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J Clin Med ; 12(2)2023 Jan 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166651


Describe the characteristics of ventilation-acquired pneumonia (VAP) and potential risk factors in critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients admitted in three French public hospitals during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic. We conducted a monocentric retrospective study in seven Marseille intensive care units (ICUs) aiming to describe VAP characteristics and identify their risk factors. VAP patients were compared to a non-VAP control group. From March to November 2020, 161 patients admitted for viral-induced acute respiratory failure (ARF) requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) were included. This cohort was categorized in two groups according to the development or not of a VAP during their stay in ICU. 82 patients (51%) developed ventilation-acquired pneumonia. Most of them were men (77%) and 55% had hypertension. In the VAP population, 31 out of 82 patients (38%) had received dexamethasone and 47% were administered antibiotic course prior to ICU admission. An amount of 88% of respiratory infections were late VAPs with a median delay of 10 days from the onset of IMV. Gram negative bacteria were responsible for 62% of VAPs with Pseudomonas spp. being the most documented bacteria. Less than a third of the ICU-acquired infections were due to multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria mainly displaying AmpC cephalosporin hyper production resistance phenotype. Multivariate analysis revealed that early Dexamethasone administration in ICU, male sex, older age and ROX score were risk factors for VAP whereas pre-ICU antimicrobial treatment and higher IGS 2 were protective factors. VAP is a frequent ICU-related complication affecting half of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 and requiring IMV. It was responsible for increased morbidity due to a longer ICU and hospital stay. VAP risk factors included demographic factors such as age and sex. Dexamethasone was associated with a threefold greater risk of developing VAP during ICU stay. These results need to be comforted by large multi-centric studies before questioning the only available and effective treatment against SARS-CoV-2 in ICU patients.

Microorganisms ; 10(12)2022 Dec 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2155207


During SARS-CoV-2 infection, eosinopenia may reflect a hyperactive immune response. In this study of hospitalized COVID-19 patients, we aimed to better understand the prognostic value of severe eosinopenia (absolute eosinophil count = 0 G/L) and decipher its underlying mechanisms. We retrospectively analyzed the records of COVID-19 patients hospitalized from March to June 2020 in three university hospitals in Marseille, France. We assessed the association between severe eosinopenia and a composite poor outcome in these patients, including the need for oxygen supplementation at >6 L/min, ICU admission, and in-hospital death. Among the 551 COVID-19 patients included in this study, severe eosinopenia was found in 228 (51%) of them on admission to hospital and was associated with a composite poor outcome using multivariate analysis (OR = 2.58; CI95 [1.77−3.75]; p < 0.0001). We found a significant association between the presence of severe eosinopenia on admission and the elevation in C-reactive protein, ferritin, IP-10, and suPAR. The histological findings in a series of 37 autopsies from patients who died from severe COVID-19 and presented with severe eosinopenia showed no pulmonary eosinophil trapping. Severe eosinopenia can be a reliable biomarker associated with a composite poor outcome in hospitalized COVID-19 adult patients. It may reflect the magnitude of immune hyperactivation during severe-to-critical COVID-19.

J Clin Med ; 11(20)2022 Oct 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071551


BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is the second most frequent condition after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in critically ill patients with severe COVID-19 and is strongly associated with mortality. The aim of this multicentric study was to assess the impact of the specific treatments of COVID-19 and ARDS on the risk of severe AKI in critically ill COVID-19 patients. METHODS: In this cohort study, data from consecutive patients older than 18 years admitted to 6 ICUs for COVID-19-related ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were included. The incidence and severity of AKI, defined according to the 2012 KDIGO definition, were monitored during the entire ICU stay until day 90. Patients older than 18 years admitted to the ICU for COVID-19-related ARDS requiring invasive mechanical ventilation were included. RESULTS: 164 patients were included in the final analysis; 97 (59.1%) displayed AKI, of which 39 (23.8%) had severe stage 3 AKI, and 21 (12.8%) required renal replacement therapy (RRT). In univariate analysis, severe AKI was associated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) exposure (p = 0.016), arterial hypertension (p = 0.029), APACHE-II score (p = 0.004) and mortality at D28 (p = 0.008), D60 (p < 0.001) and D90 (p < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, the factors associated with the onset of stage 3 AKI were: exposure to ACEI (OR: 4.238 (1.307-13.736), p = 0.016), APACHE II score (without age) (OR: 1.138 (1.044-1.241), p = 0.003) and iNO (OR: 5.694 (1.953-16.606), p = 0.001). Prone positioning (OR: 0.234 (0.057-0.967), p = 0.045) and dexamethasone (OR: 0.194 (0.053-0.713), p = 0.014) were associated with a decreased risk of severe AKI. CONCLUSIONS: Dexamethasone was associated with the prevention of the risk of severe AKI and RRT, and iNO was associated with severe AKI and RRT in critically ill patients with COVID-19. iNO should be used with caution in COVID-19-related ARDS.

Crit Care Med ; 50(12): 1788-1798, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063013


OBJECTIVES: Severe COVID-19 is associated with exaggerated complement activation. We assessed the efficacy and safety of avdoralimab (an anti-C5aR1 mAb) in severe COVID-19. DESIGN: FOR COVID Elimination (FORCE) was a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. SETTING: Twelve clinical sites in France (ICU and general hospitals). PATIENTS: Patients receiving greater than or equal to 5 L oxygen/min to maintain Sp o2 greater than 93% (World Health Organization scale ≥ 5). Patients received conventional oxygen therapy or high-flow oxygen (HFO)/noninvasive ventilation (NIV) in cohort 1; HFO, NIV, or invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in cohort 2; and IMV in cohort 3. INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomly assigned, in a 1:1 ratio, to receive avdoralimab or placebo. The primary outcome was clinical status on the World Health Organization ordinal scale at days 14 and 28 for cohorts 1 and 3, and the number of ventilator-free days at day 28 (VFD28) for cohort 2. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: We randomized 207 patients: 99 in cohort 1, 49 in cohort 2, and 59 in cohort 3. During hospitalization, 95% of patients received glucocorticoids. Avdoralimab did not improve World Health Organization clinical scale score on days 14 and 28 (between-group difference on day 28 of -0.26 (95% CI, -1.2 to 0.7; p = 0.7) in cohort 1 and -0.28 (95% CI, -1.8 to 1.2; p = 0.6) in cohort 3). Avdoralimab did not improve VFD28 in cohort 2 (between-group difference of -6.3 (95% CI, -13.2 to 0.7; p = 0.96) or secondary outcomes in any cohort. No subgroup of interest was identified. CONCLUSIONS: In this randomized trial in hospitalized patients with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, avdoralimab did not significantly improve clinical status at days 14 and 28 (funded by Innate Pharma, number, NCT04371367).

COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Oxygen , Treatment Outcome
J Clin Med ; 10(23)2021 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1542625


OBJECTIVES: To describe clinical characteristics and management of intensive care units (ICU) patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 and to determine 90-day mortality after ICU admission and associated risk factors. METHODS: This observational retrospective study was conducted in six intensive care units (ICUs) in three university hospitals in Marseille, France. Between 10 March and 10 May 2020, all adult patients admitted in ICU with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 and respiratory failure were eligible for inclusion. The statistical analysis was focused on the mechanically ventilated patients. The primary outcome was the 90-day mortality after ICU admission. RESULTS: Included in the study were 172 patients with COVID-19 related respiratory failure, 117 of whom (67%) received invasive mechanical ventilation. 90-day mortality of the invasively ventilated patients was 27.4%. Median duration of ventilation and median length of stay in ICU for these patients were 20 (9-33) days and 29 (17-46) days. Mortality increased with the severity of ARDS at ICU admission. After multivariable analysis was carried out, risk factors associated with 90-day mortality were age, elevated Charlson comorbidity index, chronic statins intake and occurrence of an arterial thrombosis. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, age and number of comorbidities were the main predictors of mortality in invasively ventilated patients. The only modifiable factor associated with mortality in multivariate analysis was arterial thrombosis.

Med Sci (Paris) ; 37(4): 333-341, 2021 Apr.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174712


The complement system is an essential component of the innate immune system. Its excessive activation during COVID-19 contributes to cytokine storm, disease-specific endothelial inflammation (endotheliitis) and thrombosis that comes with the disease. Targeted therapies of complement inhibition in COVID-19, in particular blocking the C5a-C5aR1 axis have to be taken into account in the establishment of potential biomarkers and development of therapeutic strategies in the most severe forms of the disease.

TITLE: Implication de la cascade du complément dans les formes sévères de COVID-19. ABSTRACT: Le système du complément est un composant essentiel du système immunitaire inné. Son activation excessive au cours de la COVID-19 participe à l'orage cytokinique, à l'inflammation endothéliale (endothélite) et aux thromboses qui accompagnent la maladie. Bloquer le complément, notamment l'axe C5a-C5aR1, par des thérapies spécifiques représente un espoir thérapeutique dans les formes les plus sévères de la maladie.

COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Complement Activation/physiology , Complement System Proteins/physiology , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , Complement C5a/immunology , Complement C5a/metabolism , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction/immunology
Eur J Immunol ; 51(7): 1652-1659, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141308


The complement system is an essential component of the innate immune system. The three complement pathways (classical, lectin, alternative) are directly or indirectly activated by the SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2). In the most severe forms of COVID-19, overactivation of the complement system may contribute to the cytokine storm, endothelial inflammation (endotheliitis) and thrombosis. No antiviral drug has yet been shown to be effective in COVID-19. Therefore, immunotherapies represent a promising therapeutic in the immunopathological phase (following the viral phase) of the disease. Complement blockade, mostly C5a-C5aR axis blockade, may prevent acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) from worsening or progression to death. Clinical trials are underway.

COVID-19/pathology , Complement C5a/antagonists & inhibitors , Cytokine Release Syndrome/pathology , Cytokines/immunology , Immunotherapy/methods , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a/antagonists & inhibitors , COVID-19/immunology , Complement Activation/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/pathology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Signal Transduction/immunology , Thrombosis/immunology , Thrombosis/pathology , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
Nature ; 588(7836): 146-150, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-690324


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a disease caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and has resulted in a pandemic1. The C5a complement factor and its receptor C5aR1 (also known as CD88) have a key role in the initiation and maintenance of several inflammatory responses by recruiting and activating neutrophils and monocytes1. Here we provide a longitudinal analysis of immune responses, including phenotypic analyses of immune cells and assessments of the soluble factors that are present in the blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients at various stages of COVID-19 severity, including those who were paucisymptomatic or had pneumonia or acute respiratory distress syndrome. The levels of soluble C5a were increased in proportion to the severity of COVID-19 and high expression levels of C5aR1 receptors were found in blood and pulmonary myeloid cells, which supports a role for the C5a-C5aR1 axis in the pathophysiology of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Anti-C5aR1 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies prevented the C5a-mediated recruitment and activation of human myeloid cells, and inhibited acute lung injury in human C5aR1 knock-in mice. These results suggest that blockade of the C5a-C5aR1 axis could be used to limit the infiltration of myeloid cells in damaged organs and prevent the excessive lung inflammation and endothelialitis that are associated with acute respiratory distress syndrome in patients with COVID-19.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Complement C5a/immunology , Inflammation/complications , Inflammation/immunology , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a/immunology , Acute Lung Injury/drug therapy , Acute Lung Injury/immunology , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/chemistry , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/immunology , CD11b Antigen/immunology , CD11b Antigen/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/pathology , Complement C5a/antagonists & inhibitors , Complement C5a/biosynthesis , Cytokine Release Syndrome/drug therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Inflammation/drug therapy , Inflammation/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Myeloid Cells/drug effects , Myeloid Cells/immunology , Myeloid Cells/pathology , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a/antagonists & inhibitors , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(32): 18951-18953, 2020 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-662427


Around the tenth day after diagnosis, ∼20% of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pneumonia evolve toward severe oxygen dependence (stage 2b) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (stage 3) associated with systemic inflammation often termed a "cytokine storm." Because interleukin-1 (IL-1) blocks the production of IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines, we treated COVID-19 patients early in the disease with the IL-1 receptor antagonist, anakinra. We retrospectively compared 22 patients from three different centers in France with stages 2b and 3 COVID-19-associated pneumonia presenting with acute severe respiratory failure and systemic inflammation who received either standard-of-care treatment alone (10 patients) or combined with intravenous anakinra (12 patients). Treatment started at 300 mg⋅d-1 for 5 d, then tapered with lower dosing over 3 d. Both populations were comparable for age, comorbidities, clinical stage, and elevated biomarkers of systemic inflammation. All of the patients treated with anakinra improved clinically (P < 0.01), with no deaths, significant decreases in oxygen requirements (P < 0.05), and more days without invasive mechanical ventilation (P < 0.06), compared with the control group. The effect of anakinra was rapid, as judged by significant decrease of fever and C-reactive protein at day 3. A mean total dose of 1,950 mg was infused with no adverse side effects or bacterial infection. We conclude that early blockade of the IL-1 receptor is therapeutic in acute hyperinflammatory respiratory failure in COVID-19 patients.

Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Aged , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Female , Humans , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Injections, Intravenous , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology
Cell Mol Immunol ; 17(9): 995-997, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-625131

Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Molecular Targeted Therapy/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Apyrase/antagonists & inhibitors , Apyrase/genetics , Apyrase/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , B7-H1 Antigen/antagonists & inhibitors , B7-H1 Antigen/genetics , B7-H1 Antigen/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression/drug effects , Humans , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/antagonists & inhibitors , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/genetics , NK Cell Lectin-Like Receptor Subfamily C/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/antagonists & inhibitors , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/genetics , Programmed Cell Death 1 Receptor/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/genetics , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/pathology