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1.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 2022 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974611

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The identification of risk factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality in patients with dementia is a key aspect to support clinical decisions and public health interventions. OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 related death in a cohort of patients with dementia residing in the Lazio region and to investigate predicting factors for both infection and mortality. METHODS: This population-based study used information from administrative databases and the SARS-CoV-2 infection surveillance system. Patients with dementia (age ≥65) were enrolled as of December 31, 2019 and followed-up until February 28, 2021. Cumulative risk of infection and death within 60 days of infection onset, and age-standardized incidence (SIR) and mortality (SMR) ratios were calculated. Logistic regression models were applied to identify factors associated with infection and mortality. RESULTS: Among 37,729 dementia patients, 2,548 had a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The crude risk of infection was 6.7% . An increase in risk of infection was observed both in women (SIR 1.72; 95% CI 1.64-1.80) and men (SIR 1.43; 95% CI 1.33-1.54). Pneumonia, cerebrovascular and blood diseases, femur fracture, anxiety, antipsychotic and antithrombotic use were associated with an increased risk of infection. The crude risk of death was 31.0%, the SMRs 2.32 (95% CI 2.05-2.65) for men, and 2.82 (95% CI 2.55-3.11) for women. Factors associated with mortality included: male gender, age ≥85, symptoms at the diagnosis, antipsychotic and systemic antibiotics treatment. CONCLUSION: These findings emphasize the need of close and tailored monitoring of dementia patients to reduce the impact of COVID-19 on this fragile population.

2.
Epidemiol Prev ; 46(4): 49-58, 2022.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1955238

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to describe trends of overall and intensive care hospitalization for COVID-19 since the beginning of the pandemic in Italy until June 2021, and to compare the results between foreign and Italian population. DESIGN: retrospective observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: hospital discharges of 28 million people living in Lombardy, Piedmont, Emilia-Romagna (Northern Italy), Toscana and Lazio (Central Italy) occurred between 22.02.2020 and 02.07.2021 in the hospitals located in each considered Region. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: two weekly outcomes were examined: 1. the overall number of COVID-19 hospitalizations; 2. the number of COVID-19 hospitalizations in intensive care units. RESULTS: a higher COVID-19 overall and intensive care unit hospitalization was found among the foreign population compared to Italians. The association emerged only after the adjustment for age, and it was consistent among all Regions, though less marked in Lombardy. The association varied across epidemic phases. CONCLUSIONS: the issue of vulnerability of migrants to the risk of severe COVID-19 calls for a diversity-sensitive approach in prevention. The specific country of origin and the prevalence of preventable co-morbidities that are often underestimated in the migrant populations, and related to COVID-19 complications, should be taken into consideration in future analyses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Hospitals , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
3.
J Clin Med ; 10(24)2021 Dec 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572524

ABSTRACT

Patients with end-stage kidney disease represent a frail population and might be at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The Lazio Regional Dialysis and Transplant Registry collected information on dialysis patients with a positive swab. The study investigated incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, mortality and their potential associated factors in patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) in the Lazio region. Method: The occurrence of infection was assessed among MHD patients included in the RRDTL from 1 March to 30 November 2020. The adjusted cumulative incidence of infection and mortality risk within 30 days of infection onset were estimated. Logistic and Cox regression models were applied to identify factors associated with infection and mortality, respectively. Results: The MHD cohort counted 4942 patients; 256 (5.2%) had COVID-19. The adjusted cumulative incidence was 5.1%. Factors associated with infection included: being born abroad, educational level, cystic renal disease/familial nephropathy, vascular disease and being treated in a dialysis center located in Local Health Authority (LHA) Rome 2. Among infected patients, 59 (23.0%) died within 30 days; the adjusted mortality risk was 21.0%. Factors associated with 30-day mortality included: age, malnutrition and fever at the time of swab. Conclusions: Factors associated with infection seem to reflect socioeconomic conditions. Factors associated with mortality, in addition to age, are related to clinical characteristics and symptoms at the time of swab.

5.
Eur J Neurol ; 28(10): 3403-3410, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297617

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex chronic, autoimmune inflammatory disease involving multidisciplinary assessments and interventions. Access to outpatient specialist and home healthcare services was explored during the pandemic outbreak and the lockdown amongst MS patients in the Lazio region. Adherence to disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) is also described. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted using regional healthcare administrative databases. A validated algorithm was used to identify MS cases over the period 2011-2018. The numbers of specialist and home-based services were compared between 2019 and 2020. The medication possession ratio was used to measure adherence to DMTs. RESULTS: A total of 9380 MS patients were identified (68% women). A decline in the number of outpatient care services between March and June 2020 compared to the previous year was observed, in particular for rehabilitation (-82%), magnetic resonance imaging (-56%) and neurological specialist services (-91%). Important year-to-year variations were observed in May and June 2020 in home-based nursing and medical care (-91%) and motor re-education services (-74%). Adherence to DMTs was higher in the first 4 months of 2019 compared to the same period of 2020 (67.1% vs. 57.0%). CONCLUSIONS: A notable disruption of rehabilitative therapy and home-based services as well as in DMT adherence was observed. Since the pandemic is still ongoing and interruption of healthcare services could have a major impact on MS patients, it is necessary to monitor access of MS patients to healthcare resources in order to ensure adequate treatments, including rehabilitative therapies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Multiple Sclerosis , Communicable Disease Control , Delivery of Health Care , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , Multiple Sclerosis/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6): 359-366, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134602

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to evaluate the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic on the access to the emergency services of the Lazio Region (Central Italy) for time-dependent pathologies, for suspected SARS-CoV-2 symptoms, and for potentially inappropriate conditions. DESIGN: observational study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: accesses to the emergency departments (EDs) of Lazio Region hospitals in the first three months of 2017, 2018, 2019, and 2020. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: total number of accesses to the emergency room and number of specific accesses for cardio and cerebrovascular diseases, for severe trauma, for symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions, and for symptoms related to pneumonia. RESULTS: in the first 3 months of 2019, there were 429,972 accesses to the EDs of Lazio Region; in the same period of 2020, accesses arise to 353,806, (reduction of 21.5%), with a 73% reduction in the last three weeks of march 2020 as compared with the corresponding period of 2019. Comparing the first 3 months of the 2017-2019 with 2020, the accesses for acute coronary syndrome and acute cerebrovascular disease decreased since the 10th week up to more than 57% and 50%, respectively. The accesses due to symptoms, signs, and ill-defined conditions, proxy of potentially inappropriate conditions, decreased since the 8th week, with a maximum reduction of 70%. Access to severe trauma decreased by up to 70% in the 11th week. The accesses for pneumonia increased up to a 70% increment in the 12th week. CONCLUSIONS: the evaluation of accesses to emergency services during the SARS-CoV-2 epidemic can provide useful elements for the promotion and improvement of the planning, for the management of critical situations, and for the reprogramming of the healthcare offer based on clinical and organizational appropriateness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergency Service, Hospital , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology
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