactive Protein/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Celecoxib/therapeutic use , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Cytokines/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Disease Progression , Doxycycline/therapeutic use , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis
Curr Trop Med Rep ; : 1-6, 2020 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-911980


PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Acute respiratory infections of viral etiology (ARIVE) constitute one of the most frequent infectious processes among humans. They cause significant morbidity and mortality every year in all age groups and regions of the world. Their etiology is diverse, and seasonal viruses began their journey, at some point, with an episode of expansion before their annual circulation as seasonal agents. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge for Latin America. Understanding dynamics is essential for decision making, to reduce the health, economic, and social impacts of the pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently, governments in Latin America have taken measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19 primarily based on World Health Organization recommendations. However, the potential impact of the virus in Latin America is still unknown. Given the urgency, governments need more accurate estimates of what could happen in Latin America in order to make informed decisions, At the September 20, 2020, cumulative cases 2295 of COVID-19 per 1 million population has been registered in Latin America and the Caribbean. Brazil, Peru, and Chile are the most countries affected by this pandemic, registering a total of cumulative cases per million inhabitants of 21,148, 22,941, and 23,262 respectively. Peru has shown the highest death numbers with 949 per million inhabitants. SUMMARY: The Latin American health authorities should make the most beneficial decisions based in scientific facts for the health and life of citizens, both understood in the broadest and most inclusive sense.Once the epidemic is over, Latin America should begin a profound health reform, at a single and universal health system, integrated and coordinated, where the leading role of the Ministry of Health is resumed, to have a national network of modern, integrated, and excellent quality laboratories for the benefit of the entire society.

Kasmera ; 48(1)::e48132409-:e48132409, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-646209


En enero de 2020, el agente etiológico responsable de un grupo de casos de neumonía grave en Wuhan, China, fue identificado como un nuevo Betacoronavirus (2019-nCoV), el cual mostraba marcadas diferencias del SARS-CoV y MERS-CoV, los cuales compartían homología con la secuencia descrita en murciélagos, los cuales se definieron como hospedadores o reservorios naturales, otros estudios señalaron como hospedador intermediario al pangolín, dejando eslabones inciertos en la historia evolutiva del virus. A la fecha diversos laboratorios ya han identificado la secuencia genómica completa de este nuevo agente encontrando deleciones en regiones codificantes y no codificantes, permitiendo el desarrollo de diferentes protocolos y modalidades diagnósticas, aunque algunas de ellas aún no se han validado por completo. Existen ciertas divergencias en cuanto a la biología y comportamiento del virus, rápida evolución, componentes genéticos, variabilidad en las características clínicas, inmunidad y patologías asociadas, las cuales han complicado el manejo de la pandemia, pues el virus pareciera comportarse de diversas formas según el área geográfica, grupo etario, protocolos terapéuticos y medidas de contención adoptadas