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2.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 8(Suppl 1):593-594, 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1564547

ABSTRACT

Background The VA Million Veteran Program (MVP) studies what factors influence Veteran health. Current procedures involve collection of venous blood at MVP enrollment sites. To examine home specimen collection options, MVP performed a pilot study comparing two blood specimen collection devices and evaluated SARS-CoV-2 antibody assays to determine known COVID-19 infection or vaccination. Methods A sub-sample of MVP Veteran participants were asked to self-collect a capillary blood specimen using the Neoteryx Mitra Clamshell (up to 120uL dried blood) or Tasso-SST (up to 200uL liquid blood) per the vendor instructions. Veterans were randomly assigned to a device prior to consent. Eligibility included 30% of Veterans with known COVID-19 diagnosis or vaccination and sampling time was variable from these events. Veterans rated their device experience and shipped collected specimens directly to an MVP laboratory. Mitra tip (4) blood was eluted in 1 mL of 0.9% normal saline for 1 hour at room temperature shaking at 300 rpm. Tasso tubes were centrifuged per vendor instructions. All samples were stored at -80°C until tested with SARS-Cov-2 antibody (Ab) assays (InBios Spike IgG, BioRad Nucleocapsid (NC) Total Ab, Abbott NC IgG, and Abbott Spike IgG II) per vendor instructions. Results 312 MVP participants consented to the pilot (52%) of which 136 (43.6%) were sent Mitra and 176 (56.4%) were sent Tasso-SST (Table 1). Participants rated the Mitra Tasso-SST equally on average as 4.4 on a 0-5 usability scale. The Abbott IgG II assay had the highest sensitivity across both devices (87% Mitra and 98% Tasso-SST) for detecting known COVID infection and/or vaccination. The InBios IgG assay with the Tasso-SST had the best sensitivity (97%) and specificity (80%) for detecting known COVID-19 infection and/or vaccination (Table 2). Table 1. COVID-19 At-Home Capillary Blood Specimen Collection Pilot Outcomes Conclusion Veterans successfully collected their own specimens and had no strong preference for either device. The Tasso-SST combined with the InBios Spike IgG assay provided the highest combination of sensitivity and specificity. Limitations included one collection device per subject, varied timing of testing, unknown infection or vaccination status among some, and Tasso collection volume and Mitra whole blood dilution may have affected comparison across assays or performance. Disclosures All Authors: No reported disclosures

3.
N Engl J Med ; 386(2): 105-115, 2022 Jan 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1557219

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The messenger RNA (mRNA)-based vaccines BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 are more than 90% effective against coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19). However, their comparative effectiveness for a range of outcomes across diverse populations is unknown. METHODS: We emulated a target trial using the electronic health records of U.S. veterans who received a first dose of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine between January 4 and May 14, 2021, during a period marked by predominance of the SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 (alpha) variant. We matched recipients of each vaccine in a 1:1 ratio according to their risk factors. Outcomes included documented severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, symptomatic Covid-19, hospitalization for Covid-19, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU) for Covid-19, and death from Covid-19. We estimated risks using the Kaplan-Meier estimator. To assess the influence of the B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, we emulated a second target trial that involved veterans vaccinated between July 1 and September 20, 2021. RESULTS: Each vaccine group included 219,842 persons. Over 24 weeks of follow-up in a period marked by alpha-variant predominance, the estimated risk of documented infection was 5.75 events per 1000 persons (95% confidence interval [CI], 5.39 to 6.23) in the BNT162b2 group and 4.52 events per 1000 persons (95% CI, 4.17 to 4.84) in the mRNA-1273 group. The excess number of events per 1000 persons for BNT162b2 as compared with mRNA-1273 was 1.23 (95% CI, 0.72 to 1.81) for documented infection, 0.44 (95% CI, 0.25 to 0.70) for symptomatic Covid-19, 0.55 (95% CI, 0.36 to 0.83) for hospitalization for Covid-19, 0.10 (95% CI, 0.00 to 0.26) for ICU admission for Covid-19, and 0.02 (95% CI, -0.06 to 0.12) for death from Covid-19. The corresponding excess risk (BNT162b2 vs. mRNA-1273) of documented infection over 12 weeks of follow-up in a period marked by delta-variant predominance was 6.54 events per 1000 persons (95% CI, -2.58 to 11.82). CONCLUSIONS: The 24-week risk of Covid-19 outcomes was low after vaccination with mRNA-1273 or BNT162b2, although risks were lower with mRNA-1273 than with BNT162b2. This pattern was consistent across periods marked by alpha- and delta-variant predominance. (Funded by the Department of Veterans Affairs and others.).

4.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750477

ABSTRACT

Strategies to develop therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infection may be informed by experimental identification of viral-host protein interactions in cellular assays and measurement of host response proteins in COVID-19 patients. Identification of genetic variants that influence the level or activity of these proteins in the host could enable rapid 'in silico' assessment in human genetic studies of their causal relevance as molecular targets for new or repurposed drugs to treat COVID-19. We integrated large-scale genomic and aptamer-based plasma proteomic data from 10,708 individuals to characterize the genetic architecture of 179 host proteins reported to interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins or to participate in the host response to COVID-19. We identified 220 host DNA sequence variants acting in cis (MAF 0.01-49.9%) and explaining 0.3-70.9% of the variance of 97 of these proteins, including 45 with no previously known protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) and 38 encoding current drug targets. Systematic characterization of pQTLs across the phenome identified protein-drug-disease links, evidence that putative viral interaction partners such as MARK3 affect immune response, and establish the first link between a recently reported variant for respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients at the ABO locus and hypercoagulation, i.e. maladaptive host response. Our results accelerate the evaluation and prioritization of new drug development programmes and repurposing of trials to prevent, treat or reduce adverse outcomes. Rapid sharing and dynamic and detailed interrogation of results is facilitated through an interactive webserver ( https://omicscience.org/apps/covidpgwas/ ).

5.
J Infect Dis ; 224(6): 967-975, 2021 09 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1429245

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early convalescent plasma transfusion may reduce mortality in patients with nonsevere coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: This study emulates a (hypothetical) target trial using observational data from a cohort of US veterans admitted to a Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facility between 1 May and 17 November 2020 with nonsevere COVID-19. The intervention was convalescent plasma initiated within 2 days of eligibility. Thirty-day mortality was compared using cumulative incidence curves, risk differences, and hazard ratios estimated from pooled logistic models with inverse probability weighting to adjust for confounding. RESULTS: Of 11 269 eligible person-trials contributed by 4755 patients, 402 trials were assigned to the convalescent plasma group. Forty and 671 deaths occurred within the plasma and nonplasma groups, respectively. The estimated 30-day mortality risk was 6.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.0%-9.7%) in the plasma group and 6.2% (95% CI, 5.6%-7.0%) in the nonplasma group. The associated risk difference was 0.30% (95% CI, -2.30% to 3.60%) and the hazard ratio was 1.04 (95% CI, .64-1.62). CONCLUSIONS: Our target trial emulation estimated no meaningful differences in 30-day mortality between nonsevere COVID-19 patients treated and untreated with convalescent plasma. Clinical Trials Registration. NCT04545047.


Subject(s)
Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Immunization, Passive , Plasma , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Veterans , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251651, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1226903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The risk factors associated with the stages of Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) disease progression are not well known. We aim to identify risk factors specific to each state of COVID-19 progression from SARS-CoV-2 infection through death. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included 648,202 participants from the Veteran Affairs Million Veteran Program (2011-). We identified characteristics and 1,809 ICD code-based phenotypes from the electronic health record. We used logistic regression to examine the association of age, sex, body mass index (BMI), race, and prevalent phenotypes to the stages of COVID-19 disease progression: infection, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and 30-day mortality (separate models for each). Models were adjusted for age, sex, race, ethnicity, number of visit months and ICD codes, state infection rate and controlled for multiple testing using false discovery rate (≤0.1). As of August 10, 2020, 5,929 individuals were SARS-CoV-2 positive and among those, 1,463 (25%) were hospitalized, 579 (10%) were in ICU, and 398 (7%) died. We observed a lower risk in women vs. men for ICU and mortality (Odds Ratio (95% CI): 0.48 (0.30-0.76) and 0.59 (0.31-1.15), respectively) and a higher risk in Black vs. Other race patients for hospitalization and ICU (OR (95%CI): 1.53 (1.32-1.77) and 1.63 (1.32-2.02), respectively). We observed an increased risk of all COVID-19 disease states with older age and BMI ≥35 vs. 20-24 kg/m2. Renal failure, respiratory failure, morbid obesity, acid-base balance disorder, white blood cell diseases, hydronephrosis and bacterial infections were associated with an increased risk of ICU admissions; sepsis, chronic skin ulcers, acid-base balance disorder and acidosis were associated with mortality. CONCLUSIONS: Older age, higher BMI, males and patients with a history of respiratory, kidney, bacterial or metabolic comorbidities experienced greater COVID-19 severity. Future studies to investigate the underlying mechanisms associated with these phenotype clusters and COVID-19 are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Veterans Health , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Body Mass Index , COVID-19/mortality , Disease Progression , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sex Factors , United States/epidemiology , Veterans
8.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 6397, 2020 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1023894

ABSTRACT

Understanding the genetic architecture of host proteins interacting with SARS-CoV-2 or mediating the maladaptive host response to COVID-19 can help to identify new or repurpose existing drugs targeting those proteins. We present a genetic discovery study of 179 such host proteins among 10,708 individuals using an aptamer-based technique. We identify 220 host DNA sequence variants acting in cis (MAF 0.01-49.9%) and explaining 0.3-70.9% of the variance of 97 of these proteins, including 45 with no previously known protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) and 38 encoding current drug targets. Systematic characterization of pQTLs across the phenome identified protein-drug-disease links and evidence that putative viral interaction partners such as MARK3 affect immune response. Our results accelerate the evaluation and prioritization of new drug development programmes and repurposing of trials to prevent, treat or reduce adverse outcomes. Rapid sharing and detailed interrogation of results is facilitated through an interactive webserver ( https://omicscience.org/apps/covidpgwas/ ).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Proteins/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , ABO Blood-Group System/metabolism , Aptamers, Peptide/blood , Aptamers, Peptide/metabolism , Blood Coagulation , Drug Delivery Systems , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Host-Derived Cellular Factors/metabolism , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Quantitative Trait Loci/genetics
9.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-636928

ABSTRACT

Strategies to develop therapeutics for SARS-CoV-2 infection may be informed by experimental identification of viral-host protein interactions in cellular assays and measurement of host response proteins in COVID-19 patients. Identification of genetic variants that influence the level or activity of these proteins in the host could enable rapid 'in silico' assessment in human genetic studies of their causal relevance as molecular targets for new or repurposed drugs to treat COVID-19. We integrated large-scale genomic and aptamer-based plasma proteomic data from 10,708 individuals to characterize the genetic architecture of 179 host proteins reported to interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins or to participate in the host response to COVID-19. We identified 220 host DNA sequence variants acting in cis (MAF 0.01-49.9%) and explaining 0.3-70.9% of the variance of 97 of these proteins, including 45 with no previously known protein quantitative trait loci (pQTL) and 38 encoding current drug targets. Systematic characterization of pQTLs across the phenome identified protein-drug-disease links, evidence that putative viral interaction partners such as MARK3 affect immune response, and establish the first link between a recently reported variant for respiratory failure of COVID-19 patients at the ABO locus and hypercoagulation, i.e. maladaptive host response. Our results accelerate the evaluation and prioritization of new drug development programmes and repurposing of trials to prevent, treat or reduce adverse outcomes. Rapid sharing and dynamic and detailed interrogation of results is facilitated through an interactive webserver ( https://omicscience.org/apps/covidpgwas/ ).

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