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1.
iScience ; 25(11): 105455, 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2086329

ABSTRACT

Mass vaccination campaigns reduced COVID-19 incidence and severity. Here, we evaluated the immune responses developed in SARS-CoV-2-uninfected patients with predominantly antibody-deficiencies (PAD) after three mRNA-1273 vaccine doses. PAD patients were classified based on their immunodeficiency: unclassified primary antibody-deficiency (unPAD, n = 9), common variable immunodeficiency (CVID, n = 12), combined immunodeficiency (CID, n = 1), and thymoma with immunodeficiency (TID, n = 1). unPAD patients and healthy controls (HCs, n = 10) developed similar vaccine-induced humoral responses after two doses. However, CVID patients showed reduced binding and neutralizing titers compared to HCs. Of interest, these PAD groups showed lower levels of Spike-specific IFN-γ-producing cells. CVID individuals also presented diminished CD8+T cells. CID and TID patients developed cellular but not humoral responses. Although the third vaccine dose boosted humoral responses in most PAD patients, it had limited effect on expanding cellular immunity. Vaccine-induced immune responses in PAD individuals are heterogeneous, and should be immunomonitored to define a personalized therapeutic strategies.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(6): e0270150, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2054310

ABSTRACT

We urgently need answers to basic epidemiological questions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant and postpartum women and its effect on their newborns. While many national registries, health facilities, and research groups are collecting relevant data, we need a collaborative and methodologically rigorous approach to better combine these data and address knowledge gaps, especially those related to rare outcomes. We propose that using a sequential, prospective meta-analysis (PMA) is the best approach to generate data for policy- and practice-oriented guidelines. As the pandemic evolves, additional studies identified retrospectively by the steering committee or through living systematic reviews will be invited to participate in this PMA. Investigators can contribute to the PMA by either submitting individual patient data or running standardized code to generate aggregate data estimates. For the primary analysis, we will pool data using two-stage meta-analysis methods. The meta-analyses will be updated as additional data accrue in each contributing study and as additional studies meet study-specific time or data accrual thresholds for sharing. At the time of publication, investigators of 25 studies, including more than 76,000 pregnancies, in 41 countries had agreed to share data for this analysis. Among the included studies, 12 have a contemporaneous comparison group of pregnancies without COVID-19, and four studies include a comparison group of non-pregnant women of reproductive age with COVID-19. Protocols and updates will be maintained publicly. Results will be shared with key stakeholders, including the World Health Organization (WHO) Maternal, Newborn, Child, and Adolescent Health (MNCAH) Research Working Group. Data contributors will share results with local stakeholders. Scientific publications will be published in open-access journals on an ongoing basis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Postpartum Period , Pregnancy , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Transbound Emerg Dis ; 2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053047

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in humans, is able to infect several domestic, captive and wildlife animal species. Since reverse zoonotic transmission to pets has been demonstrated, it is crucial to determine their role in the epidemiology of the disease to prevent further spillover events and major spread of SARS-CoV-2. In the present study, we determined the presence of virus and the seroprevalence to SARS-CoV-2, as well as the levels of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) against several variants of concern (VOCs) in pets (cats, dogs and ferrets) and stray cats from North-Eastern of Spain. We confirmed that cats and dogs can be infected by different VOCs of SARS-CoV-2 and, together with ferrets, are able to develop nAbs against the ancestral (B.1), Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.315), Delta (B.1.617.2) and Omicron (BA.1) variants, with lower titres against the latest in dogs and cats, but not in ferrets. Although the prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection measured as direct viral RNA detection was low (0.3%), presence of nAbs in pets living in COVID-19-positive households was relatively high (close to 25% in cats, 10% in dogs and 40% in ferrets). It is essential to continue monitoring SARS-CoV-2 infections in these animals due to their frequent contact with human populations, and we cannot discard the probability of a higher animal susceptibility to new potential SARS-CoV-2 VOCs.

4.
J Infect Dis ; 2022 Oct 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051454

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We analyzed humoral and cellular immune responses induced by SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) with < 200 CD4+ T-cells. METHODS: Prospective cohort study including 58 PLWH with CD4+ T-cell counts <200 cells/mm3, 36 with CD4+ T-cell counts >500, and 33 HIV-1-negative controls. Antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein (anti-S IgG) and the receptor-binding domain (anti-RBD IgG) were quantified before and four weeks after the first and the second dose of BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 (w8). Viral neutralization activity and T-cell responses were also determined. RESULTS: At w8, anti-S/anti-RBD IgG responses increased in all groups (P < 0.0001). Median (IQR) S-IgG and RBD-IgG at w8 were 153.6 (26.4; 654.9) and 171.9 (61.8; 425.8) in the HIV < 200 group compared to 245.6 (145; 824) and 555.8 (166.4; 1751) in the HIV > 500 group, and 274.7 (193.7; 680.4) and 281.6 (181; 831.8) BAU/mL in controls (P < 0.05). Neutralizing capacity and specific T-cell immune responses were absent or reduced in 33% of the HIV < 200 group, compared with 3.7% in the HIV > 500 (P = 0.0003). CONCLUSION: One third of PLWH with CD4+ T-cell counts <200 cells/mm3 show low anti-S/anti-RBD IgG levels, reduced in vitro neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 and no vaccine-induced T-cells after receiving COVID-19 mRNA vaccines.

5.
Viruses ; 14(9)2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2033138

ABSTRACT

A wide range of animal species are susceptible to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Natural and/or experimental infections have been reported in pet, zoo, farmed and wild animals. Interestingly, some SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as B.1.1.7/Alpha, B.1.351/Beta, and B.1.1.529/Omicron, were demonstrated to infect some animal species not susceptible to classical viral variants. The present study aimed to elucidate if goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) are susceptible to the B.1.351/Beta variant. First, an in silico approach was used to predict the affinity between the receptor-binding domain of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 B.1.351/Beta variant and angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 from goats. Moreover, we performed an experimental inoculation with this variant in domestic goat and showed evidence of infection. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in nasal swabs and tissues by RT-qPCR and/or immunohistochemistry, and seroneutralisation was confirmed via ELISA and live virus neutralisation assays. However, the viral amount and tissue distribution suggest a low susceptibility of goats to the B.1.351/Beta variant. Therefore, although monitoring livestock is advisable, it is unlikely that goats play a role as SARS-CoV-2 reservoir species, and they are not useful surrogates to study SARS-CoV-2 infection in farmed animals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Animals , COVID-19/veterinary , Goats , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics
6.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 2022 Aug 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1995955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This sequential, prospective meta-analysis (sPMA) sought to identify risk factors among pregnant and postpartum women with COVID-19 for adverse outcomes related to: disease severity, maternal morbidities, neonatal mortality and morbidity, adverse birth outcomes. DATA SOURCES: We prospectively invited study investigators to join the sPMA via professional research networks beginning in March 2020. STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: Eligible studies included those recruiting at least 25 consecutive cases of COVID-19 in pregnancy within a defined catchment area. STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: We included individual patient data from 21 participating studies. Data quality was assessed, and harmonized variables for risk factors and outcomes were constructed. Duplicate cases were removed. Pooled estimates for the absolute and relative risk of adverse outcomes comparing those with and without each risk factor were generated using a two-stage meta-analysis. RESULTS: We collected data from 33 countries and territories, including 21,977 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnancy or postpartum. We found that women with comorbidities (pre-existing diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease) versus those without were at higher risk for COVID-19 severity and pregnancy health outcomes (fetal death, preterm birth, low birthweight). Participants with COVID-19 and HIV were 1.74 times (95% CI: 1.12, 2.71) more likely to be admitted to the ICU. Pregnant women who were underweight before pregnancy were at higher risk of ICU admission (RR 5.53, 95% CI: 2.27, 13.44), ventilation (RR 9.36, 95% CI: 3.87, 22.63), and pregnancy-related death (RR 14.10, 95% CI: 2.83, 70.36). Pre-pregnancy obesity was also a risk factor for severe COVID-19 outcomes including ICU admission (RR 1.81, 95% CI: 1.26,2.60), ventilation (RR 2.05, 95% CI: 1.20,3.51), any critical care (RR 1.89, 95% CI: 1.28,2.77), and pneumonia (RR 1.66, 95% CI: 1.18,2.33). Anemic pregnant women with COVID-19 also had increased risk of ICU admission (RR 1.63, 95% CI: 1.25, 2.11) and death (RR 2.36, 95% CI: 1.15, 4.81). CONCLUSION: We found that pregnant women with comorbidities including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease were at increased risk for severe COVID-19-related outcomes, maternal morbidities, and adverse birth outcomes. We also identified several less commonly-known risk factors, including HIV infection, pre-pregnancy underweight, and anemia. Although pregnant women are already considered a high-risk population, special priority for prevention and treatment should be given to pregnant women with these additional risk factors.

7.
Life Sci Alliance ; 5(12)2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994892

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is the most effective strategy to protect individuals with haematologic malignancies against severe COVID-19, while eliciting limited vaccine responses. We characterized the humoral responses following 3 mo after mRNA-based vaccines in individuals at different plasma-cell disease stages: monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), and multiple myeloma on first-line therapy (MM), compared with a healthy population. Plasma samples from uninfected MM patients showed lower SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody levels and neutralization capacity compared with MGUS, SMM, and healthy individuals. Importantly, COVID-19 recovered MM individuals presented significantly higher plasma neutralization capacity compared with their uninfected counterparts, highlighting that hybrid immunity elicit stronger immunity even in this immunocompromised population. No differences in the vaccine-induced humoral responses were observed between uninfected MGUS, SMM and healthy individuals. In conclusion, MGUS and SMM patients could be SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated following the vaccine recommendations for the general population, whereas a tailored monitoring of the vaccine-induced immune responses should be considered in uninfected MM patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance , Paraproteinemias , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/pathology , Monoclonal Gammopathy of Undetermined Significance/therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
8.
Front Immunol ; 13: 815041, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952315

ABSTRACT

The role of T cells in the control of SARS-CoV-2 infection has been underestimated in favor of neutralizing antibodies. However, cellular immunity is essential for long-term viral control and protection from disease severity. To understand T-cell immunity in the absence of antibody generation we focused on a group of SARS-CoV-2 Non-Seroconvertors (NSC) recovered from infection. We performed an immune comparative analysis of SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals stratified by the absence or presence of seroconversion and disease severity. We report high levels of total naïve and low effector CD8+ T cells in NSC. Moreover, reduced levels of T-cell activation monitored by PD-1 and activation-induced markers were observed in the context of functional SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses. Longitudinal data indicate the stability of the NSC phenotype over three months of follow-up after infection. Together, these data characterized distinctive immunological traits in NSC including skewed cellular distribution, low activation and functional SARS-CoV-2 T-cell responses. This data highlights the value of T-cell immune monitoring in populations with low seroconversion rates in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , T-Lymphocytes , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 640, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900548

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pathophysiology is currently not fully understood, reliable prognostic factors remain elusive, and few specific therapeutic strategies have been proposed. In this scenario, availability of biomarkers is a priority. MS-based Proteomics techniques were used to profile the proteome of 81 plasma samples extracted in four consecutive days from 23 hospitalized COVID-19 associated pneumonia patients. Samples from 10 subjects that reached a critical condition during their hospital stay and 10 matched non-severe controls were drawn before the administration of any COVID-19 specific treatment and used to identify potential biomarkers of COVID-19 prognosis. Additionally, we compared the proteome of five patients before and after glucocorticoids and tocilizumab treatment, to assess the changes induced by the therapy on our selected candidates. Forty-two proteins were differentially expressed between patients' evolution groups at 10% FDR. Twelve proteins showed lower levels in critical patients (fold-changes 1.20-3.58), of which OAS3 and COG5 found their expression increased after COVID-19 specific therapy. Most of the 30 proteins over-expressed in critical patients (fold-changes 1.17-4.43) were linked to inflammation, coagulation, lipids metabolism, complement or immunoglobulins, and a third of them decreased their expression after treatment. We propose a set of candidate proteins for biomarkers of COVID-19 prognosis at the time of hospital admission. The study design employed is distinctive from previous works and aimed to optimize the chances of the candidates to be validated in confirmatory studies and, eventually, to play a useful role in the clinical practice.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Hospitalization , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Biomarkers/blood , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Male , Mass Spectrometry , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Proteome
11.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 840757, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1862623

ABSTRACT

The emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) may display enhanced transmissibility, more severity and/or immune evasion; however, the pathogenesis of these new VOCs in experimental SARS-CoV-2 models or the potential infection of other animal species is not completely understood. Here we infected K18-hACE2 transgenic mice with B.1, B.1.351/Beta, B.1.617.2/Delta and BA.1.1/Omicron isolates and demonstrated heterogeneous infectivity and pathogenesis. B.1.351/Beta variant was the most pathogenic, while BA.1.1/Omicron led to lower viral RNA in the absence of major visible clinical signs. In parallel, we infected wildtype (WT) mice and confirmed that, contrary to B.1 and B.1.617.2/Delta, B.1.351/Beta and BA.1.1/Omicron can infect them. Infection in WT mice coursed without major clinical signs and viral RNA was transient and undetectable in the lungs by day 7 post-infection. In silico modeling supported these findings by predicting B.1.351/Beta receptor binding domain (RBD) mutations result in an increased affinity for both human and murine ACE2 receptors, while BA.1/Omicron RBD mutations only show increased affinity for murine ACE2.

12.
Age Ageing ; 51(5)2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860799

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is the most effective strategy to protect older residents of long-term care facilities (LTCF) against severe COVID-19, but primary vaccine responses are less effective in older adults. Here, we characterised the humoral responses of institutionalised seniors 3 months after they had received the mRNA/BNT162b2 vaccine. METHODS: plasma levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific total IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies were measured before and 3 months after vaccination in older residents of LTCF. Neutralisation capacity was assessed in a pseudovirus neutralisation assay against the original WH1 and later B.1.617.2/Delta variants. A group of younger adults was used as a reference group. RESULTS: three months after vaccination, uninfected older adults presented reduced SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels and a significantly lower neutralisation capacity against the WH1 and Delta variants compared with vaccinated uninfected younger individuals. In contrast, COVID-19-recovered older adults showed significantly higher SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG levels after vaccination than their younger counterparts, whereas showing similar neutralisation activity against the WH1 virus and an increased neutralisation capacity against the Delta variant. Although, similarly to younger individuals, previously infected older adults elicit potent cross-reactive immune responses, higher quantities of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies are required to reach the same neutralisation levels. CONCLUSIONS: although hybrid immunity seems to be active in previously infected older adults 3 months after mRNA/BNT162b2 vaccination, humoral immune responses are diminished in COVID-19 uninfected but vaccinated older residents of LTCF. These results suggest that a vaccine booster dose should be prioritised for this particularly vulnerable population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Long-Term Care , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
13.
Front Immunol ; 13: 860215, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847172

ABSTRACT

Background: Evidence on the determinants of the magnitude of humoral responses and neutralizing titers in individuals with mild COVID-19 is scarce. Methods: In this cohort study of mild COVID-19 patients, we assessed viral load (VL) by RT-qPCR at two/three time points during acute infection, and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies by ELISA and plasma neutralizing responses using a pseudovirus assay at day 60. Results: Seventy-one individuals (65% female, median 42 years old) were recruited and grouped into high viral load (VL) >7.5 Log10 copies/mL (n=20), low, VL ≤7.5 Log10 copies/mL (n=22), or as Non-early seroconverters with a positive PCR (n=20), and healthy individuals with a negative PCR (n=9). Individuals with high or low VL showed similar titers of total neutralizing antibodies at day 60, irrespective of maximal VL or viral dynamics. Non-early seroconverters had lower antibody titers on day 60, albeit similar neutralizing activity as the groups with high or low VL. Longer symptom duration and older age were independently associated with increased humoral responses. Conclusions: In mild SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals, the duration of symptoms and age (but not VL) contribute to higher humoral responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male
14.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-335426

ABSTRACT

Purpose: Mass vaccination campaigns have reduced the incidence and severity of COVID-19. However, there is limited information about how patients with predominantly antibody-deficiencies (PAD) respond to COVID-19 vaccination. Here, we evaluated humoral and cellular responses developed in SARS-CoV-2-naïve PAD individuals after three mRNA-1273 vaccine doses. Methods Patients and healthy controls (HCs) were immunized at week 0 (w0) and w4. PAD individuals received an additional dose at w24. Blood samples were collected at w0, w4, w8, w24, and/or w28. We determined levels of anti-Spike and anti-RBD antibodies, Spike-specific IgG avidity, and neutralizing activity (Wuhan-Hu-1, Delta, and Omicron variants). Cellular responses were evaluated by IFN-γ ELISpot and flow cytometry. Results Unclassified primary antibody-deficiency patients (unPAD, n = 9) and HCs developed comparable vaccine-induced humoral responses. However, common variable immunodeficiency patients (CVID, n = 12) showed lower antibody responses than HCs. While the frequency of Spike-specific CD4 + T cells was similar between PAD patients and HCs, CD8 + T cells responses were reduced in CVID individuals. Both PAD groups showed lower levels of Spike-specific IFN-γ-producing T-cells. Combined immunodeficiency (CID, n = 1) and thymoma with immunodeficiency (TID, n = 1) patients developed cellular but not humoral responses after two immunizations. The third vaccine dose boosted humoral responses in most PAD patients, but had little effect on cellular immunity. Conclusion mRNA-1273 vaccine-induced immune responses in PAD individuals are heterogeneous, depend on the type and degree of antibody-deficiency, and should be immunomonitored to define a personalized vaccination strategy.

15.
International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management ; 22(1):82-105, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1785223

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic has exposed the low level of resilience of supply chains and the fragility of employment in most economic sectors. This research, which is based on two independent online surveys, explores the level of readiness of automotive firms in Mexico to adopt I4.0 technologies, as well as the mitigation strategies adopted by such firms to overcome the economic effects of COVID-19. The results indicate a low level of readiness and understanding of I4.0 technologies in the automotive parts sector in Mexico and that most of the COVID-19 mitigation efforts have been focused on workforce management strategies, rather than on technological solutions.

16.
Cell Rep Med ; 3(2): 100523, 2022 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1751231

ABSTRACT

To understand the determinants of long-term immune responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the concurrent impact of vaccination and emerging variants, we follow a prospective cohort of 332 patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) over more than a year after symptom onset. We evaluate plasma-neutralizing activity using HIV-based pseudoviruses expressing the spike of different SARS-CoV-2 variants and analyze them longitudinally using mixed-effects models. Long-term neutralizing activity is stable beyond 1 year after infection in mild/asymptomatic and hospitalized participants. However, longitudinal models suggest that hospitalized individuals generate both short- and long-lived memory B cells, while the responses of non-hospitalized individuals are dominated by long-lived B cells. In both groups, vaccination boosts responses to natural infection. Long-term (>300 days from infection) responses in unvaccinated participants show a reduced efficacy against beta, but not alpha nor delta, variants. Multivariate analysis identifies the severity of primary infection as an independent determinant of higher magnitude and lower relative cross-neutralization activity of long-term neutralizing responses.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Kinetics , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Treatment Outcome , Vaccination/methods , Young Adult
17.
Biomed Opt Express ; 13(3): 1609-1619, 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741990

ABSTRACT

Current diagnostics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection heavily rely on reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) or on rapid antigen detection tests. The former suffers from long time-to-result and high cost while the latter from poor sensitivity. Therefore, it is crucial to develop rapid, sensitive, robust, and inexpensive methods for SARS-CoV-2 testing. Herein, we report a novel optofluidic technology, a flow-virometry reader (FVR), for fast and reliable SARS-CoV-2 detection in saliva samples. A small microfluidic chip together with a laser-pumped optical head detects the presence of viruses tagged with fluorescent antibodies directly from saliva samples. The technology has been validated using clinical samples with high sensitivity (91.2%) and specificity (90%). Thanks also to its short time-to-result (<30 min) and small size (25 × 30 × 13 cm), which can be further reduced in the future, it is a strong alternative to existing tests, especially for point-of-care (POC) and low resource settings.

18.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310793

ABSTRACT

Background: SARS-CoV-2 virus has spread worldwide causing a crisis in healthcare systems. We aimed to describe the clinical characteristics and to explore risk factors of death, critical care admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation in hospitalized patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Bogotá, Colombia. Methods: : We conducted a cross-sectional study of adult patients with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia. Demographic and clinical data were extracted from electronic records. Univariate and multivariable methods were performed to investigate the relationship between each variable and clinical outcomes at 28 days of follow-up. Results: : Between March 20 and June 30, 2020, 377 adults (56.8% male) were included in the study, of whom 85 (22.6%) died. Non-survivors were older on average than survivors (mean age, 56.7 years [SD 15.8] vs. 70.1 years [SD 13.9]) and more likely male (28 [32.9%] vs. 57 [67.1%]). Most patients had at least one underlying disease (333 [88.3%]), including arterial hypertension (149 [39.5%]), overweight (145 [38.5%]) and obesity (114 [30.2%]). Critical care admission (158 [41.9%]) and invasive mechanical ventilation (123 [32.6%]) was high. Age over 65 years (OR 9.26, 95% CI 3.29-26.01;p =0.00), ICU admission (OR 12.37, 95% CI 6.08-25.18;p =0.00), and arterial pH higher than 7.47 (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08-0.74;p =0.01) were associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: : In this study of in-hospital patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia frequency of death was similar to what has been reported. ICU admission and use of invasive mechanical ventilation was high. Risk factors as older age, ICU admission, and arterial pH were associated with mortality.

19.
Viruses ; 13(12)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580429

ABSTRACT

Several cases of naturally infected dogs with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been reported despite the apparently low susceptibility of this species. Here, we document the first reported case of infection caused by the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant of concern (VOC) in a dog in Spain that lived with several household members suffering from Coronavirus Infectious Disease 2019 (COVID-19). The animal displayed mild digestive and respiratory clinical signs and had a low viral load in the oropharyngeal swab collected at the first sampling. Whole-genome sequencing indicated infection with the Delta variant, coinciding with the predominant variant during the fifth pandemic wave in Spain. The dog seroconverted, as detected 21 days after the first sampling, and developed neutralizing antibodies that cross-neutralized different SARS-CoV-2 variants. This study further emphasizes the importance of studying the susceptibility of animal species to different VOCs and their potential role as reservoirs in the context of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Dog Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Dog Diseases/diagnosis , Dog Diseases/transmission , Dogs , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Pets/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Viral Zoonoses/diagnosis , Viral Zoonoses/transmission , Viral Zoonoses/virology
20.
Vet Pathol ; 59(4): 613-626, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582698

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes respiratory disease, but it can also affect other organs including the central nervous system. Several animal models have been developed to address different key questions related to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). Wild-type mice are minimally susceptible to certain SARS-CoV-2 lineages (beta and gamma variants), whereas hACE2-transgenic mice succumb to SARS-CoV-2 and develop a fatal neurological disease. In this article, we aimed to chronologically characterize SARS-CoV-2 neuroinvasion and neuropathology. Necropsies were performed at different time points, and the brain and olfactory mucosa were processed for histopathological analysis. SARS-CoV-2 virological assays including immunohistochemistry were performed along with a panel of antibodies to assess neuroinflammation. At 6 to 7 days post inoculation (dpi), brain lesions were characterized by nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis and diffuse astrogliosis and microgliosis. Vasculitis and thrombosis were also present and associated with occasional microhemorrhages and spongiosis. Moreover, there was vacuolar degeneration of virus-infected neurons. At 2 dpi, SARS-CoV-2 immunolabeling was only found in the olfactory mucosa, but at 4 dpi intraneuronal virus immunolabeling had already reached most of the brain areas. Maximal distribution of the virus was observed throughout the brain at 6 to 7 dpi except for the cerebellum, which was mostly spared. Our results suggest an early entry of the virus through the olfactory mucosa and a rapid interneuronal spread of the virus leading to acute encephalitis and neuronal damage in this mouse model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nervous System Diseases , Rodent Diseases , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Brain/pathology , COVID-19/veterinary , Disease Models, Animal , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/veterinary , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Rodent Diseases/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
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