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Eur J Neurol ; 29(6): 1855-1858, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1832044


BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Abs) distinguish a group of inflammatory disorders which can be preceded by specific or non-specific infections. A few single cases have been reported in association with SARS-CoV-2 infection, but a specific study on the correlation between COVID-19 and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-associated disorder (MOGAD) has not yet been performed. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of the pandemic on this condition. METHODS: We analysed SARS-CoV-2 serology in patients newly diagnosed with MOGAD (1 August 2020 to 31 May 2021). MOG-Ab-seronegative age- and time-matched subjects were used as controls. SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) levels were analysed using an anti-SARS-CoV-2 US Food and Drug Administration-approved ELISA assay and confirmed with a trimeric anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG immunochemiluminescent test, concomitantly assaying the anti-receptor binding domain (RBD) of spike protein IgG and anti-RBD total Ig. We actually compared the number of cases referred in each of the last 3 years. RESULTS: Presence of SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies was more common (12/30, 40%) in MOGAD patients than in controls (6/30, 20%), although the difference was not significant (p = 0.16; odds ratio 2.67, 95% confidence interval 0.85-9.17). The most common clinical presentations of MOGAD SARS-CoV-2-seropositive patients included optic neuritis (n = 6) and myelitis (n = 3). The number of diagnosed cases increased over the last 3 years, in particular, when including cases referred to us before the COVID-19 pandemic, in the initial phase of the first wave and in the late phase of the second wave (n = 9, rate 10.6% in 2019; n = 13, rate 12.3% in 2020; n = 15, rate 14.7% in 2021). CONCLUSION: Our findings provide preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 as a potential trigger of MOGAD.

COVID-19 , Autoantibodies , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Myelin-Oligodendrocyte Glycoprotein , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Immunol Res ; 69(6): 553-557, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345196


The persistence of neurological symptoms after SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the presence of late axonal damage, is still unknown. We performed extensive systemic and neurological follow-up evaluations in 107 out of 193 consecutive patients admitted to the COVID-19 medical unit, University Hospital of Verona, Italy between March and June 2020. We analysed serum neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in all cases including a subgroup (n = 29) of patients with available onset samples. Comparisons between clinical and biomarker data were then performed. Neurological symptoms were still present in a significant number (n = 49) of patients over the follow-up. The most common reported symptoms were hyposmia (n = 11), fatigue (n = 28), myalgia (n = 14), and impaired memory (n = 11) and were more common in cases with severe acute COVID-19. Follow-up serum NfL values (15.2 pg/mL, range 2.4-62.4) were within normal range in all except 5 patients and did not differentiate patients with vs without persistent neurological symptoms. In patients with available onset and follow-up samples, a significant (p < 0.001) decrease of NfL levels was observed and was more evident in patients with a severe acute disease. Despite the common persistence of neurological symptoms, COVID-19 survivors do not show active axonal damage, which seems a peculiar feature of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Axons/pathology , COVID-19/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/pathology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/pathology , Anosmia/virology , Axons/virology , Disease Progression , Fatigue/pathology , Fatigue/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Memory Disorders/pathology , Memory Disorders/virology , Middle Aged , Myalgia/pathology , Myalgia/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Neurofilament Proteins/blood , SARS-CoV-2