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1.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 41: 101080, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936507

ABSTRACT

Background: Long Covid Syndrome (LCS) is used to describe signs and symptoms that continue or develop after acute COVID-19 infection. Natural history and treatment of this syndrome are still poorly understood, even if evidences suggest the potential role of physical rehabilitation in improving symptoms in these patients. Aim of the study: The aim of the present study was to evaluate effectiveness, safety and feasibility of an out-of-hospital multidisciplinary rehabilitation (MDR) program, based both on physical and psychological reconditioning, in reducing symptoms and improving physical fitness and psychological parameters in patients with LCS. Methods: Thirty consecutive patients with LCS (18 males, mean age 58 years) underwent an accurate medical screening process including anthropometric and muscular strength evaluation, cardiopulmonary exercise test, quality of life (QoL) and psychological appraisal before and after a MDR program. Results: At baseline, all LCS patients were strongly symptomatic and showed severe impairments in physical performance, QoL and psychological parameters. No adverse effects and dropouts were observed during the exercise training sessions. After the MDR program, COVID-19 residual symptoms significantly decreased, and significant improvements in upper and lower limb muscular strength, cardiopulmonary parameters, perceived physical and mental health, depression and anxiety were observed. Conclusions: The present study confirms the severe physical and psychological impairment of patients with LCS and suggests that a MDR program is effective, safe and feasible in these patients and could promote their physical and psychological recovery.

2.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307888

ABSTRACT

Background: Identifying risk factors for severe novel-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is useful to ascertain which patients may benefit from advanced supportive care. The study offers a description of COVID-19 patients, admitted to a general ward for a non-critical clinical picture, with the aim to analyse the differences between those transferred to the intensive (ICU) and/or sub-intensive care (SICU) units and those who were not. Methods: This observational retrospective study includes all COVID-19 patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit. Clinical, laboratory, radiological and treatment data were collected. The primary outcome was a composite of need of transfer to the ICU and/or SICU during the hospitalization. Patients who did not require to be transferred are defined as Group 1;patients who were transferred to the ICU and/or SICU are defined as Group 2. Demographic, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings at the 1 st , 3 rd and last measurements were compared between the two groups. Results: 303 patients were included. The median age was 62 years. 69 patients (22.8%) met the primary outcome and were defined as Group 2. The overall fatality rate was 6.8%. Group 2 patients were predominantly male (76.8% vs. 55.1%, p<0.01), had a higher fatality rate (14.5% vs. 3.8%, p<0,01), had more hypertension (72.4% vs. 44%, p<0,01) and diabetes (31.9% vs. 21%, p=0.04) and were more likely to present dry cough (49.3% vs. 25.2%, p<0.01). Overall, chest X-ray at admission showed findings suggestive of pneumonia in 63.2%, and Group 2 were more likely to develop pathological findings during the hospitalization (72.7% vs. 17.2%, p=0.01). At admission, Group 2 presented significantly higher neutrophil count, aspartate-transaminase and C-reactive-protein. At the 3 rd measurement, Group 2 presented persistently higher neutrophil count, hepatic inflammation markers and C-reactive-protein. Group 1 presented a shorter duration from admission to negativization of follow-up swabs (20 vs. 35 days, p<0.01). Conclusions: The presence of comorbidities and the persistent observation of abnormal laboratory findings should be regarded as predisposing factors for clinical worsening.

5.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0253433, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278196

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate if reduced muscle mass, assessed with Computed Tomography (CT), is a predictor of intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this Institution Review Board approved study, we retrospectively evaluated COVID-19 patients treated in our tertiary center from March to November 2020 who underwent an unenhanced chest CT scan within three weeks from hospitalization.We recorded the mean Hounsfield Unit (Hu) value of the right paravertebral muscle at the level of the 12th thoracic vertebra, the hospitalization unit (ICU and COVID-19 wards), clinical symptoms, Barthel Index, and laboratory findings.Logistic regression analysis was applied to assess if muscle loss (Hu<30) is a predictor of ICU admission and outcome.Fisher's exact and Student's tests were applied to evaluate if differences between patients with and without muscle loss occurred (p<0.05). RESULTS: One-hundred-fifty patients matched the inclusion criteria (46 females; mean age±SD 61.3±15 years-old), 36 treated in ICU. Patients in ICU showed significantly lower Hu values (29±24 vs 39.4±12, p = 0.001). Muscle loss was a predictor of ICU admission (p = 0.004).Patients with muscle loss were significantly older (73.4±10 vs 56.4±14 years), had lower Barthel Index scores (54.4±33 vs 85.1±26), red blood-cell count (3.9±1 vs 4.6±1×1012L-1), and Hb levels (11.5±2 vs 13.2±2g/l) as well as higher white blood-cell count (9.4±7 vs 7.2±4×109L-1), C-reactive protein (71.5±71 vs 44±48U/L), and lactate dehydrogenase levels (335±163 vs 265.8±116U/L) (p<0.05, each). CONCLUSIONS: Muscle loss seems to be a predictor of ICU hospitalization in COVID-19 patients and radiologists reporting chest CT at admission should note this finding in their reports.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Muscles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Muscles/diagnostic imaging , ROC Curve , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods
6.
J Clin Med ; 10(7)2021 Apr 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167628

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is causing a heavy burden in hospital healthcare workers (HCW) in terms of increased work, organizational changes, risk exposure, and social stigma. The present study aims at evaluating the psychological outcome among HCWs at the final stages of the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional and survey-based study was conducted during June 2020 among 996 HCWs of the University Hospital of Padova. All the subjects completed questionnaires investigating the perception of risk of infecting or being infected by COVID-19, psychopathological variables, and coping abilities. Compared to physicians and healthcare assistants, nurses showed higher levels of depression (p = 0.002), insomnia (p < 0.001), and generalized anxiety (p = 0.001). Females reported increased concerns about the possibility of infecting others (p = 0.046), greater anxiety (p < 0.001), COVID-19 related fears (p < 0.001), depression (p < 0.001), and post-traumatic distress (p < 0.001) than males. Being employed in a COVID-19 unit, being transferred to other units, and living with children and the elderly were factors associated with higher levels of psychological distress. Greater coping abilities were detected in physicians, and in those HCWs employed in COVID units. Our findings evidenced that the psychological consequences of the pandemic were non-homogeneously distributed across HCWs categories and pointed out the presence of specific in-hospital and out-of-hospital risk factors.

7.
Clin Nephrol ; 95(3): 151-156, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak represents a global health emergency, and dialysis patients are a high-risk population. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in hemodialysis facilities require specific protocols to be planned and promptly executed for the management of suspected/confirmed cases of COVID-19 with respect to prevention, protection, screening, and isolation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in our Hemodialysis Unit, we adopted individual protection measures accompanied by measures to minimize contacts among hemodialysis patients with suspicious symptoms as well as other patients and medical staff. We provided our patients detailed instructions to be followed in the event of their having symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection or having contacts with SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects. Ultimately, four possible scenarios and care paths were developed and implemented in collaboration with the Infectious Diseases and Emergency Units at the Padua University Hospital. RESULTS: The application of this strategy has resulted in the nearly 200 patients treated in our hemodialysis facilities while there were only 2 cases of COVID-19 (1% incidence rate) with no deaths. CONCLUSION: We attribute the low COVID-19 incidence noted so far for patients in our hemodialysis facilities to the early detection and prompt isolation of suspected patients per our specific plan along with the prompt application of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrology , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 934, 2020 Dec 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Identifying risk factors for severe novel-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is useful to ascertain which patients may benefit from advanced supportive care. The study offers a description of COVID-19 patients, admitted to a general ward for a non-critical clinical picture, with the aim to analyse the differences between those transferred to the intensive (ICU) and/or sub-intensive care (SICU) units and those who were not. METHODS: This observational retrospective study includes all COVID-19 patients admitted to the Infectious Diseases Unit. Clinical, laboratory, radiological and treatment data were collected. The primary outcome was a composite of need of transfer to the ICU and/or SICU during the hospitalization. Patients who did not require to be transferred are defined as Group 1; patients who were transferred to the ICU and/or SICU are defined as Group 2. Demographic, clinical characteristics and laboratory findings at the 1st, 3rd and last measurements were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: 303 were included. The median age was 62 years. 69 patients (22.8%) met the primary outcome and were defined as Group 2. The overall fatality rate was 6.8%. Group 2 patients were predominantly male (76.8% vs. 55.1%, p < 0.01), had a higher fatality rate (14.5% vs. 3.8%, p < 0,01), had more hypertension (72.4% vs. 44%, p < 0,01) and diabetes (31.9% vs. 21%, p = 0.04) and were more likely to present dry cough (49.3% vs. 25.2%, p < 0.01). Overall, chest X-ray at admission showed findings suggestive of pneumonia in 63.2%, and Group 2 were more likely to develop pathological findings during the hospitalization (72.7% vs. 17.2%, p = 0.01). At admission, Group 2 presented significantly higher neutrophil count, aspartate-transaminase and C-Reactive-Protein. At the 3rd measurement, Group 2 presented persistently higher neutrophil count, hepatic inflammation markers and C-Reactive-Protein. Group 1 presented a shorter duration from admission to negativization of follow-up swabs (20 vs. 35 days, p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The presence of comorbidities and the persistent observation of abnormal laboratory findings should be regarded as predisposing factors for clinical worsening.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Care/methods , Patient Transfer , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Aged , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Biomarkers/blood , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Leukocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Neutrophils/immunology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Time Factors
10.
J Clin Med ; 9(9)2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963402

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in Italy, the cluster of Vò Euganeo was managed by the University Hospital of Padova. The Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI) conceived an organizational approach based on three different pathways for low-risk, high-risk, and confirmed Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) patients to accomplish three main targets: guarantee a safe pathway for non-COVID-19 patients, ensure health personnel safety, and maintain an efficient workload. Thus, an additional pathway was created with the aid of a trailer-mounted Computed Tomography (CT) scanner devoted to positive patients. We evaluated the performance of our approach from February 21 through April 12 in terms of workload (e.g., number of CT examinations) and safety (COVID-19-positive healthcare workers). There was an average of 72.2 and 17.8 COVID-19 patients per day in wards and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), respectively. A total of 176 high-risk and positive patients were examined. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) was one of the most common exams, and 24 pulmonary embolism scans were performed. No in-hospital transmission occurred in the DDI neither among patients nor among health personnel. The weekly number of in-patient CT examinations decreased by 27.4%, and the surgical procedures decreased by 29.5%. Patient screening and dedicated diagnostic pathways allowed the maintenance of high standards of care while working in safety.

11.
Clin Nephrol ; 95(3): 151-156, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-948835

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The recent SARS-CoV-2 outbreak represents a global health emergency, and dialysis patients are a high-risk population. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in hemodialysis facilities require specific protocols to be planned and promptly executed for the management of suspected/confirmed cases of COVID-19 with respect to prevention, protection, screening, and isolation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In order to prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in our Hemodialysis Unit, we adopted individual protection measures accompanied by measures to minimize contacts among hemodialysis patients with suspicious symptoms as well as other patients and medical staff. We provided our patients detailed instructions to be followed in the event of their having symptoms compatible with SARS-CoV-2 infection or having contacts with SARS-CoV-2-positive subjects. Ultimately, four possible scenarios and care paths were developed and implemented in collaboration with the Infectious Diseases and Emergency Units at the Padua University Hospital. RESULTS: The application of this strategy has resulted in the nearly 200 patients treated in our hemodialysis facilities while there were only 2 cases of COVID-19 (1% incidence rate) with no deaths. CONCLUSION: We attribute the low COVID-19 incidence noted so far for patients in our hemodialysis facilities to the early detection and prompt isolation of suspected patients per our specific plan along with the prompt application of preventive measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hemodialysis Units, Hospital , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Renal Dialysis/methods , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Nephrology , Patient Education as Topic , Patient Isolation , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
12.
ERJ Open Res ; 6(4)2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-917913

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to validate a composed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) chest radiography score (CARE) based on the extension of ground-glass opacity (GG) and consolidations (Co), separately assessed, and to investigate its prognostic performance. METHODS: COVID-19-positive patients referring to our tertiary centre during the first month of the outbreak in our area and with a known outcome were retrospectively evaluated. Each lung was subdivided into three areas and a three-grade score assessing the extension of GG and Co was used. The CARE was derived from the sum of the subscores. A mixed-model ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni correction was used to evaluate whether differences related to the referring unit (emergency room, COVID-19 wards and intensive care unit (ICU)) occurred. Logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the impact of CARE, patients' age and sex on the outcome. To evaluate the prognostic performance of CARE, receiver operating characteristic curves were computed for the entire stay and at admission only. RESULTS: A total of 1203 chest radiographs of 175 patients (120 males; mean age 67.81±15.5 years old) were examined. On average, each patient underwent 6.8±10.3 radiographs. Patients in ICU as well as deceased patients showed higher CARE scores (p<0.05, each). Age, Co and CARE significantly influenced the outcome (p<0.05 each). The CARE demonstrated good accuracy (area under the curve (AUC)=0.736) using longitudinal data as well as at admission only (AUC=0.740). A CARE score of 17.5 during hospitalisation showed 75% sensitivity and 69.9% specificity. CONCLUSIONS: The CARE was demonstrated to be a reliable tool to assess the severity of pulmonary involvement at chest radiography with a good prognostic performance.

13.
Oral Oncol ; 112: 105043, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-857053

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preoperative screening had a key role in planning elective surgical activity for head and neck cancer (HNC) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: All patients undergoing surgery for HNC at two Italian referral hospitals (University of Padua and National Cancer Institute [NCI]) during the peak of the COVID-19 epidemic in Italy were included. Accuracy of screening protocols was assessed. RESULTS: In the Padua protocol, 41 patients were screened by pharyngeal swab. The entire sample (100%) was admitted to surgery, diagnostic accuracy was 100%. In the NCI protocol, 23 patients underwent a telephone interview, blood test, and chest CT. Twenty patients (87%) were negative and were directly admitted to surgery. In the remaining 3 (13%), pharyngeal swab was performed. The screening was repeated until a negative chest CT was found. Diagnostic accuracy was 85%. CONCLUSIONS: Dedicated screening protocols for COVID-19 allow to safely perform elective HNC surgery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing/methods , COVID-19/diagnosis , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Protocols , Elective Surgical Procedures , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Journal of Clinical Medicine ; 9(9):3042, 2020.
Article | MDPI | ID: covidwho-783827

ABSTRACT

At the beginning of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) outbreak in Italy, the cluster of VòEuganeo was managed by the University Hospital of Padova. The Department of Diagnostic Imaging (DDI) conceived an organizational approach based on three different pathways for low-risk, high-risk, and confirmed Coronavirus Disease 19 (COVID-19) patients to accomplish three main targets: guarantee a safe pathway for non-COVID-19 patients, ensure health personnel safety, and maintain an efficient workload. Thus, an additional pathway was created with the aid of a trailer-mounted Computed Tomography (CT) scanner devoted to positive patients. We evaluated the performance of our approach from February 21 through April 12 in terms of workload (e.g., number of CT examinations) and safety (COVID-19-positive healthcare workers). There was an average of 72.2 and 17.8 COVID-19 patients per day in wards and the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), respectively. A total of 176 high-risk and positive patients were examined. High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT) was one of the most common exams, and 24 pulmonary embolism scans were performed. No in-hospital transmission occurred in the DDI neither among patients nor among health personnel. The weekly number of in-patient CT examinations decreased by 27.4%, and the surgical procedures decreased by 29.5%. Patient screening and dedicated diagnostic pathways allowed the maintenance of high standards of care while working in safety.

15.
Pathog Glob Health ; 114(6): 309-317, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-727006

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to describe the successful emergency plan implemented by Padova University Hospital (AOUP) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The emergency plan included early implementation of procedures aimed at meeting the increasing demand for testing and care while ensuring safe and timely care of all patients and guaranteeing the safety of healthcare workers. RESULTS: From 21 February to 1 May 2020, there were 3,862 confirmed cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in the Province of Padua. A total of 485 patients were hospitalized in AOUP, of which 91 were admitted to the ICU; 12 .6% of admitted patients died. The average bed occupancy rate in the ICU was 61.1% (IQR 43.6%:77.4%). Inpatient surgery and inpatient admissions were kept for 76% and 74%, respectively, compared to March 2019. A total of 123,077 swabs were performed, 19.3% of which (23,725 swabs) to screen AOUP workers. The screening of all staff showed that 137 of 7,649 (1.8%) hospital workers were positive. No healthcare worker died. DISCUSSION: AOUP strategy demonstrated effective management of the epidemic thanks to the timely implementation of emergency procedures, a well-coordinated effort shared by all hospital Departments, and their continuous adjustment to the ongoing epidemic. Timely screening of all hospital workers proved to be particularly important to defend the hospital, avoiding epidemic clusters due to unknown positive cases.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Emergencies , Female , Health Personnel , Hospitalization , Hospitals, University , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-704729

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the beginning of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, a large number of infections have been reported among healthcare workers (HCWs). The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 infection among HCWs involved in the first management of infected patients and to describe the measures adopted to prevent the transmission in the hospital. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted between February 21 and April 16, 2020, in the Padua University Hospital (north-east Italy). The infection control policy adopted consisted of the following: the creation of the "Advanced Triage" area for the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 cases, and the implementation of an integrated infection control surveillance system directed to all the healthcare personnel involved in the Advance Triage area. HCWs were regularly tested with nasopharyngeal swabs for SARS-CoV-2; body temperature and suggestive symptoms were evaluated at each duty. Demographic and clinical data of both patients and HCWs were collected and analyzed; HCWs' personal protective equipment (PPE) consumption was also recorded. The efficiency of the control strategy among HCWs was evaluated identifying symptomatic infection (primary endpoint) and asymptomatic infection (secondary endpoint) with confirmed detection of SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: 7595 patients were evaluated in the Advanced Triage area: 5.2% resulted positive and 72.4% was symptomatic. The HCW team was composed of 60 members. A total of 361 nasopharyngeal swabs were performed on HCWs. All the swabs resulted negative and none of the HCWs reached the primary or the secondary endpoint. CONCLUSIONS: An integrated hospital infection control strategy, consisting of dedicated areas for infected patients, strict measures for PPE use and mass surveillance, is successful to prevent infection among HCWs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel/organization & administration , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus , Body Temperature , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Triage/organization & administration
18.
Nature ; 584(7821): 425-429, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-628367

ABSTRACT

On 21 February 2020, a resident of the municipality of Vo', a small town near Padua (Italy), died of pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection1. This was the first coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19)-related death detected in Italy since the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the Chinese city of Wuhan, Hubei province2. In response, the regional authorities imposed the lockdown of the whole municipality for 14 days3. Here we collected information on the demography, clinical presentation, hospitalization, contact network and the presence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in nasopharyngeal swabs for 85.9% and 71.5% of the population of Vo' at two consecutive time points. From the first survey, which was conducted around the time the town lockdown started, we found a prevalence of infection of 2.6% (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.1-3.3%). From the second survey, which was conducted at the end of the lockdown, we found a prevalence of 1.2% (95% CI: 0.8-1.8%). Notably, 42.5% (95% CI: 31.5-54.6%) of the confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infections detected across the two surveys were asymptomatic (that is, did not have symptoms at the time of swab testing and did not develop symptoms afterwards). The mean serial interval was 7.2 days (95% CI: 5.9-9.6). We found no statistically significant difference in the viral load of symptomatic versus asymptomatic infections (P = 0.62 and 0.74 for E and RdRp genes, respectively, exact Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test). This study sheds light on the frequency of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, their infectivity (as measured by the viral load) and provides insights into its transmission dynamics and the efficacy of the implemented control measures.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/enzymology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Child , Child, Preschool , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prevalence , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Load , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/genetics , Young Adult
19.
Virchows Arch ; 477(3): 341-347, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-591333

ABSTRACT

With the continuous spreading of SARS-CoV-2 and increasing number of deaths worldwide, the need and appropriateness for autopsy in patients with COVID-19 became a matter of discussion. In fact, in the COVID-19 era protection of healthcare workers is a priority besides patient management. No evidence is currently available about the real risk related to the procedure as well as to the subsequent management of the samples. We herein describe the procedure that has been used to perform the first series of postmortem examinations in the COVID center of the Padua University Hospital, Padua, Italy, after the implementation of an ad hoc operating procedure, to minimize the risk of infection for pathologists and technicians. Provided that the procedure is performed in an adequate environment respecting strict biosafety rules, our data indicate that complete postmortem examination appears to be safe and will be highly informative providing useful insights into the complex disease pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Autopsy/methods , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Autopsy/instrumentation , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Feasibility Studies , Hospitals, University , Humans , Italy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Workflow
20.
Radiol Med ; 125(7): 691-694, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-526588

ABSTRACT

The current COVID-19 outbreak is requiring a tremendous effort not only regarding the diagnostic and therapeutic approach but also in terms of global management of the delivered care. Hospital administrations had to provide a prompt response to a rapidly evolving emergency characterized by the necessity of giving access to an enormous number of infected patients, guaranteeing appropriate care to patients in need of other types of treatment, and simultaneously preserving the well-being of healthcare providers. To optimize the diagnostic pathway during the current COVID-19 outbreak, the hospital administration of our tertiary center applied a highly structured framework assigning specific tasks to the different units composing the Department of Imaging. In particular, since the beginning of the pandemic, a mobile CT scanner in a truck was rented and became operative for all patients with a confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and another CT was assigned for all suspected cases. The success and efficacy of the management applied by our administration is demonstrated by the fact that during the outbreak, the radiological workflow was never interrupted. In fact, despite the national lockdown only a 29.3% decrease of CT scans occurred compared to the previous year. Moreover, none of the healthcare providers of the Department contracted the infection at work. Thus, according to the experience gained in our center, we recommend to all hospital administrations facing the COVID-19 outbreak to promptly adapt their resources, creating precise and safe pathways for their diagnostic units.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Radiology Department, Hospital/organization & administration , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Mobile Health Units , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Safety Management , Universal Precautions , Workflow
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