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1.
Artif Organs ; 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116440

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal life support (V-V ECLS or V-V ECMO) has been adopted as a rescue support in severe cases of COVID-19 ARDS. Initial reports on the use of V-V ECLS in COVID-19 patients reported very high mortality rates (57-94%), but subsequent studies showed much lower rates (30-40%). The aim of this study is to analyze demographic features, clinical course and outcomes of COVID-19 treated with V-V ECLS during the Italian 'third wave', in which the alpha variant was prevalent in the country. METHODS: Single-center, retrospective observational study conducted at the ECLS referral center of a teaching hospital in Italy from January 1st , 2021 and October 31st , 2021. RESULTS: Between January and October 2021, 18 consecutive adult patients who underwent V-V ECLS for severe ARDS due to COVID-19 were enrolled. Thirteen patients (72.2%) were male, and their median age was 50 years; median P/F ratio before V-V ECLS initiation was 43 mmHg (IQR, 40;56) and median RESP score was 0.5 (IQR, -2.25;1.0). Mortality rate at 90 days was 55.6, compared to 55.7% in non-COVID patients in our center (p>0.05); median duration of ECLS was 29 days (IQR, 11;32), compared to 10 days (IQR, 8;15), in non-COVID patients (p=0.004). Incidence of complications was high. CONCLUSIONS: In patients with COVID-19 ARDS receiving V-V ECLS, unadjusted mortality was similar to pre-pandemic V-V ECLS cases, while duration of ECLS was almost three times longer and with frequent complications. This could be partly explained by the selection of very sick patients at the baseline that evolved to multiorgan failure during the course of ECLS.

2.
Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland) ; 12(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1970312

ABSTRACT

Background: Bacterial and fungal co-infections and superinfections have a critical role in the outcome of the COVID-19 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). Methods: The present study is a retrospective analysis of 95 patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19-related ARDS during the first (February–May 2020) and second waves of the pandemic (October 2020–January 2021). Demographic and clinical data, CT imaging features, and pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications were recorded, as well as the temporal evolution of CT findings when more than one scan was available. The presence of co-infections and superinfections was registered, reporting the culprit pathogens and the specimen type for culture. A comparison between patients with and without bacterial and/or co-infections/superinfections was performed. Results: Sixty-three patients (66.3%) developed at least one confirmed co-infection/superinfection, with 52 (82.5%) developing pneumonia and 43 (68.3%) bloodstream infection. Gram-negative bacteria were the most common co-pathogens identified and Aspergillus spp. was the most frequent pulmonary microorganism. Consolidations, cavitations, and bronchiectasis were significantly associated with the presence of co-infections/superinfections (p = 0.009, p = 0.010 and p = 0.009, respectively);when considering only patients with pulmonary co-pathogens, only consolidations remained statistically significative (p = 0.004). Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was significantly associated with the presence of cavitations and bronchiectasis (p < 0.001). Patients with co-infections/superinfections presented a significantly higher mortality rate compared to patients with COVID-19 only (52.4% vs. 25%, p = 0.016). Conclusions: Bacterial and fungal co-infections and superinfections are frequent in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU and are associated with worse outcomes. Imaging plays an important role in monitoring critically ill COVID-19 patients and may help detect these complications, suggesting further laboratory investigations.

3.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917366

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial and fungal co-infections and superinfections have a critical role in the outcome of the COVID-19 patients admitted to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU). METHODS: The present study is a retrospective analysis of 95 patients admitted to the ICU for COVID-19-related ARDS during the first (February-May 2020) and second waves of the pandemic (October 2020-January 2021). Demographic and clinical data, CT imaging features, and pulmonary and extra-pulmonary complications were recorded, as well as the temporal evolution of CT findings when more than one scan was available. The presence of co-infections and superinfections was registered, reporting the culprit pathogens and the specimen type for culture. A comparison between patients with and without bacterial and/or co-infections/superinfections was performed. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients (66.3%) developed at least one confirmed co-infection/superinfection, with 52 (82.5%) developing pneumonia and 43 (68.3%) bloodstream infection. Gram-negative bacteria were the most common co-pathogens identified and Aspergillus spp. was the most frequent pulmonary microorganism. Consolidations, cavitations, and bronchiectasis were significantly associated with the presence of co-infections/superinfections (p = 0.009, p = 0.010 and p = 0.009, respectively); when considering only patients with pulmonary co-pathogens, only consolidations remained statistically significative (p = 0.004). Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis was significantly associated with the presence of cavitations and bronchiectasis (p < 0.001). Patients with co-infections/superinfections presented a significantly higher mortality rate compared to patients with COVID-19 only (52.4% vs. 25%, p = 0.016). CONCLUSIONS: Bacterial and fungal co-infections and superinfections are frequent in COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU and are associated with worse outcomes. Imaging plays an important role in monitoring critically ill COVID-19 patients and may help detect these complications, suggesting further laboratory investigations.

5.
Qual Life Res ; 30(10): 2805-2817, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225004

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The onset of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) pandemic in Italy induced a dramatic increase in the need for intensive care unit (ICU) beds for a large proportion of patients affected by COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The aim of the present study was to describe the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) at 90 days after ICU discharge in a cohort of COVID-19 patients undergoing invasive mechanical ventilation and to compare it with an age and sex-matched sample from the general Italian and Finnish populations. Moreover, the possible associations between clinical, demographic, social factors, and HRQoL were investigated. METHODS: COVID-19 ARDS survivors from 16 participating ICUs were followed up until 90 days after ICU discharge and the HRQoL was evaluated with the 15D instrument. A parallel cohort of age and sex-matched Italian population from the same geographic areas was interviewed and a third group of matched Finnish population was extracted from the Finnish 2011 National Health survey. A linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate potential associations between the evaluated factors and HRQoL. RESULTS: 205 patients answered to the questionnaire. HRQoL of the COVID-19 ARDS patients was significantly lower than the matched populations in both physical and mental dimensions. Age, sex, number of comorbidities, ARDS class, duration of invasive mechanical ventilation, and occupational status were found to be significant determinants of the 90 days HRQoL. Clinical severity at ICU admission was poorly correlated to HRQoL. CONCLUSION: COVID-19-related ARDS survivors at 90 days after ICU discharge present a significant reduction both on physical and psychological dimensions of HRQoL measured with the 15D instrument. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04411459.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Critical Illness , Patient Discharge , Quality of Life , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Survivors , Aged , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
6.
Ann Intensive Care ; 11(1): 63, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202278

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prone positioning (PP) has been used to improve oxygenation in patients affected by the SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19). Several mechanisms, including lung recruitment and better lung ventilation/perfusion matching, make a relevant rational for using PP. However, not all patients maintain the oxygenation improvement after returning to supine position. Nevertheless, no evidence exists that a sustained oxygenation response after PP is associated to outcome in mechanically ventilated COVID-19 patients. We analyzed data from 191 patients affected by COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome undergoing PP for clinical reasons. Clinical history, severity scores and respiratory mechanics were analyzed. Patients were classified as responders (≥ median PaO2/FiO2 variation) or non-responders (< median PaO2/FiO2 variation) based on the PaO2/FiO2 percentage change between pre-proning and 1 to 3 h after re-supination in the first prone positioning session. Differences among the groups in physiological variables, complication rates and outcome were evaluated. A competing risk regression analysis was conducted to evaluate if PaO2/FiO2 response after the first pronation cycle was associated to liberation from mechanical ventilation. RESULTS: The median PaO2/FiO2 variation after the first PP cycle was 49 [19-100%] and no differences were found in demographics, comorbidities, ventilatory treatment and PaO2/FiO2 before PP between responders (96/191) and non-responders (95/191). Despite no differences in ICU length of stay, non-responders had a higher rate of tracheostomy (70.5% vs 47.9, P = 0.008) and mortality (53.7% vs 33.3%, P = 0.006), as compared to responders. Moreover, oxygenation response after the first PP was independently associated to liberation from mechanical ventilation at 28 days and was increasingly higher being higher the oxygenation response to PP. CONCLUSIONS: Sustained oxygenation improvement after first PP session is independently associated to improved survival and reduced duration of mechanical ventilation in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

8.
J Intensive Care ; 8: 80, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-863305

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A large proportion of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) develop severe respiratory failure requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) and about 80% of them need mechanical ventilation (MV). These patients show great complexity due to multiple organ involvement and a dynamic evolution over time; moreover, few information is available about the risk factors that may contribute to increase the time course of mechanical ventilation.The primary objective of this study is to investigate the risk factors associated with the inability to liberate COVID-19 patients from mechanical ventilation. Due to the complex evolution of the disease, we analyzed both pulmonary variables and occurrence of non-pulmonary complications during mechanical ventilation. The secondary objective of this study was the evaluation of risk factors for ICU mortality. METHODS: This multicenter prospective observational study enrolled 391 patients from fifteen COVID-19 dedicated Italian ICUs which underwent invasive mechanical ventilation for COVID-19 pneumonia. Clinical and laboratory data, ventilator parameters, occurrence of organ dysfunction, and outcome were recorded. The primary outcome measure was 28 days ventilator-free days and the liberation from MV at 28 days was studied by performing a competing risks regression model on data, according to the method of Fine and Gray; the event death was considered as a competing risk. RESULTS: Liberation from mechanical ventilation was achieved in 53.2% of the patients (208/391). Competing risks analysis, considering death as a competing event, demonstrated a decreased sub-hazard ratio for liberation from mechanical ventilation (MV) with increasing age and SOFA score at ICU admission, low values of PaO2/FiO2 ratio during the first 5 days of MV, respiratory system compliance (CRS) lower than 40 mL/cmH2O during the first 5 days of MV, need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), late-onset ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and cardiovascular complications.ICU mortality during the observation period was 36.1% (141/391). Similar results were obtained by the multivariate logistic regression analysis using mortality as a dependent variable. CONCLUSIONS: Age, SOFA score at ICU admission, CRS, PaO2/FiO2, renal and cardiovascular complications, and late-onset VAP were all independent risk factors for prolonged mechanical ventilation in patients with COVID-19. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT04411459.

9.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(11): e3606-e3614, 2021 12 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-684211

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We evaluated the incidence of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis among intubated patients with critical COVID-19 and evaluated different case definitions of invasive aspergillosis. METHODS: Prospective, multicenter study in adult patients with microbiologically confirmed COVID-19 receiving mechanical ventilation. All included participants underwent a screening protocol for invasive pulmonary aspergillosis with bronchoalveolar lavage galactomannan and cultures performed on admission at 7 days and in case of clinical deterioration. Cases were classified as coronavirus-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) according to previous consensus definitions. The new definition was compared with putative invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (PIPA). RESULTS: 108 patients were enrolled. Probable CAPA was diagnosed in 30 (27.7%) patients after a median of 4 (2-8) days from intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significantly higher 30-day mortality rate from ICU admission among patients with either CAPA (44% vs 19%, P = .002) or PIPA (74% vs 26%, P < .001) when compared with patients not fulfilling criteria for aspergillosis. The association between CAPA (OR, 3.53; 95% CI, 1.29-9.67; P = .014) or PIPA (OR, 11.60; 95% CI, 3.24-41.29; P < .001) with 30-day mortality from ICU admission was confirmed, even after adjustment for confounders with a logistic regression model. Among patients with CAPA receiving voriconazole treatment (13 patients; 43%) a trend toward lower mortality (46% vs 59%; P = .30) and reduction in galactomannan index in consecutive samples were observed. CONCLUSIONS: We found a high incidence of CAPA among critically ill COVID-19 patients and its occurrence seems to change the natural course of disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Adult , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
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