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1.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 17(5): e13140, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2319523

ABSTRACT

Background: National Influenza Centers (NICs) have played a crucial role in the surveillance of SARS-CoV-2. The FluCov project, covering 22 countries, was initiated to monitor the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on influenza activity. Methods: This project consisted of an epidemiological bulletin and NIC survey. The survey, designed to assess the impact of the pandemic on the influenza surveillance system, was shared with 36 NICs located across 22 countries. NICs were invited to reply between November 2021 and March 2022. Results: We received 18 responses from NICs in 14 countries. Most NICs (76%) indicated that the number of samples tested for influenza decreased. Yet, many NICs (60%) were able to increase their laboratory testing capacity and the "robustness" (e.g., number of sentinel sites) (59%) of their surveillance systems. In addition, sample sources (e.g., hospital or outpatient setting) shifted. All NICs reported a higher burden of work following the onset of the pandemic, with some NICs hiring additional staff or partial outsourcing to other institutes or departments. Many NICs anticipate the future integration of SARS-CoV-2 surveillance into the existing respiratory surveillance system. Discussion: The survey shows the profound impact of SARS-CoV-2 on national influenza surveillance in the first 27 months of the pandemic. Surveillance activities were temporarily disrupted, whilst priority was given to SARS-CoV-2. However, most NICs have shown rapid adaptive capacity underlining the importance of strong national influenza surveillance systems. These developments have the potential to benefit global respiratory surveillance in the years to come; however, questions about sustainability remain.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
Vaccine ; 41(25): 3796-3800, 2023 06 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318727

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Preventive measures applied during the COVID-19 pandemic have modified the age distribution, the clinical severity and the incidence of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) hospitalisations during the 2020/21 RSV season. The aim of the present study was to estimate the impact of these aspects on RSV-associated hospitalisations (RSVH) costs stratified by age group between pre-COVID-19 seasons and 2020/21 RSV season. METHODS: We compared the incidence, the median costs, and total RSVH costs from the national health insurance perspective in children < 24 months of age during the COVID-19 period (2020/21 RSV season) with a pre-COVID-19 period (2014/17 RSV seasons). Children were born and hospitalised in the Lyon metropolitan area. RSVH costs were extracted from the French medical information system (Programme de Médicalisation des Systémes d'Information). RESULTS: The RSVH-incidence rate per 1000 infants aged < 3 months decreased significantly from 4.6 (95 % CI [4.1; 5.2]) to 3.1 (95 % CI [2.4; 4.0]), and increased in older infants and children up to 24 months of age during the 2020/21 RSV season. Overall, RSVH costs for RSVH cases aged below 2 years old decreased by €201,770 (31 %) during 2020/21 RSV season compared to the mean pre-COVID-19 costs. CONCLUSIONS: The sharp reduction in costs of RSVH in infants aged < 3 months outweighed the modest increase in costs observed in the 3-24 months age group. Therefore, conferring a temporal protection through passive immunisation to infants aged < 3 months should have a major impact on RSVH costs even if it results in an increase of RSVH in older children infected later in life. Nevertheless, stakeholders should be aware of this potential increase of RSVH in older age groups presenting with a wider range of disease to avoid any bias in estimating the cost-effectiveness of passive immunisation strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Infant , Child , Humans , Aged , Child, Preschool , Palivizumab/therapeutic use , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization
4.
J Glob Health ; 13: 04007, 2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2228613

ABSTRACT

Background: The emergence of COVID-19 triggered the massive implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI) which impacted the circulation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) during the 2020/2021 season. Methods: A time-series susceptible-infected-recovered (TSIR) model was used early September 2021 to forecast the implications of this disruption on the future 2021/2022 RSV epidemic in Lyon urban population. Results: When compared to observed hospital-confirmed cases, the model successfully captured the early start, peak timing, and end of the 2021/2022 RSV epidemic. These simulations, added to other streams of surveillance data, shared and discussed among the local field experts were of great value to mitigate the consequences of this atypical RSV outbreak on our hospital paediatric department. Conclusions: TSIR model, fitted to local hospital data covering large urban areas, can produce plausible post-COVID-19 RSV simulations. Collaborations between modellers and hospital management (who are both model users and data providers) should be encouraged in order to validate the use of dynamical models to timely allocate hospital resources to the future RSV epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Child , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Seasons , COVID-19/epidemiology , France/epidemiology
5.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of acute respiratory infection- related hospitalisations in infants (RSVh). Most of these infants are younger than 6 months old with no known risk factors. An efficient RSVh prevention program should address both mothers and infants, relying on Non-Pharmaceutical (NPI) and Pharmaceutical Interventions (PI). This study aimed at identifying the target population for these two interventions. METHODS: Laboratory-confirmed RSV-infected infants hospitalised during the first 6 months of life were enrolled from the Hospices Civils de Lyon birth cohort (2014 to 2018). Clinical variables related to pregnancy and birth (sex, month of birth, birth weight, gestational age, parity) were used for descriptive epidemiology, multivariate logistic regression, and predictive score development. RESULTS: Overall, 616 cases of RSVh in 45,648 infants were identified. Being born before the epidemic season, prematurity, and multiparity were independent predictors of RSVh. Infants born in January or June to August with prematurity and multiparity, and those born in September or December with only one other risk factor (prematurity or multiparity) were identified as moderate-risk, identifying the mothers as candidates for a first-level NPI prevention program. Infants born in September or December with prematurity and multiparity, and those born in October or November were identified as high-risk, identifying the mothers and infants as candidates for a second-level (NPI and PI) intervention. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to determine predictors of RSVh at birth, allowing early enrollment of the target population in a two-level RSV prevention intervention.

6.
Lancet ; 399(10340): 2047-2064, 2022 05 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common cause of acute lower respiratory infection in young children. We previously estimated that in 2015, 33·1 million episodes of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection occurred in children aged 0-60 months, resulting in a total of 118 200 deaths worldwide. Since then, several community surveillance studies have been done to obtain a more precise estimation of RSV associated community deaths. We aimed to update RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection morbidity and mortality at global, regional, and national levels in children aged 0-60 months for 2019, with focus on overall mortality and narrower infant age groups that are targeted by RSV prophylactics in development. METHODS: In this systematic analysis, we expanded our global RSV disease burden dataset by obtaining new data from an updated search for papers published between Jan 1, 2017, and Dec 31, 2020, from MEDLINE, Embase, Global Health, CINAHL, Web of Science, LILACS, OpenGrey, CNKI, Wanfang, and ChongqingVIP. We also included unpublished data from RSV GEN collaborators. Eligible studies reported data for children aged 0-60 months with RSV as primary infection with acute lower respiratory infection in community settings, or acute lower respiratory infection necessitating hospital admission; reported data for at least 12 consecutive months, except for in-hospital case fatality ratio (CFR) or for where RSV seasonality is well-defined; and reported incidence rate, hospital admission rate, RSV positive proportion in acute lower respiratory infection hospital admission, or in-hospital CFR. Studies were excluded if case definition was not clearly defined or not consistently applied, RSV infection was not laboratory confirmed or based on serology alone, or if the report included fewer than 50 cases of acute lower respiratory infection. We applied a generalised linear mixed-effects model (GLMM) to estimate RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence, hospital admission, and in-hospital mortality both globally and regionally (by country development status and by World Bank Income Classification) in 2019. We estimated country-level RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection incidence through a risk-factor based model. We developed new models (through GLMM) that incorporated the latest RSV community mortality data for estimating overall RSV mortality. This review was registered in PROSPERO (CRD42021252400). FINDINGS: In addition to 317 studies included in our previous review, we identified and included 113 new eligible studies and unpublished data from 51 studies, for a total of 481 studies. We estimated that globally in 2019, there were 33·0 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (uncertainty range [UR] 25·4-44·6 million), 3·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (2·9-4·6 million), 26 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (15 100-49 100), and 101 400 RSV-attributable overall deaths (84 500-125 200) in children aged 0-60 months. In infants aged 0-6 months, we estimated that there were 6·6 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes (4·6-9·7 million), 1·4 million RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection hospital admissions (1·0-2·0 million), 13 300 RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital deaths (6800-28 100), and 45 700 RSV-attributable overall deaths (38 400-55 900). 2·0% of deaths in children aged 0-60 months (UR 1·6-2·4) and 3·6% of deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months (3·0-4·4) were attributable to RSV. More than 95% of RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection episodes and more than 97% of RSV-attributable deaths across all age bands were in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). INTERPRETATION: RSV contributes substantially to morbidity and mortality burden globally in children aged 0-60 months, especially during the first 6 months of life and in LMICs. We highlight the striking overall mortality burden of RSV disease worldwide, with one in every 50 deaths in children aged 0-60 months and one in every 28 deaths in children aged 28 days to 6 months attributable to RSV. For every RSV-associated acute lower respiratory infection in-hospital death, we estimate approximately three more deaths attributable to RSV in the community. RSV passive immunisation programmes targeting protection during the first 6 months of life could have a substantial effect on reducing RSV disease burden, although more data are needed to understand the implications of the potential age-shifts in peak RSV burden to older age when these are implemented. FUNDING: EU Innovative Medicines Initiative Respiratory Syncytial Virus Consortium in Europe (RESCEU).


Subject(s)
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Child , Child, Preschool , Cost of Illness , Global Health , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
7.
EBioMedicine ; 78: 103967, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757276

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In critically ill COVID-19 patients, the initial response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is characterized by major immune dysfunctions. The capacity of these severe patients to mount a robust and persistent SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response despite the presence of severe immune alterations during the ICU stay is unknown. METHODS: Critically ill COVID-19 patients were sampled five times during the ICU stay and 9 and 13 months afterwards. Immune monitoring included counts of lymphocyte subpopulations, HLA-DR expression on monocytes, plasma IL-6 and IL-10 concentrations, anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG levels and T cell proliferation in response to three SARS-CoV-2 antigens. FINDINGS: Despite the presence of major lymphopenia and decreased monocyte HLA-DR expression during the ICU stay, convalescent critically ill COVID-19 patients consistently generated adaptive and humoral immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 maintained for more than one year after hospital discharge. Patients with long hospital stays presented with stronger anti-SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response but no difference in anti-SARS-CoV2 IgG levels. INTERPRETATION: Convalescent critically ill COVID-19 patients consistently generated a memory immune response against SARS-CoV-2 maintained for more than one year after hospital discharge. In recovered individuals, the intensity of SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell response was dependent on length of hospital stay. FUNDING: This observational study was supported by funds from the Hospices Civils de Lyon, Fondation HCL, Claude Bernard Lyon 1 University and Région Auvergne Rhône-Alpes and by partial funding by REACTing (Research and ACTion targeting emerging infectious diseases) INSERM, France and a donation from Fondation AnBer (http://fondationanber.fr/).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Immunologic Memory , T-Lymphocytes , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness , HLA-DR Antigens , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
8.
Eur J Anaesthesiol ; 39(5): 427-435, 2022 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707427

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-Cov-2 (COVID-19) has become a major worldwide health concern since its appearance in China at the end of 2019. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intrinsic mortality and burden of COVID-19 and seasonal influenza pneumonia in ICUs in the city of Lyon, France. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: Six ICUs in a single institution in Lyon, France. PATIENTS: Consecutive patients admitted to an ICU with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia from 27 February to 4 April 2020 (COVID-19 group) and seasonal influenza pneumonia from 1 November 2015 to 30 April 2019 (influenza group). A total of 350 patients were included in the COVID-19 group (18 refused to consent) and 325 in the influenza group (one refused to consent). Diagnosis was confirmed by RT-PCR. Follow-up was completed on 1 April 2021. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Differences in 90-day adjusted-mortality between the COVID-19 and influenza groups were evaluated using a multivariable Cox proportional hazards model. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients were younger, mostly men and had a higher median BMI, and comorbidities, including immunosuppressive condition or respiratory history were less frequent. In univariate analysis, no significant differences were observed between the two groups regarding in-ICU mortality, 30, 60 and 90-day mortality. After Cox modelling adjusted on age, sex, BMI, cancer, sepsis-related organ failure assessment (SOFA) score, simplified acute physiology score SAPS II score, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and myocardial infarction, the probability of death associated with COVID-19 was significantly higher in comparison to seasonal influenza [hazard ratio 1.57, 95% CI (1.14 to 2.17); P = 0.006]. The clinical course and morbidity profile of both groups was markedly different; COVID-19 patients had less severe illness at admission (SAPS II score, 37 [28 to 48] vs. 48 [39 to 61], P < 0.001 and SOFA score, 4 [2 to 8] vs. 8 [5 to 11], P < 0.001), but the disease was more severe considering ICU length of stay, duration of mechanical ventilation, PEEP level and prone positioning requirement. CONCLUSION: After ICU admission, COVID-19 was associated with an increased risk of death compared with seasonal influenza. Patient characteristics, clinical course and morbidity profile of these diseases is markedly different.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Pneumonia , Female , Hospital Mortality , Hospitals , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
9.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1966): 20212358, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621738

ABSTRACT

There is growing experimental evidence that many respiratory viruses-including influenza and SARS-CoV-2-can interact, such that their epidemiological dynamics may not be independent. To assess these interactions, standard statistical tests of independence suggest that the prevalence ratio-defined as the ratio of co-infection prevalence to the product of single-infection prevalences-should equal unity for non-interacting pathogens. As a result, earlier epidemiological studies aimed to estimate the prevalence ratio from co-detection prevalence data, under the assumption that deviations from unity implied interaction. To examine the validity of this assumption, we designed a simulation study that built on a broadly applicable epidemiological model of co-circulation of two emerging or seasonal respiratory viruses. By focusing on the pair influenza-SARS-CoV-2, we first demonstrate that the prevalence ratio systematically underestimates the strength of interaction, and can even misclassify antagonistic or synergistic interactions that persist after clearance of infection. In a global sensitivity analysis, we further identify properties of viral infection-such as a high reproduction number or a short infectious period-that blur the interaction inferred from the prevalence ratio. Altogether, our results suggest that ecological or epidemiological studies based on co-detection prevalence data provide a poor guide to assess interactions among respiratory viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Coinfection/epidemiology , Epidemiological Models , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2
10.
PeerJ ; 9: e12566, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551830

ABSTRACT

As in past pandemics, co-circulating pathogens may play a role in the epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). In particular, experimental evidence indicates that influenza infection can up-regulate the expression of ACE2-the receptor of SARS-CoV-2 in human cells-and facilitate SARS-CoV-2 infection. Here we hypothesized that influenza impacted the epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 during the early 2020 epidemic of COVID-19 in Europe. To test this hypothesis, we developed a population-based model of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and of COVID-19 mortality, which simultaneously incorporated the impact of non-pharmaceutical control measures and of influenza on the epidemiological dynamics of SARS-CoV-2. Using statistical inference methods based on iterated filtering, we confronted this model with mortality incidence data in four European countries (Belgium, Italy, Norway, and Spain) to systematically test a range of assumptions about the impact of influenza. We found consistent evidence for a 1.8-3.4-fold (uncertainty range across countries: 1.1 to 5.0) average population-level increase in SARS-CoV-2 transmission associated with influenza during the period of co-circulation. These estimates remained robust to a variety of alternative assumptions regarding the epidemiological traits of SARS-CoV-2 and the modeled impact of control measures. Although further confirmatory evidence is required, our results suggest that influenza could facilitate the spread and hamper effective control of SARS-CoV-2. More generally, they highlight the possible role of co-circulating pathogens in the epidemiology of COVID-19.

11.
Euro Surveill ; 26(29)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1350236

ABSTRACT

Since the introduction of non-pharmacological interventions to control COVID-19, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) activity in Europe has been limited. Surveillance data for 17 countries showed delayed RSV epidemics in France (≥ 12 w) and Iceland (≥ 4 w) during the 2020/21 season. RSV cases (predominantly small children) in France and Iceland were older compared with previous seasons. We hypothesise that future RSV epidemic(s) could start outside the usual autumn/winter season and be larger than expected. Year-round surveillance of RSV is of critical importance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Child , Europe/epidemiology , France/epidemiology , Humans , Iceland/epidemiology , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Seasons
12.
Euro Surveill ; 26(29)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1321641

ABSTRACT

The Rhône-Loire metropolitan areas' 2020/21 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) epidemic was delayed following the implementation of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI), compared with previous seasons. Very severe lower respiratory tract infection incidence among infants ≤ 3 months decreased twofold, the proportion of cases among children aged > 3 months to 5 years increased, and cases among adults > 65 years were markedly reduced. NPI appeared to reduce the RSV burden among at-risk groups, and should be promoted to minimise impact of future RSV outbreaks.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Adult , Child , France/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Infant , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology
13.
Crit Care ; 25(1): 140, 2021 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1181117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the onset of the pandemic, only few studies focused on longitudinal immune monitoring in critically ill COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) whereas their hospital stay may last for several weeks. Consequently, the question of whether immune parameters may drive or associate with delayed unfavorable outcome in these critically ill patients remains unsolved. METHODS: We present a dynamic description of immuno-inflammatory derangements in 64 critically ill COVID-19 patients including plasma IFNα2 levels and IFN-stimulated genes (ISG) score measurements. RESULTS: ARDS patients presented with persistently decreased lymphocyte count and mHLA-DR expression and increased cytokine levels. Type-I IFN response was initially induced with elevation of IFNα2 levels and ISG score followed by a rapid decrease over time. Survivors and non-survivors presented with apparent common immune responses over the first 3 weeks after ICU admission mixing gradual return to normal values of cellular markers and progressive decrease of cytokines levels including IFNα2. Only plasma TNF-α presented with a slow increase over time and higher values in non-survivors compared with survivors. This paralleled with an extremely high occurrence of secondary infections in COVID-19 patients with ARDS. CONCLUSIONS: Occurrence of ARDS in response to SARS-CoV2 infection appears to be strongly associated with the intensity of immune alterations upon ICU admission of COVID-19 patients. In these critically ill patients, immune profile presents with similarities with the delayed step of immunosuppression described in bacterial sepsis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/trends , Interferon-alpha/blood , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/blood , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Female , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Immunity/immunology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/epidemiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology
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