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1.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102183, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1473503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Several outbreaks of pneumococcal pneumonia among shipyard workers have been described. In this study, following a previous report of grouped cases, we aimed to elucidate the features of disease onset. METHODS: We compared the population characteristics of shipyard workers with a confirmed diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia (N = 38) to those of workers without pneumonia (N = 53). We compared nine S. pneumoniae strains isolated from patients with pneumonia by capsular serotyping, multi-locus sequence typing, and whole genome sequencing. RESULTS: Shipyard workers with Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia were more frequently from Italy (P = 0.016), had at least one underlying condition (P = 0.024), lived on-board the ship (P = 0.009). None of these factors was independent by multivariate analysis. While capsular serotyping enabled us to identify four different serotypes: 4 (n = 5), 8 (n = 2), 9 N (n = 1), and 3 (n = 1), by sequence typing, we distinguished five sequence types (STs): ST801 (n = 4), ST205 (n = 2), ST1220 (n = 1), ST1280 (n = 1), and ST66 (n = 1). Whole genome sequencing confirmed the results obtained by MLST. Genomes of isolates of the same sequence type were similar with ≤80 single-nucleotide polymorphisms. CONCLUSIONS: We confirmed that the onset of pneumococcal infection among shipyard workers was attributable to both a person-to-person spread of single strains of S. pneumoniae and a shift of different strains from commensal to pathogen under favourable conditions (professional exposure, viral infections). Control measures should therefore be implemented by taking into account these features.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal , Humans , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pneumonia, Pneumococcal/epidemiology , Serogroup , Serotyping , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
2.
Rev Cardiovasc Med ; 22(3): 1063-1072, 2021 09 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439023

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the age-specific mortality of unselected adult outpatients infected with SARS-CoV-2 treated early in a dedicated COVID-19 day hospital and we assessed whether the use of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) + azithromycin (AZ) was associated with improved survival in this cohort. A retrospective monocentric cohort study was conducted in the day hospital of our center from March to December 2020 in adults with PCR-proven infection who were treated as outpatients with a standardized protocol. The primary endpoint was 6-week mortality, and secondary endpoints were transfer to the intensive care unit and hospitalization rate. Among 10,429 patients (median age, 45 [IQR 32-57] years; 5597 [53.7%] women), 16 died (0.15%). The infection fatality rate was 0.06% among the 8315 patients treated with HCQ+AZ. No deaths occurred among the 8414 patients younger than 60 years. Older age and male sex were associated with a higher risk of death, ICU transfer, and hospitalization. Treatment with HCQ+AZ (0.17 [0.06-0.48]) was associated with a lower risk of death, independently of age, sex and epidemic period. Meta-analysis evidenced consistency with 4 previous outpatient studies (32,124 patients-Odds ratio 0.31 [0.20-0.47], I2 = 0%). Early ambulatory treatment of COVID-19 with HCQ+AZ as a standard of care is associated with very low mortality, and HCQ+AZ improve COVID-19 survival compared to other regimens.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Early Medical Intervention , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/mortality , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , France , Hospitalization , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Outpatients , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
3.
IDCases ; 21: e00836, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385651
4.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 87, 2021 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247600

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone decreases mortality in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and has become the standard of care during the second wave of pandemic. Dexamethasone is an immunosuppressive treatment potentially increasing the risk of secondary hospital acquired infections in critically ill patients. We conducted an observational retrospective study in three French intensive care units (ICUs) comparing the first and second waves of pandemic to investigate the role of dexamethasone in the occurrence of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and blood stream infections (BSI). Patients admitted from March to November 2020 with a documented COVID-19 and requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) for ≥ 48 h were included. The main study outcomes were the incidence of VAP and BSI according to the use of dexamethasone. Secondary outcomes were the ventilator-free days (VFD) at day-28 and day-60, ICU and hospital length of stay and mortality. RESULTS: Among the 151 patients included, 84 received dexamethasone, all but one during the second wave. VAP occurred in 63% of patients treated with dexamethasone (DEXA+) and 57% in those not receiving dexamethasone (DEXA-) (p = 0.43). The cumulative incidence of VAP, considering death, duration of MV and late immunosuppression as competing factors was not different between groups (p = 0.59). A multivariate analysis did not identify dexamethasone as an independent risk factor for VAP occurrence. The occurrence of BSI was not different between groups (29 vs. 30%; p = 0.86). DEXA+ patients had more VFD at day-28 (9 (0-21) vs. 0 (0-11) days; p = 0.009) and a reduced ICU length of stay (20 (11-44) vs. 32 (17-46) days; p = 0.01). Mortality did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of COVID-19 patients requiring invasive MV, dexamethasone was not associated with an increased incidence of VAP or BSI. Dexamethasone might not explain the high rates of VAP and BSI observed in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

5.
Am J Transplant ; 21(4): 1586-1596, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883239

ABSTRACT

It is unknown if solid organ transplant recipients are at higher risk for severe COVID-19. The management of a lung transplantation (LTx) program and the therapeutic strategies to adapt the immunosuppressive regimen and antiviral measures is a major issue in the COVID-19 era, but little is known about worldwide practice. We sent out to 180 LTx centers worldwide in June 2020 a survey with 63 questions, both regarding the management of a LTx program in the COVID-19 era and the therapeutic strategies to treat COVID-19 LTx recipients. We received a total of 78 responses from 15 countries. Among participants, 81% declared a reduction of the activity and 47% restricted LTx for urgent cases only. Sixteen centers observed deaths on waiting listed patients and eight centers performed LTx for COVID-19 disease. In 62% of the centers, COVID-19 was diagnosed in LTx recipients, most of them not severe cases. The most common immunosuppressive management included a decreased dose or pausing of the cell cycle inhibitors. Remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and azithromycin were the most proposed antiviral strategies. Most of the centers have been affected by the COVID-19 pandemic and proposed an active therapeutic strategy to treat LTx recipients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Lung Transplantation , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients , Waiting Lists
6.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(1): e13410, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639002

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 is a novel infectious disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that emerged in late 2019 and which is now a pandemic. Solid organ transplant recipients are perceived to be at increased risk of severe COVID-19 due to their chronic use of immunosuppressive drugs (ISDs) and to their associated conditions. Scarce data are available on the optimized management of ISDs in these patients and on its impact on presentation, clinical course, viral shedding, and outcome. We report here two cases of COVID-19 in a cohabiting couple of lung transplant recipients for cystic fibrosis, who had different ISDs management and who developed discordant courses of their disease. Our findings suggest that the degree of their immunosuppression might be a reason for their different course and that ISDs might prove partially protective.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/pathology , Lung Transplantation , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients , Adult , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male
7.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 35: 101738, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-398900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In France, the combination hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) and azithromycin (AZ) is used in the treatment of COVID-19. METHODS: We retrospectively report on 1061 SARS-CoV-2 positive tested patients treated for at least three days with the following regimen: HCQ (200 mg three times daily for ten days) + AZ (500 mg on day 1 followed by 250 mg daily for the next four days). Outcomes were death, clinical worsening (transfer to ICU, and >10 day hospitalization) and viral shedding persistence (>10 days). RESULTS: A total of 1061 patients were included in this analysis (46.4% male, mean age 43.6 years - range 14-95 years). Good clinical outcome and virological cure were obtained in 973 patients within 10 days (91.7%). Prolonged viral carriage was observed in 47 patients (4.4%) and was associated to a higher viral load at diagnosis (p < .001) but viral culture was negative at day 10. All but one, were PCR-cleared at day 15. A poor clinical outcome (PClinO) was observed for 46 patients (4.3%) and 8 died (0.75%) (74-95 years old). All deaths resulted from respiratory failure and not from cardiac toxicity. Five patients are still hospitalized (98.7% of patients cured so far). PClinO was associated with older age (OR 1.11), severity of illness at admission (OR 10.05) and low HCQ serum concentration. PClinO was independently associated with the use of selective beta-blocking agents and angiotensin II receptor blockers (p < .05). A total of 2.3% of patients reported mild adverse events (gastrointestinal or skin symptoms, headache, insomnia and transient blurred vision). CONCLUSION: Administration of the HCQ+AZ combination before COVID-19 complications occur is safe and associated with a very low fatality rate in patients.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Azithromycin/administration & dosage , Azithromycin/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Therapy, Combination , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/administration & dosage , Hydroxychloroquine/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Viral Load , Young Adult
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