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1.
Interacting with Computers ; 2023.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2212823

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, the learning and evaluation processes have been moved to an online modality to keep social distance and reduce the spreading of the virus. The strategies implemented for assessment and proctoring in this online remote teaching and assessment emergency are no exception when proctoring test-takers. This problem is addressed from a practical context of study: the English Language Proficiency Tests of a University in southeast Mexico. Considering an iterative user-centered mixed methodology, a set of dashboards was designed, implemented and evaluated to visualize the information generated by test-takers during the administration process. An increase in the Usability of the dashboards is observed in all heuristic categories, with visual design being greater. The use of the mixed methodology and the constant user feedback during the process helped us to reduce development time compared with other works found in the literature. Moreover, it is possible to use the proposed dashboards in other application domains like medicine, or care facilities where user activity monitoring is needed to make informed decisions. categoryHuman-centered computing;Information visualization

2.
Pixel-Bit, Revista de Medios y Educacion ; - (65):237-273, 2022.
Article in English, Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2090915

ABSTRACT

This article arises as a result of the great uncertainty that currently exists in the educational context as a consequence of the implementation of an emergency model of distance education in times of COVID-19 throughout the world. The work provides the perspective of 2063 students from diverse contexts in the Mexican Southeast, who answered an instrument that evaluates four domains of the distance learning process: assignments and strategies, course design, communication and interaction, content and attitude. There were notable differences in the perceptions of urban and rural students in all the domains evaluated. Communication and interaction obtained the highest scores for students in rural and urban contexts, in contrast, the lowest scores recorded for both contexts were: Design of assignments and strategies for urban contexts and the Attitude domain for rural contexts. One of the conclusions of this study shows the disadvantages of students belonging to rural communities and the possible increase in inequality gaps in access to knowledge during confinement. © 2022 Universidad de Sevilla. All rights reserved.

4.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 30(1 SUPPL):101-102, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1880960

ABSTRACT

Background: Understanding the determinants of long-term immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 and the concurrent impact of vaccination and emerging variants of concern will guide optimal strategies to achieve global protection against the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A prospective cohort of 332 COVID 19 patients was followed beyond one year. Plasma neutralizing activity was evaluated using HIV-based reporter pseudoviruses expressing different SARS-CoV-2 spikes and was longitudinally analyzed using mixed-effects models. Results: Long-term neutralizing activity was stable beyond one year after infection in mild/asymptomatic and hospitalized participants. However, longitudinal models suggest that hospitalized individuals generate both short-and long-lived memory B cells, while responses of non-hospitalized were dominated by long-lived B cells. In both groups, vaccination boosted responses to natural infection. In unvaccinated participants, viral variants, mainly beta, reduced the efficacy of long-term (>300 days from infection) neutralization. Importantly, despite showing higher neutralization titers, hospitalized patients showed lower cross-neutralization of beta variant compared to non-hospitalized. Multivariate analysis identified severity of primary infection as the factor that independently determines both the magnitude and the inferior cross-neutralization activity of long-term neutralizing responses. Conclusion: Neutralizing response induced by SARS-CoV-2 is heterogeneous in magnitude but stable beyond one year after infection. Vaccination boosts these long-lasting natural neutralizing responses and should help counteract the resistance to neutralization of variants of concern such as the beta variant. Severity of primary infection determines higher magnitude but poorer quality of long-term neutralizing responses.

5.
Siglo Cero ; - (1):75-117, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1847760

ABSTRACT

TRASCIENDE, as a research team, arose from the need to articulate a collaborative project between Full Inclusion-CLM and the UCLM for social, scientific, academic, and professional transformation in the field of disability, inclusion, and citizenship. As a result of the socio-health situation provoked by COVID-19, the TRASCIENDE team has been involved in the social change produced by confinement, necessarily developing a role of observer of the change. This global situation leads us to ask ourselves questions that aim to initiate research processes in practice: how has this confinement affected practices in early care? To answer this question we decided to adopt a qualitative research perspective to explore the perceptions of families and professionals (speech therapists, physiotherapists, stimulators and coordinators) of Early Care teams, their difficulties and their strengths in this situation of change. The work describes a process of exploring practices during the first months of confinement, practices that have been directed, in many cases, towards tele-intervention. Data has been collected through ethnographic interviews (families) and focus groups (professionals) and has been processed through thematic analysis (Attride-Stirling, 2001). The results show the perception of families and professionals articulated in three thematic network focuses: the personal and collective reaction to the new situation, what can remain of the tele-intervention (with its nuances) and what underlies the practices in this modality. The study also opens new lines of future research which evidence the difficulty of the process of transformation towards actual family-centred models. © 2021 University of Salamanca. All rights reserved.

6.
Barataria-Revista Castellano-Manchega De Ciencias Sociales ; - (30):115-126, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1699031

ABSTRACT

The convulsive and tense political-social context that Latin America and the Caribbean have traditionally presented seems that, instead of being minimized, it may be even more so because of the economic impacts that the recent health pandemic that is hitting the world is leaving in the region . COVID 19 hits developing countries the hardest, which were already in a complicated political, economic and social situation, of precariousness and inequality, and which, with this global health crisis, will only get worse. This crisis affects all socioeconomic orders and, how could it be otherwise, this will also be reflected in the tourism sector, which, before the pandemic, was identified by the vast majority of the governments of the region as one of the axes tractors to drive economic development. An industry that was considered key due to its ability to have an impact on all social sectors and mainly due to its growth capacity in the medium term, but which unfortunately was hit squarely by the collateral consequences produced by the health pandemic and that ruined with the vast majority of tourist strategies. The general and main objective of this article is to describe the existing tourist differences in this region, analyze and interpret the effects that COVID-19 has had, reflect on the role that sustainability should have, especially economic and social, and treat to interpret what the future of tourism may be, especially in rural environments, since it is where the incidence of this disaster is most felt, since the conditions of poverty and vulnerability of people are more evident than in urban environments. In this sense, some of the data emerged in this work show harsh, but at the same time hopeful, opinions within the tourism sector that highlight the importance that trends related to new tourism models may have, such as, for example, regenerative tourism. . The development of the work has been carried out through a qualitative methodology, analyzing reports, research and documents prepared by the main international institutions present in the region. One of the conclusions that this study contributes is that the future outlook for the analyzed societies entails taking more hygiene measures for the tourism industry and guaranteeing a perceived security for the visitor greater than in other regions of the world. Two urgent needs of the region's tourism industry to try to be competitive are also revealed in the present work. One is the digitalization and technological modernization of the tourism sector in rural areas, and the other is greater support and institutional and governmental involvement that serve as the backbone for businessmen, entrepreneurs and cooperative members.

7.
8th Mexican Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, MexIHC 2021 ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1685737

ABSTRACT

The learning mechanisms and the evaluation process have been moved to an online mode in order to maintain social distancing and reduce the spread of the COVID-19. E-learning initiatives (including assessment and proctoring) produce a large amount of data, so visualization mechanisms are required to support the decision-making process. This problem is addressed from a practical context of study: the English Language Certification Tests of a University in the southeast of Mexico. The conceptual design of four conceptual dashboards are presented using a mixed methodology: the UCD process and a conceptual model for a dashboard generator process. The four conceptual dashboards were evaluated by five experts. Although the design proposals were simple and reflected most initial user requirements, the experts suggested to include more elements in all the dashboards to provide the information needed for the intended users and improve the decision-making process. © 2021 ACM.

8.
Latin American Economic Review ; 30, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1675715

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic not only generated real shocks affecting economic activity severely, but also a broad uncertainty that unleashed an extreme shock to financial markets. In this paper, we focus on the financial dimension of the pandemic from the viewpoint of an emerging market economy. Accordingly, we estimate a financial conditions index for Mexico since 1993 and find that the acute turmoil generated by the pandemic stands among the four largest episodes of financial distress experienced by the country. In addition, we find evidence suggesting that real variables have responded differently to shocks that worsen financial conditions than to shocks that improve them. © 2021, Centro de Investigacion y Docencia Economicas A.C.. All rights reserved.

9.
Latin American Economic Review ; 30(1):1-27, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576691

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic not only generated real shocks affect- ing economic activity severely, but also a broad uncertainty that un-leashed an extreme shock to financial markets. In this paper, we focus on the financial dimension of the pandemic from the view- point of an emerging market economy. Accordingly, we estimate a financial conditions index for Mexico since 1993 and find that the acute turmoil generated by the pandemic stands among the four largest episodes of financial distress experienced by the country. In addition, we find evidence suggesting that real variables have re- sponded differently to shocks that worsen financial conditions than to shocks that improve them.

10.
Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology ; 28(11, Supplement):S55, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1466647

ABSTRACT

Study Objective The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the world in unforeseen ways, particularly healthcare. This study evaluated the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on women with endometriosis-associated pain, including its influence on quality of life, healthcare access, and pain symptoms. Design This is a cross-sectional study using an online, anonymous 30-question survey. Women were invited to participate via e-mail or invitations posted on the Facebook page for MyEndometriosisTeam (a social network support group for women living with the disease) between December 9, 2020, to January 31, 2021. Setting United States (US). Patients or Participants 155 women with a self-reported history of endometriosis, 21yrs or older, living in the US completed the survey. Interventions None. This was an observational study. Measurements and Main Results Most women (76%) were 30-49 years old, 51% had daily pain symptoms, 25% experiencing pain a few times a week. Of a separate group of women who reported that that their endometriosis-associated pain worsened since the beginning of the pandemic (52%), the most common triggers for worsening pain were stress (80%), fatigue (74%), depression/anxiety (71%), financial concerns (45%), inability to undergo surgery (40%) and inability to exercise (38%). More than a third of women conveyed (38%) challenges with obtaining prescription medications and scheduling surgeries. Of the 17% for whom surgery was postponed, 50% of the women reported this as indefinite. Women's concerns about their endometriosis in relation to COVID-19 included whether it makes COVID-19 symptoms worst (53%), whether they are at a greater risk of acquiring COVID-19 (44%), and whether it is safe to visit a doctor/hospital (28%). Only 32% spoke with their doctor about treating their pain and 35% had no interaction with their doctor during the pandemic. Conclusion The COVID-19 pandemic has had a multifaceted impact on women with endometriosis, from worsened endometriosis-associated pain due to stress and reduced quality of life, challenges with prescriptions/surgeries, and financial concerns.

11.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407226
12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):1, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407145
13.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277700

ABSTRACT

Introduction Covid-19 is a recent outbreak of pneumonia caused by severe respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV2). It affects mainly the lungs causing pneumonia and complications like acute respiratory distress syndrome. Computed tomography (CT) plays a key role in diagnosis, the most common findings are bilateral, peripheral and basal ground-glass opacities. Pneumothorax secondary to SARS-CoV2 infection is rare and seems to develop later in the course of the disease, its mechanism is not completely understood. There are several reports about Covid-19 and pneumothorax, but few descriptions associated with pulmonary cysts. We describe seven cases of pneumothorax in patients with Covid-19, some of them with pulmonary cysts. Case descriptions We found a series of seven patients with Covid-19 pneumonia with pneumothorax, some as the initial presentation and some developing after the course of the disease, two to three weeks after initial symptoms. Patients were male, most of them in their fifties, two were former smokers and two had COPD. Only one patient had mechanical ventilation, two of them had pulmonary cysts in the CT scan which were not documented before. A Multifocal upper lobe consolidations. B. 29 days later. Left upper-lobe subpleural cystic lesions, ground-glass opacities, right pneumothorax. Discussion The course of Covid-19 depends on the damage caused by the virus and the host's immune response. CT scan is of great value in diagnosis and monitoring of progression and complications. The most common patterns are ground-glass opacification (88%), peripheral distribution (76%), bilateral (87.5%) and multilobe involvement (78.8%). Pneumothorax or cysts in Covid-19 have been described in few case reports. Pneumothorax seems to occur after two weeks of symptom onset, predominantly in male patients. Liu et al. described a series of two men with pneumothorax and peripheral pulmonary cysts after 26 and 40 days of symptom onset;cysts decreased in number and size in subsequent images. Other reports have described cysts or bullae. Pneumothorax seems to develop later in the course of the disease and they are most likely related to the reparation process. Mechanical ventilation with positive pressure is not associated with all cases. The pathogenesis of pulmonary cysts formation in Covid-19 is not well understood. Proposed mechanisms of cystic lung disease include necrosis due to ischemia, remodeling of interstitial matrix, and bronchial obstruction with distal overinflation phenomenon. Information regarding mechanism of pneumothorax in patients with lung infection secondary to Covid-19 is not yet completely understood, but cysts formation may play a role.

14.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9), 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1277597

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread worldwide causing a crisis in healthcare systems. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and to explore risk factors of death, critical care admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Bogota, Colombia. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Demographic, clinical, and treatment data were extracted from electronic records. Univariate and multivariable methods were performed to investigate the relationship between each variable and clinical outcome at 28 days of follow-up. Results: Between March 20 and June 30, 2020, 377 adults (56.8% male) were included in the study, of whom 85 (22.6%) died. Non-survivors were older on average than survivors (mean age, 56.7 years [SD 15.8] vs. 70.1 years [SD 13.9]) and more likely male (28 [32.9%] vs. 57 [67.1%]). Most patients had at least one underlying disease (333 [88.3%]), including arterial hypertension (149 [39.5%]), overweight (145 [38.5%]), obesity (114 [30.2%]) and diabetes mellitus (82 [21.8%]). Frequency of critical care admission (158 [41.9%]) and invasive mechanical ventilation (123 [32.6%]) was high. Age over 65 years (OR 9.26, 95% CI 3.29-26.01;p=0.00), ICU admission (OR 12.37, 95% CI 6.08-25.18;p=0.00), and arterial pH higher than 7.47 (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.74;p=0.01) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Model based on clinical characteristics on admission yielded an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.869. Discussion and Conclusions: To december 2020, this single-center study is the first report of hospitalized adult patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Andean subregion. In this study of in-hospital patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia frequency of death was similar to what has been reported. ICU admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation was high and most patients had a mild pneumonia at admission, according to CURB-65 and qSOFA scores. Most of our patients had at least one comorbidity. The prevalence of obesity was considerably higher than the overall prevalence in Colombian adults. Further studies may help to understand the impact of high-altitude on Covid-19 outcomes given Bogota is situated at an altitude of 2,640 mamsl . Figure. Receiver ROC curves for (a) the model of age, ICU admission and arterial pH as a predictor of in-hospital mortality (area under the curve 0.869), and (b) the model of age, male sex, peripheral oxygen saturation and white blood cell count as a predictor of invasive mechanical ventilation due to SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia (AUC 0.761).

15.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):88, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250606

ABSTRACT

Background: One of the fundamental pillars of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic control and vaccine development is understanding mid-and long-term immunity. Early humoral response has been extensively studied, however data on what recovered individuals are still scarce and the most recent studies are based on few time points over time, which limits the comprehension of the longitudinal pattern of the potential changes. In this study we have evaluated the neutralizing activity and IgG antibody titer against SARS-CoV-2 in mild/ asymptomatic and hospitalized COVID-19 individuals, over a 6-month period. Methods: We have evaluated the kinetics of the humoral immune response in 210 individuals infected by SARS-CoV-2 covering the first and second waves of COVID-19 outbreak in Catalonia (Spain). IgG antibody titer was evaluated with an in-house sandwich ELISA against the S2 subunit, the binding domain receptor (RBD) and the nucleoprotein (NP) and the neutralizing activity was evaluated by a neutralization assay with HIV reporter pseudoviruses expressing SARS-CoV-2 S protein. Statistical analyses were carried out using mixed-effects non-linear and linear models. Results: Most study participants developed a neutralizing humoral response against SARS-CoV-2, however the maximum neutralization titer was 10-fold lower in mild/asymptomatic individuals compared to those with a more severe illness. We observed a slow and progressive decay of neutralizing activity in individuals with mild or asymptomatic disease throughout the 6-month period. In hospitalized individuals, half maximal neutralization activity was achieved on day 10 and showed an initial rapid decline that significantly slowed and remained nearly flat after day 80. Despite this, activity at six months remained higher in hospitalized individuals compared to mild symptomatic participants. On the other hand, we observed that IgG antibody titers against S2, RBD and NP had a more marked fall without showing differences in the decay pattern between individuals with different degree of severity of the disease. Conclusion: Our data suggest that the neutralizing activity remains relatively stable for more than 6 months despite the decline in IgG antibodies, suggesting that the quality of immune response evolves and allows maintaining the neutralizing activity despite the decay in antibody titers. Our results provide a more detailed picture of the behavior of the natural humoral immune response over time that complements the current evidence on mid-term immunity.

16.
Topics in Antiviral Medicine ; 29(1):90, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1250361

ABSTRACT

Background: Many immune studies of SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) infection have focused on the generation of virus-specific as a means of protection. However, a small group of CoV-2 infected individuals called Non-seroconverters (NSC), do not generate antibodies but experience a mild or moderate disease course. Identifying mechanism of CoV-2 control in NSC may inform the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines approaches. Methods: We identified eleven CoV-2 NSC (3.6%) from the King-cohort study (PI-20-217). NSC were defined by a positive CoV-2 PCR at the time of diagnosis in the absence of IgG, IgA and IgM in serum and plasma measured by two independent ELISA techniques. For comparison, we identify groups of CoV-2 convalescent (n=15) and low-neutralizers (n=15). We measured T-cell responses to the CoV-2 Spike (S) and Nucleocapsid (NP) recombinant proteins in PBMCs by ELISPOT and flow cytometry. We combined T-cell surface and lineage markers together with PD-1, functional (TNF, IFN-y, and IL-2) and activation induced markers (AIM: CD25, CD137 and OX40). Results: We identified CoV-2 specific CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells against the S and the NP in NSC individuals. All NSC responded to S by production of one or more cytokine in either CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells, and 57% responded to NP. Specific-CD8+ T cells against S in NSC were characterized by IFN-y, and TNF production, and we observed higher levels of TNF production as compared to low neutralizers (p=0.02). No differences were found in IFN-y, IL-2 and TNF production in S-specific CD4+ T cells between groups, nor in NP CD8+ or CD4+ T-cell responses. The levels of CD137/OX40 in CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were significantly lower in NSC in response to S (p=0.006, and p=0.012). Also, lower levels of PD-1 were observed in CD8+ T cells in response to NP in NSC (p=0.017). Conclusion: We provide evidence of SARS-CoV2 cellular immunity in NSC individuals despite the absence of humoral neutralizing responses. CD8+ and CD4+ T cells against the S and NP were present in NSC and characterized by TNF production in CD8+ T-cells in responses to S when compared to low neutralizers. Decreased levels of activation markers were observed in NSCs following S and NP stimulation. We propose a protective role of cellular immunity in NSC potentially driven by preexisting cellular responses.

17.
Medicina Interna de Mexico ; 36(6):841-851, 2020.
Article in Spanish | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1068247

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic in Mexico has disrupted various aspects: economic, social, political, educational and health. The crisis that the health sector is going through has become evident, therefore, the health authorities, through the National Health System, have made multiple efforts to face and try to cope with the pandemic. Since the declaration of emergency in the country in which it was established that medical activity is essential and in the face of the crisis of material resources, the National Autonomous University of Mexico has been concerned about the situation of health personnel and especially residents, who are fighting at the forefront of the COVID-19 pandemic, as they are the most important workforce in hospitals. Fearing contagion, health personnel made multiple complaints and demands with the intention of receiving adequate and sufficient supplies to face the pandemic. At the initiative of the Faculty of Medicine and the UNAM Foundation, they implemented the campaign "Donate a kit. Protect a resident" in order to safeguard the integrity of its residents at all times, so that they continue to carry out their medical activity safely and professionally in hospitals. Likewise, UNAM has spoken out categorically for rejecting violence against health services personnel, which includes residents. © 2020 Comunicaciones Cientificas Mexicanas S.A. de C.V.. All rights reserved.

18.
COVID-19 Essential newborn care. SARS-CoV-2 Newborn ; 2021(Salud Uninorte)
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID | ID: covidwho-1538871

ABSTRACT

Objective: The uncertainty of a possible postnatal transmission by SARS-CoV-2 creates a challenge between applying or avoiding essential newborn care to prevent transmission. The objective of the systematic review is to describe the impact of essential neonate care on the postnatal transmission of SARS-CoV-2. Methods: A systematic review was carried out in electronic databases, observational studies, case series, and case reports. Two investigators independently assessed the inclusion criteria, methodological quality, and data extraction. Results: 208 studies were screened for a final inclusion of 9 relevant articles. The transmission report of the SARS-CoV-2 virus is focused on the possibility of transfer through breast milk and the absence of information about transmission by other essential care, however, a low use, in clinical practice, of essential care for the newborn child of a mother with CO-VID-19, is observed. Conclusions: Information is limited on the possible transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through essential newborn care;however, the pandemic has had a significant impact on them. According to the findings in the literature, the benefit of these interventions is greater, and the scientific recommendations promote their application, using personal protection measures for the mother and the healthcare personnel. © 2021, Universidad del Norte. All rights reserved.

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