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Eur J Epidemiol ; 37(2): 157-165, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653597


Since the beginning of the Covid-19 pandemic, the scientific community has explored determinants of Covid 19 disease severity. However, the majority of studies are based on in-hospital patients with high risk of collider- or selection bias. The present investigation details risk factors associated with overall mortality, hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) admission in Covid-19 infections, with complete population coverage and high-resolution data on patient characteristics and comorbid conditions This population-based observational study comprises all residents 18 years and older in Stockholm Region-1.8 million inhabitants-using the real-time Covid-19 monitoring framework. The observation period lasted between March 1 to December 31, 2020. Hazard ratios (HR) for risk factors of Covid-19 disease severity were assessed using Cox proportional hazard models. In total, 3322 deaths, 11,508 hospitalizations and 1423 ICU-admissions related to Covid-19 occurred during the study period. Kidney failure, diabetes and obesity increased risk of mortality and so did heart failure and ischemic heart disease. However, atrial fibrillation and hypertension did not. Risk of hospitalization follow a similar pattern, whereas admission to intensive care differs; triage processes where clearly present as certain co-morbid conditions were associated with lower ICU admission. Observed differences in risk of mortality and hospitalization among patients with Covid 19 raise important questions about potentially protective comedication which will be further addressed using the real-time Covid-19 monitoring framework.

COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Care , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(15): e021154, 2021 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331849


Background Considering the widespread risk of collider bias and confounding by indication in previous research, the associations between renin-angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitor use and COVID-19 remain unknown. Accordingly, this study tested the hypothesis that RAAS inhibitors influence the summation effect of COVID-19 and its progression to severe outcomes. Methods and Results This nationwide cohort study compared all residents of Sweden, without prior cardiovascular disease, in monotherapy (as of January 1, 2020) with a RAAS inhibitor to those using a calcium channel blocker or a thiazide diuretic. Comparative cohorts were balanced using machine-learning-derived propensity score methods. Of 165 355 people in the analysis (51% women), 367 were hospitalized or died with COVID-19 (246 using a RAAS inhibitor versus 121 using a calcium channel blocker or thiazide diuretic; Cox proportional hazard ratio [HR], 0.97; 95% CI, 0.74-1.27). When each outcome was assessed separately, 335 people were hospitalized with COVID-19 (HR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.70-1.22), and 64 died with COVID-19 (HR, 1.22; 95% CI, 0.68-2.19). The severity of COVID-19 outcomes did not differ between those using a RAAS inhibitor and those using a calcium channel blocker or thiazide diuretic (ordered logistic regression odds ratio, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.89-1.14). Conclusions Despite potential limitations, this study is among the best available evidence that RAAS inhibitor use in primary prevention does not increase the risk of severe COVID-19 outcomes; presenting strong data from which scientists and policy makers alike can base, with greater confidence, their current position on the safety of using RAAS inhibitors during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Hypertension/drug therapy , Risk Assessment , Aged , Antihypertensive Agents/classification , Antihypertensive Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Calcium Channel Blockers/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/prevention & control , Male , Middle Aged , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Renin-Angiotensin System/drug effects , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Assessment/statistics & numerical data , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Sweden/epidemiology