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1.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 77: 100073, 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1906899

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To determine the incidence and risk of adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes according to SARS-CoV-2 infection severity in pregnant women. METHOD: Open prospective study of pregnant women tested for SARS-CoV-2 by serological and molecular assays during pregnancy or delivery in two hospitals in Sao Paulo, Brazil from April 12, 2020, to February 28, 2021. Five groups were considered for analysis: C0, negative COVID-19 results and no COVID-19 symptoms; C1, positive COVID-19 results, and no symptoms; C2, positive COVID-19 results with mild symptoms; C3, positive COVID-19 results with moderate symptoms; and C4, positive COVID-19 results with severe symptoms. The association between obstetric and neonatal outcomes and COVID-19 severity was determined using multivariate analysis. RESULTS: 734 eligible pregnant women were enrolled as follows: C0 (n = 357), C1 (n = 127), C2 (n = 174), C3 (n = 37), and C4 (n = 39). The following pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were associated with severe COVID-19: oligohydramnios (adjusted Odds Ratio [aOR] = 6.18; 95% CI 1.87‒20.39), fetal distress (aOR = 4.01; 95% Confidence Interval [CI] 1.84‒8.75), preterm birth (aOR = 5.51; 95% CI 1.47‒20.61), longer hospital stay (aOR = 1.66; 95% CI 1.36‒2.02), and admission to the neonatal intensive care unit (aOR = 19.36; 95% CI, 5.86‒63.99). All maternal (n = 6, 15.4%, p < 0.001) and neonatal (n = 5, 12.5%, p < 0.001) deaths and most fetal deaths (n = 4, 9.8%, p < 0.001) occurred in C4 group. Moderate COVID-19 was associated with oligohydramnios (aOR = 6.23; 95% CI 1.93‒20.13) and preterm birth (aOR = 3.60; 95% CI 1.45‒9.27). Mild COVID-19 was associated with oligohydramnios (aOR = 3.77; 95% CI 1.56‒9.07). CONCLUSION: Adverse pregnancy and neonatal outcomes were associated with maternal symptomatic COVID-19 status, and risk increased with disease severity.

2.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 76: e3488, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547645

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To compare demographic/clinical/laboratory/treatments and outcomes among children and adolescents with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that included patients diagnosed with pediatric COVID-19 (aged <18 years) between April 11, 2020 and April 22, 2021. During this period, 102/5,951 (1.7%) of all admissions occurred in neonates, children, and adolescents. Furthermore, 3,962 severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) detection samples were processed in patients aged <18 years, and laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 occurred in 155 (4%) inpatients and outpatients. Six/155 pediatric patients were excluded from the study. Therefore, the final group included 149 children and adolescents (n=97 inpatients and 52 outpatients) with positive SARS-CoV-2 results. RESULTS: The frequencies of sore throat, anosmia, dysgeusia, headache, myalgia, nausea, lymphopenia, pre-existing chronic conditions, immunosuppressive conditions, and autoimmune diseases were significantly reduced in children and adolescents (p<0.05). Likewise, the frequencies of enoxaparin use (p=0.037), current immunosuppressant use (p=0.008), vasoactive agents (p=0.045), arterial hypotension (p<0.001), and shock (p=0.024) were significantly lower in children than in adolescents. Logistic regression analysis showed that adolescents with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 had increased odds ratios (ORs) for sore throat (OR 13.054; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.750-61.977; p=0.001), nausea (OR 8.875; 95% CI 1.660-47.446; p=0.011), and lymphopenia (OR 3.575; 95% CI 1.355-9.430; p=0.010), but also had less hospitalizations (OR 0.355; 95% CI 0.138-0.916; p=0.032). The additional logistic regression analysis on patients with preexisting chronic conditions (n=108) showed that death as an outcome was significantly associated with pediatric severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) (OR 22.300; 95% CI 2.341-212.421; p=0.007) and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) (OR 11.261; 95% CI 1.189-106. 581; p=0.035). CONCLUSIONS: Half of the laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases occurred in adolescents. Individuals belonging to this age group had an acute systemic involvement of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Pediatric SARS and MIS-C were the most important factors associated with the mortality rate in pediatric chronic conditions with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Child , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Infant, Newborn , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Tertiary Care Centers
3.
Prenat Diagn ; 41(8): 998-1008, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544370

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Identify the potential for and risk factors of SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission. METHODS: Symptomatic pregnant women with COVID-19 diagnosis in whom PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was performed at delivery using maternal serum and at least one of the biological samples: cord blood (CB), amniotic fluid (AF), colostrum and/or oropharyngeal swab (OPS) of the neonate. The association of parameters with maternal, AF and/or CB positivity and the influence of SARS-CoV-2 positivity in AF and/or CB on neonatal outcomes were investigated. RESULTS: Overall 73.4% (80/109) were admitted in hospital due to COVID-19, 22.9% needed intensive care and there were four maternal deaths. Positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 was observed in 14.7% of maternal blood, 13.9% of AF, 6.7% of CB, 2.1% of colostrum and 3.7% of OPS samples. The interval between COVID-19 symptoms and delivery was inversely associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the maternal blood (p = 0.002) and in the AF and/or CB (p = 0.049). Maternal viremia was associated with positivity for SARS-CoV-2 in AF and/or CB (p = 0.001). SARS-CoV-2 positivity in the compartments was not associated with neonatal outcomes. CONCLUSION: Vertical transmission is possible in pregnant women with COVID-19 and a shorter interval between maternal symptoms and delivery is an influencing factor.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Amniotic Fluid/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Colostrum/virology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Male , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/mortality , Prospective Studies , Young Adult
6.
Arq Bras Cardiol ; 117(5): 954-964, 2021 11.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 pandemic represents a huge burden to the health system in the world. Although pediatric COVID-19 patients have been relatively spared compared with adults, recent reports showed an increasing number of critically ill patients with multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-c), with marked cardiovascular impairment. Nevertheless, little is known about the relationship between cardiac abnormalities and inflammatory and coagulation biomarkers. OBJECTIVES: to investigate echocardiographic abnormalities in pediatric patients with COVID-19 admitted to tertiary hospital. METHODS: this was a retrospective longitudinal study, based on the review of medical records and echocardiograms of patients (0-19 years) admitted to a tertiary hospital between March 30 and June 30, 2020. For statistical analysis, the significance level was set at 5% (p < 0.05). RESULTS: Forty-eight patients were enrolled, 73% with preexisting diseases, 20 (41.7%) with MIS-c. Median age was 7.5 (0-18.6) years; 27 (56.2%) were male. Median duration of hospitalization was 15.4 (2-92) days and seven (14.6%) patients died. A total of 70 echocardiograms were performed; 66.7% patients were scanned only once and 33.3% multiple times. Twenty-three (48%) patients showed echocardiographic abnormalities: eight (16.6%) left ventricle (LV) systolic dysfunction, six (12.5%) right ventricle (RV) systolic dysfunction and 12 (25%) coronary dilatation (Z-score>+2.5). Echocardiographic abnormalities were significantly associated with MIS-c, admission to the pediatric intensive care unit, multiple organ dysfunction, ventilatory/vasoactive support, and death (p<0.05). Significantly higher d-dimer (ng/mL) levels were detected in patients with LV dysfunction [16733(4157-115668) vs. 2406.5(190-95040)], RV dysfunction [25769(3422-115668) vs. 2803.5(190-95040)] and coronary artery dilation [9652.5(921-115668) vs. 2724(190- 95040)] (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: Echocardiographic abnormalities in COVID-19 pediatric patients were frequent and associated with worse clinical outcomes. Exacerbation of the inflammation and coagulation pathways may play an important role in cardiovascular injury in those patients.


FUNDAMENTO: A pandemia da COVID-19 representa uma enorme carga para o sistema de saúde do mundo. Apesar de pacientes pediátricos terem sido relativamente poupados em comparação a adultos, estudos recentes mostraram um número crescente de pacientes críticos com Síndrome Inflamatória Multisistêmica Pediátrica (SIM-P) com disfunção cardiovascular importante. No entanto, pouco se conhece a respeito da relação entre anormalidades cardíacas e biomarcadores inflamatórios e de coagulação. OBJETIVOS: Investigar anormalidades ecocardiográficas em pacientes pediátricos com COVID-19 admitidos em um hospital terciário. MÉTODOS: Este foi um estudo longitudinal retrospectivo, baseado na revisão de prontuários médicos e ecocardiogramas de pacientes (0-19 anos) admitidos em um hospital terciário entre 30 de março e 30 de junho de 2020. Para a análise estatística, o nível de significância foi estabelecido em 5% (p<0,05). RESULTADOS: Foram incluídos 48 pacientes, 73% com doenças pré-existentes, 20 (41,7%) com SIM-P. A idade mediana foi 7,5 (0-18,6) anos; 27 (56,2%) eram do sexo masculino. A duração mediana de internação foi 15,4 (2-92) dias e sete (14,6%) pacientes morreram. Um total de 70 ecocardiografias foram realizadas, 66,7% submeteram-se ao exame somente uma vez, e 33,3% várias vezes. Vinte e três (48%) pacientes apresentaram anormalidades no ecocardiograma: oito (16.6%) disfunção sistólica do ventrículo esquerdo, seis (12.5%) disfunção sistólica do ventrículo direito, e 12 (25%) dilatação da artéria coronária (Z-score>+2,5). Anormalidades ecocardiográficas foram significativamente associadas com SIM-P, admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica, suporte ventilatório/vasoativo, e morte ( p <0,05). Níveis significativamente mais altos de d-dímero (ng/mL) foram detectados em pacientes com disfunção ventricular esquerda [16733(4157-115668) vs. 2406.5(190-95040)], disfunção ventricular direita [25769(3422-115668) vs. 2803.5(190-95040)] e dilatação da artéria coronária [9652.5(921-115668) vs. 2724(190- 95040)] (p<0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Anormalidades ecocardiográficas eram frequentes nos pacientes pediátricos com COVID-19 e associadas com piores desfechos clínicos. Exacerbação das vias de inflamação e coagulação pode exercer um importante papel na lesão cardiovascular nesses pacientes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Brazil/epidemiology , Child , Echocardiography , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
EClinicalMedicine ; 35: 100850, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201119

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 in children is usually mild or asymptomatic, but severe and fatal paediatric cases have been described. The pathology of COVID-19 in children is not known; the proposed pathogenesis for severe cases includes immune-mediated mechanisms or the direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tissues. We describe the autopsy findings in five cases of paediatric COVID-19 and provide mechanistic insight into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of the disease. METHODS: Children and adolescents who died with COVID-19 between March 18 and August 15, 2020 were autopsied with a minimally invasive method. Tissue samples from all vital organs were analysed by histology, electron microscopy (EM), reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC). FINDINGS: Five patients were included, one male and four female, aged 7 months to 15 years. Two patients had severe diseases before SARS-CoV-2 infection: adrenal carcinoma and Edwards syndrome. Three patients were previously healthy and had multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) with distinct clinical presentations: myocarditis, colitis, and acute encephalopathy with status epilepticus. Autopsy findings varied amongst patients and included mild to severe COVID-19 pneumonia, pulmonary microthrombosis, cerebral oedema with reactive gliosis, myocarditis, intestinal inflammation, and haemophagocytosis. SARS-CoV-2 was detected in all patients in lungs, heart and kidneys by at least one method (RT-PCR, IHC or EM), and in endothelial cells from heart and brain in two patients with MIS-C (IHC). In addition, we show for the first time the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the brain tissue of a child with MIS-C with acute encephalopathy, and in the intestinal tissue of a child with acute colitis. Interpretation: SARS-CoV-2 can infect several cell and tissue types in paediatric patients, and the target organ for the clinical manifestation varies amongst individuals. Two major patterns of severe COVID-19 were observed: a primarily pulmonary disease, with severe acute respiratory disease and diffuse alveolar damage, or a multisystem inflammatory syndrome with the involvement of several organs. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 in several organs, associated with cellular ultrastructural changes, reinforces the hypothesis that a direct effect of SARS-CoV-2 on tissues is involved in the pathogenesis of MIS-C. FUNDING: Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo, Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

8.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18:eRC6048-eRC6048, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-745375

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We report the clinical case of an infant with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, predominantly vomiting. The patient also had colic, poor feeding, mild diarrhea and mild rhinorrhea without fever. The child had evidence of altered coagulation, increased interleukin 10, moderate dehydration and she was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Simultaneously, the patient was diagnosed as Clostridioides difficile infection, which possibly may have facilitated the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in feces, for more than 27 days, even after the nasopharyngeal test turned negative. This coinfection might exacerbate the gastrointestinal signs and symptoms and increased the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and Clostridioides . The patient was breastfed and received complementary infant formula, hydrated with intravenous fluid, and was discharged without complications, 4 days after admission. RESUMO Relatamos o caso clínico de uma lactente com infecção por coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) com sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais - predominantemente vômitos. A paciente apresentou, adicionalmente, cólica, dificuldade para mamar, evacuações amolecidas e rinorreia leve, sem febre. Houve evidências de alterações da coagulação, aumento de interleucina 10 e desidratação moderada, que justificaram internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Simultaneamente, a paciente foi diagnosticada com infecção por Clostridioides difficile , que pode ter facilitado a persistência do SARS-CoV-2 nas fezes por mais de 27 dias, mesmo após negativação do teste nasofaríngeo. Essa coinfecção pode ter exacerbado os sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais e aumentado a possibilidade da transmissão do SARS-CoV-2 e Clostridioides . A paciente foi mantida em aleitamento materno e complemento com fórmula infantil, recebeu hidratação intravenosa e teve alta hospitalar, sem complicações, após 4 dias de internação.

9.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18:eRC6048-eRC6048, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1022962

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT We report the clinical case of an infant with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection with gastrointestinal signs and symptoms, predominantly vomiting. The patient also had colic, poor feeding, mild diarrhea and mild rhinorrhea without fever. The child had evidence of altered coagulation, increased interleukin 10, moderate dehydration and she was admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit. Simultaneously, the patient was diagnosed as Clostridioides difficile infection, which possibly may have facilitated the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in feces, for more than 27 days, even after the nasopharyngeal test turned negative. This coinfection might exacerbate the gastrointestinal signs and symptoms and increased the possibility of fecal-oral transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and Clostridioides . The patient was breastfed and received complementary infant formula, hydrated with intravenous fluid, and was discharged without complications, 4 days after admission. RESUMO Relatamos o caso clínico de uma lactente com infecção por coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) com sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais - predominantemente vômitos. A paciente apresentou, adicionalmente, cólica, dificuldade para mamar, evacuações amolecidas e rinorreia leve, sem febre. Houve evidências de alterações da coagulação, aumento de interleucina 10 e desidratação moderada, que justificaram internação na unidade de terapia intensiva. Simultaneamente, a paciente foi diagnosticada com infecção por Clostridioides difficile , que pode ter facilitado a persistência do SARS-CoV-2 nas fezes por mais de 27 dias, mesmo após negativação do teste nasofaríngeo. Essa coinfecção pode ter exacerbado os sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais e aumentado a possibilidade da transmissão do SARS-CoV-2 e Clostridioides . A paciente foi mantida em aleitamento materno e complemento com fórmula infantil, recebeu hidratação intravenosa e teve alta hospitalar, sem complicações, após 4 dias de internação.

11.
Clinics ; 75:e2209-e2209, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742678

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age&lt;18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034);pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008);hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006);and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels &gt;50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels &gt;1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p&lt;0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p&lt;0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p&lt;0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p&lt;0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p&lt;0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p&lt;0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p&lt;0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p&lt;0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98;95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86;p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85;95%CI=1.34-211.80;p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00;95%CI=6.39-526.79;p&lt;0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.

12.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18:eRW5774-eRW5774, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742600

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has spread globally in pandemic proportions. Accumulative evidence suggests SARS-CoV-2 can be transmitted through the digestive system, the so-called fecal-oral route of transmission, and may induce several gastrointestinal manifestations. MEDLINE® and Embase databases were extensively searched for major clinical manifestations of gastrointestinal involvement in children and adolescents with COVID-19 reported in medical literature, and for nutritional therapy-related data. Findings and recommendations were pragmatically described to facilitate overall pediatric approach. A total of 196 studies addressing gastrointestinal or nutritional aspects associated with the global COVID-19 pandemic were found. Of these, only 17 focused specifically on pediatric patients with regard to aforementioned gastrointestinal or nutritional aspects. Most articles were descriptive and six addressed guidelines, established protocols, or expert opinions. Children and adolescents with gastrointestinal symptoms, such as nausea, vomiting and diarrhea, should be seriously suspected of COVID-19. Gastrointestinal signs and symptoms may occur in 3% to 79% of children, adolescents and adults with COVID-19, and are more common in severe cases. These include diarrhea (2% to 50%), anorexia (40% to 50%), vomiting (4% to 67%), nausea (1% to 30%), abdominal pain (2% to 6%) and gastrointestinal bleeding (4% to 14%). Patients with inflammatory bowel disease or chronic liver disease are not at greater risk of infection by SARS-CoV-2 relative to the general population. Nutritional support plays an important role in treatment of pediatric patients, particularly those with severe or critical forms of the disease. The digestive system may be a potential route of COVID-19 transmission. Further research is needed to determine whether the fecal-oral route may be involved in viral spread. Nutritional therapy is vital to prevent malnutrition and sarcopenia in severe cases. RESUMO A doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19) é causada pelo coronavírus da síndrome respiratória aguda grave 2 (SARS-CoV-2) e foi amplamente disseminada em todo o mundo em proporções pandêmicas. Evidências crescentes sugerem que o sistema digestivo pode ser uma via potencial para a infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2, para a disseminação do vírus por via fecal-oral, e estar relacionado com vários sintomas gastrintestinais. Realizamos uma extensa revisão da literatura médica utilizando os bancos de dados MEDLINE® e Embase, com o objetivo de identificar as principais manifestações clínicas do envolvimento gastrintestinal e analisar a terapia nutricional em crianças e adolescentes com COVID-19. Os achados e as recomendações foram descritos de maneira pragmática, para facilitar a abordagem do pediatra em geral. Foram analisados 196 estudos relacionados ao envolvimento do trato gastrintestinal ou aspectos nutricionais associados à pandemia de COVID-19 em todo o mundo. Destes estudos, apenas 17 incluíram a população pediátrica exclusivamente com aspectos gastrintestinais ou nutricionais específicos. Os artigos, em sua maioria, foram descritivos, sendo seis relacionados a diretrizes, protocolos instituídos ou opiniões de especialistas. Crianças e adolescentes com sintomas gastrintestinais, como náusea, vômito e diarreia, devem ser avaliados como pacientes suspeitos de COVID-19. Os sinais e sintomas gastrintestinais podem ocorrer em 3% a 79% das crianças, adolescentes e adultos com COVID-19, estando mais frequentemente presentes em casos graves. Incluem diarreia (2% a 50%), anorexia (40% a 50%), vômitos (4% a 67%), náusea (1% a 30%), dor abdominal (2% a 6%) e sangramento gastrintestinal (4% a 14%). Pacientes com doença inflamatória intestinal ou doenças hepáticas crônicas não apresentam maior risco de infecção por SARS-CoV-2 do que a população em geral. O suporte nutricional é parte muito importante do tratamento de pacientes pediátricos, principalmente nas formas graves ou críticas da doença. O trato gastrintestinal pode ser uma via potencial para a infecção por COVID-19. Mais pesquisas são necessárias para determinar a possibilidade da transmissão fecal-oral, importante para a disseminação viral. A terapia nutricional é essencial para prevenir desnutrição e sarcopenia nos casos graves.

13.
Radiol. bras ; 53(6):401-404, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742523

ABSTRACT

In the current pandemic, caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, ultrasound has played a fundamental role in patients who develop the resulting disease, designated coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). In this study we present ultrasound images of the lungs of neonates with a suspected or confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19, distinguishing between the changes related to COVID-19 and those unrelated to the disease. Ultrasound examinations were performed by a pediatric sonographer. A total of 27 neonates were evaluated. Among those who presented no respiratory symptoms, some tested negative for COVID-19 and others tested positive. All of those who were pulmonary symptomatic, negative for COVID-19 presented transient tachypnea of the newborn and respiratory distress syndrome. Lung ultrasound images obtained in COVID-19-negative neonates showed, in some cases, a normal pattern (with A lines, few B lines, a thin, linear pleural line, and no pleural effusion), whereas in others showed coalescent B lines and areas of opacity. In two of the COVID-19-positive neonates, lung ultrasound examination showed several coalescent B lines, pleural thickening, and areas of opacity. Lung ultrasound in the neonatal period appears to be applicable within the context of the current pandemic, allowing efficient evaluation of COVID-19-related changes in neonates, as well as of pathologies inherent to the neonatal period. Resumo Na pandemia atual causada pelo SARS-CoV-19, a ultrassonografia (US) tem apresentado papel fundamental nos pacientes com COVID-19. Neste trabalho são mostradas imagens ultrassonográficas de recém-nascidos (RNs) suspeitos ou positivos para COVID-19 e alterações pulmonares não relacionadas a essa doença. As imagens ultrassonográficas foram obtidas por médico especialista em US pediátrica. Foram avaliados 27 RNs, sendo incluídos RNs assintomáticos da parte respiratória, COVID negativos e positivos, e RNs sintomáticos para a parte respiratória, COVID-negativos, observados na taquipneia transitória do recém-nascido ou na síndrome do desconforto respiratório. As imagens ultrassonográficas dos RNs negativos para COVID-19 mostraram tanto o padrão normal (presença de linhas A, poucas linhas B, linha pleural fina e linear, ausência de efusão pleural) quanto a presença de linhas B coalescentes e áreas de condensação pulmonar. Destaca-se a presença de dois RNs COVID-19 positivos apresentando múltiplas linhas B coalescentes, espessamento pleural e com áreas de condensação. Com este trabalho, os autores procuram demonstrar a aplicabilidade da US pulmonar dentro do contexto da pandemia da COVID-19, incluindo as doenças inerentes ao período neonatal.

14.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4):521-527, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742343

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (Sars-CoV-2 infection) is a new challenge for all countries, and children are predisposed to acquire this disease. Some studies have demonstrated more severe diseases in adults, but critically ill pediatric patients have been described in all ages. Pulmonary involvement is the major feature, and ventilatory support is common in critical cases. Nevertheless, other very important therapeutic approaches must be considered. In this article, we reviewed extensively all recent medical literature to point out the main clinical attitudes to support these pediatric patients during their period in respiratory support. Radiologic findings, fluid therapy, hemodynamic support, use of inotropic/vasopressors, nutritional therapy, antiviral therapy, corticosteroids, antithrombotic therapy, and immunoglobulins are analyzed to guide all professionals during hospitalization. We emphasize the importance of a multi-professional approach for adequate recovery. RESUMO A síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SRAG) pelo novo coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) é um novo desafio para todos os países e crianças estão predispostas a adquirir a doença. Alguns estudos demonstraram quadros mais graves em adultos, mas crianças criticamente doentes foram descritas em todas as idades. O envolvimento pulmonar é a principal característica e a necessidade de suporte ventilatório é comum nos casos mais graves. Entretanto, outras abordagens terapêuticas importantes devem ser consideradas. Nesse artigo revisamos extensamente a literature médica até o momento a fim de citar os principais recursos terapêuticos para o manejo dos pacientes pediátricos durante o período de suporte ventilatório. Achados radiológicos, terapia fluídica, terapia antiviral, o uso de corticosteroides, terapia antitrombótica e o uso de imunoglobulinas foram analisados a fim de guiar os profissionais durante o período de hospitalização desses pacientes. Nós reforçamos a importância de uma abordagem multiprofissional para recuperação adequada.

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17.
Clinics ; 75:e1932-e1932, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742242

ABSTRACT

This article presents expert recommendations for assisting newborn children of mothers with suspected or diagnosed coronavirus disease 2019 &lt;/mac_aq&gt;(COVID-19). The consensus was developed by five experts with an average of 20 years of experience in neonatal intensive care working at a reference university hospital in Brazil for the care of pregnant women and newborns with suspected or confirmed COVID-19. Despite the lack of scientific evidence regarding the potential for viral transmission to their fetus in pregnant mothers diagnosed with or suspected of COVID-19, it is important to elaborate the lines of care by specialists from hospitals caring for suspected and confirmed COVID-19 cases to guide multidisciplinary teams and families diagnosed with the disease or involved in the care of pregnant women and newborns in this context. Multidisciplinary teams must be attentive to the signs and symptoms of COVID-19 so that decision-making is oriented and assertive for the management of the mother and newborn in both the hospital setting and at hospital discharge.

18.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4):541-546, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS (Americas), Grey literature | ID: grc-742215

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE These recommendations aim to provide guidance on breastfeeding for mothers with suspected or confirmed Covid-19. METHODS We performed a review of the recent medical literature on breastfeeding mothers with suspected or confirmed Covid-19, focusing on the neonatal period. RESULTS We analyzed 20 recent publications on breastfeeding, Covid-19, and its transmission through breastmilk. We presented possible options for breastfeeding and their consequences for the mother and the child. CONCLUSION All maternal decisions in relation to breastfeeding are justifiable since the infection by Covid-19 is still poorly known. However, puerperal women and their families must be very well informed to make a conscious choice based on the information available in the literature so far. RESUMO OBJETIVO Estas recomendações têm como objetivo orientar o aleitamento materno de mães com Covid-19 suspeita ou confirmada. MÉTODO Foi realizada revisão da literatura médica recente sobre aleitamento materno de mães com Covid-19 suspeita ou confirmada, focando o período neonatal. RESULTADOS Foram analisadas 20 publicações recentes sobre aleitamento materno, Covid-19 e sua transmissão pelo leite. Foram apresentadas as possíveis opções maternas em relação ao aleitamento e suas consequências para o binômio mãe-filho. CONCLUSÃO Todas as opções maternas em relação à amamentação são justificáveis, porque a infecção por Covid-19 ainda é pouco conhecida. Porém, as puérperas e seus familiares devem ser muito bem orientados, realizando uma opção consciente e baseada nas informações disponíveis na literatura até o momento.

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Clinics ; 75: e2209, 2020. tab
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-749235

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcomes of pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease (COVID-19) with or without multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 471 samples collected from 371 patients (age<18 years) suspected of having severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. The study group comprised 66/371 (18%) laboratory-confirmed pediatric COVID-19 patients: 61 (92.5%) patients tested positive on real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction tests for SARS-CoV-2, and 5 (7.5%) patients tested positive on serological tests. MIS-C was diagnosed according to the criteria of the Center for Disease Control. RESULTS: MIS-C was diagnosed in 6/66 (9%) patients. The frequencies of diarrhea, vomiting, and/or abdominal pain (67% vs. 22%, p=0.034); pediatric SARS (67% vs. 13%, p=0.008); hypoxemia (83% vs. 23%, p=0.006); and arterial hypotension (50% vs. 3%, p=0.004) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C than in those without MIS-C. The frequencies of C-reactive protein levels >50 mg/L (83% vs. 25%, p=0.008) and D-dimer levels >1000 ng/mL (100% vs. 40%, p=0.007) and the median D-dimer, troponin T, and ferritin levels (p<0.05) were significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. The frequencies of pediatric intensive care unit admission (100% vs. 60%, p=0.003), mechanical ventilation (83% vs. 7%, p<0.001), vasoactive agent use (83% vs. 3%, p<0.001), shock (83% vs. 5%, p<0.001), cardiac abnormalities (100% vs. 2%, p<0.001), and death (67% vs. 3%, p<0.001) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Similarly, the frequencies of oxygen therapy (100% vs. 33%, p=0.003), intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (67% vs. 2%, p<0.001), aspirin therapy (50% vs. 0%, p<0.001), and current acute renal replacement therapy (50% vs. 2%, p=0.002) were also significantly higher in patients with MIS-C. Logistic regression analysis showed that the presence of MIS-C was significantly associated with gastrointestinal manifestations [odds ratio (OR)=10.98; 95%CI (95% confidence interval)=1.20-100.86; p=0.034] and hypoxemia [OR=16.85; 95%CI=1.34-211.80; p=0.029]. Further univariate analysis showed a positive association between MIS-C and death [OR=58.00; 95%CI=6.39-526.79; p<0.0001]. CONCLUSIONS: Pediatric patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 with MIS-C had a severe clinical spectrum with a high mortality rate. Our study emphasizes the importance of investigating MIS-C in pediatric patients with COVID-19 presenting with gastrointestinal involvement and hypoxemia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus , Pandemics , Respiration, Artificial , Vomiting/etiology , Abdominal Pain/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Diarrhea/etiology , Fever/etiology , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/therapy , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/virology
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