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1.
Virus evolution ; 8(2), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1999627

ABSTRACT

Long-term severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in immunodeficient patients are an important source of variation for the virus but are understudied. Many case studies have been published which describe one or a small number of long-term infected individuals but no study has combined these sequences into a cohesive dataset. This work aims to rectify this and study the genomics of this patient group through a combination of literature searches as well as identifying new case series directly from the COVID-19 Genomics UK (COG-UK) dataset. The spike gene receptor-binding domain and N-terminal domain (NTD) were identified as mutation hotspots. Numerous mutations associated with variants of concern were observed to emerge recurrently. Additionally a mutation in the envelope gene, T30I was determined to be the second most frequent recurrently occurring mutation arising in persistent infections. A high proportion of recurrent mutations in immunodeficient individuals are associated with ACE2 affinity, immune escape, or viral packaging optimisation. There is an apparent selective pressure for mutations that aid cell–cell transmission within the host or persistence which are often different from mutations that aid inter-host transmission, although the fact that multiple recurrent de novo mutations are considered defining for variants of concern strongly indicates that this potential source of novel variants should not be discounted.

2.
J Clin Microbiol ; 60(4): e0240821, 2022 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1774932

ABSTRACT

Genome sequencing is a powerful tool for identifying SARS-CoV-2 variant lineages; however, there can be limitations due to sequence dropout when used to identify specific key mutations. Recently, ThermoFisher Scientific has developed genotyping assays to help bridge the gap between testing capacity and sequencing capability to generate real-time genotyping results based on specific variants. Over a 6-week period during the months of April and May 2021, we set out to assess the ThermoFisher TaqMan mutation panel genotyping assay, initially for three mutations of concern and then for an additional two mutations of concern, against SARS-CoV-2-positive clinical samples and the corresponding COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium (COG-UK) sequencing data. We demonstrate that genotyping is a powerful in-depth technique for identifying specific mutations, is an excellent complement to genome sequencing, and has real clinical health value potential, allowing laboratories to report and take action on variants of concern much more quickly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
3.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329500

ABSTRACT

Long-term SARS-CoV-2 infections in immunodeficient patients are an important source of variation for the virus but are understudied. Many case studies have been published which describe one or a small number of long-term infected individuals but no study has combined these sequences into a cohesive dataset. This work aims to rectify this and study the genomics of this patient group through a combination of literature searches as well as identifying new case series directly from the COG-UK dataset. The spike gene receptor binding domain (RBD) and N-terminal domains (NTD) were identified as mutation hotspots. Numerous mutations associated with variants of concern were observed to emerge recurrently. Additionally a mutation in the envelope gene, - T30I was determined to be the most recurrent frequently occurring mutation arising in persistent infections. A high proportion of recurrent mutations in immunodeficient individuals are associated with ACE2 affinity, immune escape, or viral packaging optimisation. There is an apparent selective pressure for mutations which aid intra-host transmission or persistence which are often different to mutations which aid inter-host transmission, although the fact that multiple recurrent de novo mutations are considered defining for variants of concern strongly indicates that this potential source of novel variants should not be discounted.

4.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292838

ABSTRACT

Genome sequencing is a powerful tool for identifying SARS-CoV-2 variant lineages, however there can be limitations due to sequence drop-out when used to identify specific key mutations. Recently, Thermo Fisher Scientific have developed genotyping assays to help bridge the gap between testing capacity and sequencing capability to generate real-time genotyping results based on specific variants. Over a 6-week period during the months of April and May 2021, we set out to assess the Thermo Fisher TaqMan Mutation Panel Genotyping Assay, initially for three mutations of concern and then an additional two mutations of concern, against SARS-CoV-2 positive clinical samples and the corresponding COG-UK sequencing data. We demonstrate that genotyping is a powerful in-depth technique for identifying specific mutations, an excellent complement to genome sequencing and has real clinical health value potential allowing laboratories to report and action variants of concern much quicker.

5.
Lancet Reg Health Eur ; 8: 100186, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1397545

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study sought to establish the long-term effects of Covid-19 following hospitalisation. METHODS: 327 hospitalised participants, with SARS-CoV-2 infection were recruited into a prospective multicentre cohort study at least 3 months post-discharge. The primary outcome was self-reported recovery at least ninety days after initial Covid-19 symptom onset. Secondary outcomes included new symptoms, disability (Washington group short scale), breathlessness (MRC Dyspnoea scale) and quality of life (EQ5D-5L). FINDINGS: 55% of participants reported not feeling fully recovered. 93% reported persistent symptoms, with fatigue the most common (83%), followed by breathlessness (54%). 47% reported an increase in MRC dyspnoea scale of at least one grade. New or worse disability was reported by 24% of participants. The EQ5D-5L summary index was significantly worse following acute illness (median difference 0.1 points on a scale of 0 to 1, IQR: -0.2 to 0.0). Females under the age of 50 years were five times less likely to report feeling recovered (adjusted OR 5.09, 95% CI 1.64 to 15.74), were more likely to have greater disability (adjusted OR 4.22, 95% CI 1.12 to 15.94), twice as likely to report worse fatigue (adjusted OR 2.06, 95% CI 0.81 to 3.31) and seven times more likely to become more breathless (adjusted OR 7.15, 95% CI 2.24 to 22.83) than men of the same age. INTERPRETATION: Survivors of Covid-19 experienced long-term symptoms, new disability, increased breathlessness, and reduced quality of life. These findings were present in young, previously healthy working age adults, and were most common in younger females. FUNDING: National Institute for Health Research, UK Medical Research Council, Wellcome Trust, Department for International Development and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation.

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