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1.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2452: 227-258, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1844270

ABSTRACT

With the advent of the novel SARS-CoV-2, the entire world has been thrown into chaos with severe disruptions from a normal life. While the entire world was going chaotic, the researchers throughout the world were struggling to contribute to the best of their capabilities to advance the understanding of this new pandemic and fast track the development of novel therapeutics and vaccines. While various animal models have helped a lot to understand the basic physiology, nonhman primates have been promising and much more successful in modelling human diseases compared to other available clinical models. Here we describe the different aspects of modelling the SARS-CoV-2 infection in NHPs along with the associated methods used in NHP immunology.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Pandemics , Primates , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(632): eabi5735, 2022 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691438

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants stresses the continued need for next-generation vaccines that confer broad protection against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We developed and evaluated an adjuvanted SARS-CoV-2 spike ferritin nanoparticle (SpFN) vaccine in nonhuman primates. High-dose (50 µg) SpFN vaccine, given twice 28 days apart, induced a Th1-biased CD4 T cell helper response and elicited neutralizing antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 wild-type and variants of concern, as well as against SARS-CoV-1. These potent humoral and cell-mediated immune responses translated into rapid elimination of replicating virus in the upper and lower airways and lung parenchyma of nonhuman primates following high-dose SARS-CoV-2 respiratory challenge. The immune response elicited by SpFN vaccination and resulting efficacy in nonhuman primates supports the utility of SpFN as a vaccine candidate for SARS-causing betacoronaviruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nanoparticles , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Ferritins , Humans , Immunity , Macaca mulatta , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-294514

ABSTRACT

Summary Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are a clinically validated therapeutic option against COVID-19. As rapidly emerging virus mutants are becoming the next major concern in the fight against the global pandemic, it is imperative that these therapeutic treatments provide coverage against circulating variants and do not contribute to development of treatment emergent resistance. To this end, we investigated the sequence diversity of the spike protein and monitored emergence of minor virus variants in SARS-COV-2 isolates found in COVID-19 patients or identified from preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies. This study demonstrates that a combination of non-competing antibodies, REGEN-COV, not only provides full coverage against current variants of concern/interest but also protects against emergence of new such variants and their potential seeding into the population in a clinical setting.

4.
[Unspecified Source]; 2020.
Preprint in English | [Unspecified Source] | ID: ppcovidwho-292798

ABSTRACT

The novel virus SARS-CoV-2 has infected more than 14 million people worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Limited information on the underlying immune mechanisms that drive disease or protection during COVID-19 severely hamper development of therapeutics and vaccines. Thus, the establishment of relevant animal models that mimic the pathobiology of the disease is urgent. Rhesus macaques infected with SARS-CoV-2 exhibit disease pathobiology similar to human COVID-19, thus serving as a relevant animal model. In the current study, we have characterized the transcriptional signatures induced in the lungs of juvenile and old rhesus macaques following SARS-CoV-2 infection. We show that genes associated with Interferon (IFN) signaling, neutrophil degranulation and innate immune pathways are significantly induced in macaque infected lungs, while pathways associated with collagen formation are downregulated. In COVID-19, increasing age is a significant risk factor for poor prognosis and increased mortality. We demonstrate that Type I IFN and Notch signaling pathways are significantly upregulated in lungs of juvenile infected macaques when compared with old infected macaques. These results are corroborated with increased peripheral neutrophil counts and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in older individuals with COVID-19 disease. In contrast, pathways involving VEGF are downregulated in lungs of old infected macaques. Using samples from humans with SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19, we validate a subset of our findings. Finally, neutrophil degranulation, innate immune system and IFN gamma signaling pathways are upregulated in both tuberculosis and COVID-19, two pulmonary diseases where neutrophils are associated with increased severity. Together, our transcriptomic studies have delineated disease pathways to improve our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 to facilitate the design of new therapeutics for COVID-19.

5.
Res Sq ; 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1417405

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have already shown remarkable protection in limiting SARS-CoV-2 associated disease. However, immunologic mechanism(s) of protection, as well as how boosting alters immunity to wildtype and newly emerging strains, remain incompletely understood. Here we deeply profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a stable recombinant full-length SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two dose levels, administered as a single or two-dose regimen with a saponin-based adjuvant Matrix-M™. While antigen dose had some effect on Fc-effector profiles, both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered overall titers, neutralization and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were strongly associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract, pointing to the presence of combined, but distinct, compartment-specific neutralization and Fc-mechanisms as key determinants of protective immunity against infection. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies functionally target emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants, collectively pointing to the critical collaborative role for Fab and Fc in driving maximal protection against SARS-CoV-2. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease, but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.

6.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(38)2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392996

ABSTRACT

Emergence of novel variants of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) underscores the need for next-generation vaccines able to elicit broad and durable immunity. Here we report the evaluation of a ferritin nanoparticle vaccine displaying the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (RFN) adjuvanted with Army Liposomal Formulation QS-21 (ALFQ). RFN vaccination of macaques using a two-dose regimen resulted in robust, predominantly Th1 CD4+ T cell responses and reciprocal peak mean serum neutralizing antibody titers of 14,000 to 21,000. Rapid control of viral replication was achieved in the upper and lower airways of animals after high-dose SARS-CoV-2 respiratory challenge, with undetectable replication within 4 d in seven of eight animals receiving 50 µg of RFN. Cross-neutralization activity against SARS-CoV-2 variant B.1.351 decreased only approximately twofold relative to WA1/2020. In addition, neutralizing, effector antibody and cellular responses targeted the heterotypic SARS-CoV-1, highlighting the broad immunogenicity of RFN-ALFQ for SARS-CoV-like Sarbecovirus vaccine development.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/virology , Macaca mulatta/immunology , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/biosynthesis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Ferritins/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
7.
Cell Rep Med ; 2(9): 100405, 2021 09 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1377862

ABSTRACT

Recently approved vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy in limiting SARS-CoV-2-associated disease. However, with the variety of vaccines, immunization strategies, and waning antibody titers, defining the correlates of immunity across a spectrum of antibody titers is urgently required. Thus, we profiled the humoral immune response in a cohort of non-human primates immunized with a recombinant SARS-CoV-2 spike glycoprotein (NVX-CoV2373) at two doses, administered as a single- or two-dose regimen. Both antigen dose and boosting significantly altered neutralization titers and Fc-effector profiles, driving unique vaccine-induced antibody fingerprints. Combined differences in antibody effector functions and neutralization were associated with distinct levels of protection in the upper and lower respiratory tract. Moreover, NVX-CoV2373 elicited antibodies that functionally targeted emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. Collectively, the data presented here suggest that a single dose may prevent disease via combined Fc/Fab functions but that two doses may be essential to block further transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and emerging variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Saponins/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/drug effects , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic , Female , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin Fab Fragments/immunology , Immunoglobulin Fc Fragments/immunology , Macaca mulatta , Male , Nanoparticles , Primates/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Vaccination
9.
Cell ; 184(15): 3949-3961.e11, 2021 07 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1252550

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 are a clinically validated therapeutic option against COVID-19. Because rapidly emerging virus mutants are becoming the next major concern in the fight against the global pandemic, it is imperative that these therapeutic treatments provide coverage against circulating variants and do not contribute to development of treatment-induced emergent resistance. To this end, we investigated the sequence diversity of the spike protein and monitored emergence of virus variants in SARS-COV-2 isolates found in COVID-19 patients treated with the two-antibody combination REGEN-COV, as well as in preclinical in vitro studies using single, dual, or triple antibody combinations, and in hamster in vivo studies using REGEN-COV or single monoclonal antibody treatments. Our study demonstrates that the combination of non-competing antibodies in REGEN-COV provides protection against all current SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern/interest and also protects against emergence of new variants and their potential seeding into the population in a clinical setting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Mutation/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Male , Neutralization Tests , Vero Cells , Viral Load
10.
Stem Cell Reports ; 16(5): 1156-1164, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225409

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients have manifested a variety of neurological complications, and there is still much to reveal regarding the neurotropism of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Human stem cell-derived brain organoids offer a valuable in vitro approach to study the cellular effects of SARS-CoV-2 on the brain. Here we used human embryonic stem cell-derived cortical organoids to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 could infect brain tissue in vitro and found that cortical organoids could be infected at low viral titers and within 6 h. Importantly, we show that glial cells and cells of the choroid plexus were preferentially targeted in our model, but not neurons. Interestingly, we also found expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 in SARS-CoV-2 infected cells; however, viral replication and cell death involving DNA fragmentation does not occur. We believe that our model is a tractable platform to study the cellular effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection in brain tissue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Choroid Plexus/pathology , Human Embryonic Stem Cells/cytology , Neuroglia/virology , Organoids/innervation , Organoids/pathology , Cells, Cultured , Choroid Plexus/cytology , Choroid Plexus/virology , Humans , Neuroglia/pathology , Neurons/virology , Organoids/cytology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
11.
Commun Biol ; 4(1): 290, 2021 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1118820

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 virus has infected more than 92 million people worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using a rhesus macaque model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, we have characterized the transcriptional signatures induced in the lungs of juvenile and old macaques following infection. Genes associated with Interferon (IFN) signaling, neutrophil degranulation and innate immune pathways are significantly induced in macaque infected lungs, while pathways associated with collagen formation are downregulated, as also seen in lungs of macaques with tuberculosis. In COVID-19, increasing age is a significant risk factor for poor prognosis and increased mortality. Type I IFN and Notch signaling pathways are significantly upregulated in lungs of juvenile infected macaques when compared with old infected macaques. These results are corroborated with increased peripheral neutrophil counts and neutrophil lymphocyte ratio in older individuals with COVID-19 disease. Together, our transcriptomic studies have delineated disease pathways that improve our understanding of the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Cell Degranulation , Interferons/physiology , Neutrophils/physiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Animals , CD36 Antigens/physiology , COVID-19/etiology , Collagen/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Lung/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Notch/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/physiology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/physiology
12.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(2): 127-130, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1083970

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Prolonged survival of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on environmental surfaces and personal protective equipment may lead to these surfaces transmitting this pathogen to others. We sought to determine the effectiveness of a pulsed-xenon ultraviolet (PX-UV) disinfection system in reducing the load of SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators. METHODS: Chamber slides and N95 respirator material were directly inoculated with SARS-CoV-2 and were exposed to different durations of PX-UV. RESULTS: For hard surfaces, disinfection for 1, 2, and 5 minutes resulted in 3.53 log10, >4.54 log10, and >4.12 log10 reductions in viral load, respectively. For N95 respirators, disinfection for 5 minutes resulted in >4.79 log10 reduction in viral load. PX-UV significantly reduced SARS-CoV-2 on hard surfaces and N95 respirators. CONCLUSION: With the potential to rapidly disinfectant environmental surfaces and N95 respirators, PX-UV devices are a promising technology to reduce environmental and personal protective equipment bioburden and to enhance both healthcare worker and patient safety by reducing the risk of exposure to SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfection/methods , SARS-CoV-2/radiation effects , Ultraviolet Rays , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Disinfection/instrumentation , Equipment Reuse/standards , Humans , N95 Respirators , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Time Factors , Vero Cells , Xenon
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6122, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-952011

ABSTRACT

Vaccine and antiviral development against SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 disease would benefit from validated small animal models. Here, we show that transgenic mice expressing human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (hACE2) by the human cytokeratin 18 promoter (K18 hACE2) represent a susceptible rodent model. K18 hACE2 transgenic mice succumbed to SARS-CoV-2 infection by day 6, with virus detected in lung airway epithelium and brain. K18 ACE2 transgenic mice produced a modest TH1/2/17 cytokine storm in the lung and spleen that peaked by day 2, and an extended chemokine storm that was detected in both lungs and brain. This chemokine storm was also detected in the brain at day 6. K18 hACE2 transgenic mice are, therefore, highly susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection and represent a suitable animal model for the study of viral pathogenesis, and for identification and characterization of vaccines (prophylactic) and antivirals (therapeutics) for SARS-CoV-2 infection and associated severe COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Disease Models, Animal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/immunology , Animals , Brain/immunology , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Disease Susceptibility , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Keratin-18/genetics , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Mortality , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Virus Diseases/immunology , Virus Diseases/pathology
14.
Science ; 370(6520): 1110-1115, 2020 11 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-840630

ABSTRACT

An urgent global quest for effective therapies to prevent and treat coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is ongoing. We previously described REGN-COV2, a cocktail of two potent neutralizing antibodies (REGN10987 and REGN10933) that targets nonoverlapping epitopes on the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike protein. In this report, we evaluate the in vivo efficacy of this antibody cocktail in both rhesus macaques, which may model mild disease, and golden hamsters, which may model more severe disease. We demonstrate that REGN-COV-2 can greatly reduce virus load in the lower and upper airways and decrease virus-induced pathological sequelae when administered prophylactically or therapeutically in rhesus macaques. Similarly, administration in hamsters limits weight loss and decreases lung titers and evidence of pneumonia in the lungs. Our results provide evidence of the therapeutic potential of this antibody cocktail.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Drug Combinations , Macaca mulatta , Mesocricetus
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