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1.
The New Microbiologica ; 45(2):83, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1970333

ABSTRACT

Malaria is long known as a deadly vector borne infection, caused by five parasite species of the coccidian genus Plasmodia that are present in as many as 85 countries. Despite significant progresses have been achieved to control the infection by early diagnosis and artemisinin combination treatment, insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, malaria still represents a major public health issue in many endemic low-income countries. New diagnostic tools of higher sensitivity and specificity are now available for use in endemic countries to better guide diagnosis and treatment. In particular, highly sensitive rapid antigenic tests are now available and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a very promising and highly sensitive diagnostic tool. After 2015, decreasing morbidity and mortality trends have been stagnating because of limited funding, emergence of parasite and vector resistance to drugs and insecticides respectively and, recently, by the disrupting effect of COVID-19 pandemic. The incomplete knowledge of the complex immunity of malaria infection has slowed the development of an effective vaccine. However, in 2021, the RTS-S vaccine, however of suboptimal protective efficacy, has been made available for routine use in children above 5 months of age. Population movements has increased the chance of observing imported malaria in non-endemic areas, where malaria competent vectors may still exist.

3.
Life (Basel) ; 12(7)2022 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928605

ABSTRACT

Italy was dramatically hit by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the province of Brescia was one of the epicenters of the outbreak. Furthermore, Brescia has one of the highest incidences of people living with HIV (PLWH) and a substantial presence of migrants. We conducted a retrospective cohort study involving all citizens connected to the Brescia Health Protection Agency, assessing the SARS-CoV-2 burden, COVID-19 prevalence, and vaccination coverage. A total of 1,004,210 persons were included, 3817 PLWH and 134,492 foreigners. SARS-CoV-2 infection, hospitalizations and death were more frequent among Italians than foreigners. SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths were more frequent in HIV-uninfected people than in PLWH. PLWH and foreigners were less likely to have a SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis compared to HIV-negative patients. Migrants were more likely to be hospitalized but had a lower risk of death compared to HIV-negative patients. Regarding vaccination, 89.1% of the population received at least one dose of vaccine, while 70.4% of the Italian citizens and 36.3% of the foreigner subjects received three doses of vaccine. Foreigners showed a lower risk of being diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 but a higher risk of complications. HIV infection was not associated with a higher risk of SARS-CoV-2 severe manifestations compared to the general population. COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy was not different between PLWH and HIV uninfected people, but foreigners were more hesitant.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(13)2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917521

ABSTRACT

The epidemic curve of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is silently rising again. Worldwide, the dominant SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern (VOC) is Omicron, and its virological characteristics, such as transmissibility, pathogenicity, and resistance to both vaccine- and infection-induced immunity as well as antiviral drugs, are an urgent public health concern. The Omicron variant has five major sub-lineages; as of February 2022, the BA.2 lineage has been detected in several European and Asian countries, becoming the predominant variant and the real antagonist of the ongoing surge. Hence, although global attention is currently focused on dramatic, historically significant events and the multi-country monkeypox outbreak, this new epidemic is unlikely to fade away in silence. Many aspects of this lineage are still unclear and controversial, but its apparent replication advantage and higher transmissibility, as well as its ability to escape neutralizing antibodies induced by vaccination and previous infection, are rising global concerns. Herein, we review the latest publications and the most recent available literature on the BA.2 lineage of the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Epidemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(12)2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911323

ABSTRACT

Since the early stage of the current pandemic, digital contact tracing (DCT) through mobile phone apps, called "Immuni", has been introduced to complement manual contact tracing in Italy. Until 31 December 2021, Immuni identified 44,880 COVID-19 cases, which corresponds to less than 1% of total COVID-19 cases reported in Italy in the same period (5,886,411). Overall, Immuni generated 143,956 notifications. Although the initial download of the Immuni app represented an early interest in the new tool, Immuni has had little adoption across the Italian population, and the recent increase in its download is likely to be related to the mandatory Green Pass certification for conducting most daily activities that can be obtained via the application. Therefore, Immuni failed as a support tool for the contact tracing system. Other European experiences seem to show similar limitations in the use of DTC, leaving open questions about its effectiveness, although in theory, contact tracing could allow useful means of "proximity tracking".


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Contact Tracing , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Privacy
6.
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health ; 19(12):7529, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1894287

ABSTRACT

Since the early stage of the current pandemic, digital contact tracing (DCT) through mobile phone apps, called 'Immuni';, has been introduced to complement manual contact tracing in Italy. Until 31 December 2021, Immuni identified 44,880 COVID-19 cases, which corresponds to less than 1% of total COVID-19 cases reported in Italy in the same period (5,886,411). Overall, Immuni generated 143,956 notifications. Although the initial download of the Immuni app represented an early interest in the new tool, Immuni has had little adoption across the Italian population, and the recent increase in its download is likely to be related to the mandatory Green Pass certification for conducting most daily activities that can be obtained via the application. Therefore, Immuni failed as a support tool for the contact tracing system. Other European experiences seem to show similar limitations in the use of DTC, leaving open questions about its effectiveness, although in theory, contact tracing could allow useful means of 'proximity tracking';.

7.
New Microbiol ; 45(2): 83-98, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1887519

ABSTRACT

Malaria is long known as a deadly vector borne infection, caused by five parasite species of the coccidian genus Plasmodia that are present in as many as 85 countries. Despite significant progresses have been achieved to control the infection by early diagnosis and artemisinin combination treatment, insecticide-treated nets and indoor residual spraying, malaria still represents a major public health issue in many endemic low-income countries. New diagnostic tools of higher sensitivity and specificity are now available for use in endemic countries to better guide diagnosis and treatment. In particular, highly sensitive rapid antigenic tests are now available and the loop-mediated isothermal amplification is a very promising and highly sensitive diagnostic tool. After 2015, decreasing morbidity and mortality trends have been stagnating because of limited funding, emergence of parasite and vector resistance to drugs and insecticides respectively and, recently, by the disrupting effect of COVID-19 pandemic. The incomplete knowledge of the complex immunity of malaria infection has slowed the development of an effective vaccine. However, in 2021, the RTS-S vaccine, however of suboptimal protective efficacy, has been made available for routine use in children above 5 months of age. Population movements has increased the chance of observing imported malaria in non-endemic areas, where malaria competent vectors may still exist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insecticides , Malaria , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Humans , Insecticides/therapeutic use , Malaria/diagnosis , Malaria/drug therapy , Malaria/epidemiology , Mosquito Control , Pandemics
8.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 110: 108943, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1885845

ABSTRACT

Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) is a complex phenomenon mediated by antibodies, frequently pre-existing non-neutralizing or sub-neutralizing antibodies. In the course of infectious diseases, ADE may be responsible for worsening the clinical course of the disease by increasing the virulence of pathogens (ADE of infection) or enhancing disease severity (ADE of disease). Here we reviewed the mechanisms thought to be behind the ADE phenomenon and its potential relationship with COVID-19 severity. Since the early COVID-19 epidemics, ADE has been mentioned as a possible mechanism involved in severe COVID-19 disease and, later, as a potential risk in the case of infection after vaccination. However, current data do not support its role in disease severity, both after infection and reinfection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody-Dependent Enhancement , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 30-40, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772287

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disproportionately impacted global human health, economy, and security. Because of weaker health-care systems, existing comorbidities burden (HIV, malaria, tuberculosis, and non-communicable conditions), and poor socioeconomic determinants, initial predictive models had forecast a disastrous impact of COVID-19 in Africa in terms of transmission, severity, and deaths. Nonetheless, current epidemiological data seem not to have matched expectations, showing lower SARS-CoV-2 infection and fatality rates compared to Europe, the Americas and Asia. However, only few studies were conducted in low- and middle-income African settings where high poverty and limited access to health services worsen underlying health conditions, including endemic chronic infectious diseases such as HIV and tuberculosis. Furthermore, limited, and heterogeneous research was conducted to evaluate the indirect impact of the pandemic on general health services and on major diseases across African countries. International mitigation measures, such as resource reallocation, lockdowns, social restrictions, and fear from the population have had multi-sectoral impacts on various aspects of everyday life, that shaped the general health response. Despite the vast heterogeneity of data across African countries, available evidence suggests that the COVID-19 pandemic has severely impacted the control and prevention programs, the diagnosis capacity and the adherence to treatment of major infectious diseases (HIV, TB, and Malaria) - including neglected diseases - and non-communicable diseases. Future research and efforts are essential to deeply assess the medium- and long-term impact of the pandemic, and to implement tailored interventions to mitigate the standstill on decades of improvement on public health programs.

11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 18(5): 2046434, 2022 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1769068

ABSTRACT

There are scarce data regarding influenza vaccination among people with HIV infection (PWHIV). The goal of this explorative study is to assess hesitancy toward influenza vaccination in a group of PWHIV during the COVID-19 pandemic. A questionnaire was administered to 219 patients vaccinated at our clinic during the 2020-2021 campaign. It evaluated subjects' adherence to influenza vaccine over the last three seasonal vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence, complacency and convenience, and the effect of the pandemic on the choice to become vaccinated. The population was divided into two groups: fully adherent to influenza vaccine (all three campaigns, 117 patients) and non-fully adherent (one or two campaigns, 102 patients). Adherence increased in the non-fully adherent group in 2020-2021, but the pandemic did not affect the choice. Misbeliefs emerged: the influenza vaccine was considered protective against SARS-CoV-2 (22.8% of the total population); almost half of all patients thought the influenza vaccine could improve their CD4 T cell level (57.3% in fully adherent, 40.2% in non-fully adherent, p < .05). In 2020-2021 campaign, three quarters of the non-fully adherent group would not have been vaccinated in a location other than our clinic (75.5% vs. 88.9% in the fully adherent group, p < .05). Conclusively, offering a secure and private space for vaccination against influenza seems to encourage vaccination; healthcare professionals should improve counseling to increase adherence and correct misbeliefs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccination Hesitancy
12.
AIDS Behav ; 26(9): 2920-2930, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1729330

ABSTRACT

People living with chronic disease (PLWCD) are the frailest category, both for the risk of severe COVID-19 illness and for the impact on the care continuum. Aim of this study was to analyze coping strategies and resilience in people living with HIV (PLWH) compared to people living with oncological diseases (PLWOD) during COVID-19 pandemic. We administrated an anonymous questionnaire, which explored the emotional experience, the demographic factors linked to a COVID-19-related stress syndrome, the patient's perception about the adequacy of clinical undertaking from the hospital and the resilience. We analyzed 324 questionnaires. There were no significant differences in prevalence of psychological distress among the whole cohort; however, PLWOD were calmer, less troubled, and more serene than PLWH. Moreover, PLWH smoked more, ate more, and gained more weight than PLWOD. Most patients didn't feel lonely and continued to take pleasure from their activities. No differences in resilience were found between the groups. In the whole cohort lower levels of resilience were found in patients that were unemployed, with history of psychological disorders and in those who experienced more feelings of anger, anxiety and concern. In our study, patients seemed to preserve their well-being, and to activate adaptive coping during the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Neoplasms , Resilience, Psychological , Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chronic Disease , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
13.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-311148

ABSTRACT

Early recognition of risk and start of treatment may improve unfavorable outcome of COVID-19. In the SAVE-MORE double-blind randomized trial, 594 patients with pneumonia without respiratory dysfunction at risk as defined by plasma suPAR (soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor) ≥ 6 ng/ml were 1:2 randomized to subcutaneous placebo or 100 mg anakinra once daily for 10 days;85.9% were co-administered dexamethasone. After 28 days, anakinra-treated patients were distributed to lower strata of the 11-point World Health Organization ordinal Clinical Progression Scale (WHO-CPS) (adjusted odds ratio-OR 0.36;95%CI 0.26–0.50;P < 0.001);anakinra protected from severe disease or death (≥ 6 points of WHO-CPS) (OR: 0.46;P: 0.010). The median WHO-CPS decrease in the placebo and anakinra groups was 3 and 4 points (OR 0.40;P < 0.0001);the median decrease of SOFA score was 0 and 1 points (OR 0.63;P: 0.004). 28-day mortality decreased (hazard ratio: 0.45;P: 0.045) and hospital stay was shorter. (Sponsored by the Hellenic Institute for the Study of Sepsis ClinicalTrials.gov identifier, NCT04680949)

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-310565

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 pandemic changes the lifestyle and inducted negative emotions. People living with chronic disease (PLWCD) are the frailest social category, both for the risk of severe COVID-19 illness and for the pandemic impact on the continuum of care. Aim of this study was to analyze coping strategies and resilience in people living with HIV (PLWH) compared to people living with oncological diseases (PLWOD) during COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: In this observational study based on the administration of an anonymous questionnaire, we explored the emotional experience, the clinical and demographic factors linked to a COVID-19-related stress syndrome, the patient’s perception about the adequacy of clinical and psychological undertaking from the hospital and the level of resilience through a validated resilience scale. We performed a Kruskal-Wallis and a chi-squared test to compare the characteristics between PLWH and PLWOD and a linear regression to assess the factors associated to higher resilience. Results: We analyzed 324 questionnaires (PLWH n=167, PLWOD n=157). There were no significant differences in prevalence of psychological distress, anxiety, and fear among the whole cohort;however, PLWOD were calmer ( p =0.039), less troubled ( p =0.014), and more serene ( p =0.026) than PLWH. Moreover, PLWH smoked more ( p <0.001), ate more ( p =0.003) and thus gained more weight ( p =0.013) than PLWOD. 62% of patients didn’t have more feelings of solitude than usual ( p =0.130) and 71,3% continued to take pleasure from their activities ( p =0.511). No differences in resilience were found between the groups, however in the whole cohort lower levels of resilience were found in patients that were unemployed (-3.52;95% CI = [-6.68 -0.35];p =0.029), with history of psychological disorders (-2.18;95% CI = [-3.17 -1.18];p <0.001) and in those who experienced more feelings of anger (-1.76;95% CI = [-2.67 -0.85];p <0.001), anxiety and concern (-1.56;95% CI = [-2.30 -0.82];p <0.001). Conclusions: PLWCD had high level of resilience, preserved in general their psychological well-being, and activated adaptive coping during the pandemic. However, PLWH showed higher distress than PLWOD according to comparable resilience score. Patients with psychological problems, feelings of anger and concern deserve more attention as they show lower levels of resilience.

15.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-319549

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, hospitals faced increasing pressure, where people living with HIV risked to either acquire SARS-CoV-2 and to interrupt the HIV continuum of care. Methods: this is a retrospective, observational study. We compared the numbers of medical visits performed, antiretroviral drugs dispensed and the number of new HIV diagnosis and of hospitalizations in a cohort of people living with HIV (PLWH) followed by the Spedali Civili of Brescia between the bimester of the COVID-19 pandemic peak and the bimester of October-November 2019. Data were retrieved from administrative files and from paper and electronic clinical charts. Categorical variables were described using frequencies and percentages, while continuous variables were described using mean, median, and interquartile range (IQR) values. Means for continuous variables were compared using Student’s t-tests and the Mann-Whitney test. Proportions for categorical variables were compared using the χ2 test. Results: : As of December 31st, 2019, a total of 3875 PLWH were followed in our clinic. Mean age was 51,4 ±13 years old, where 28% were females and 18.8% non-Italian. Overall, 98.9% were on ART (n=3834), 93% were viro-suppressed. A total of 1217 and 1162 patients had their visit scheduled at our out-patient HIV clinic during the two bimesters of 2019 and 2020, respectively. Comparing the two periods, we observed a raise of missed visits from 5% to 8% (p<0.01), a reduction in the number of new HIV diagnosis from 6.4 in 2019 to 2.5 per month in 2020 (p=0.01), a drop in ART dispensation and an increase of hospitalized HIV patients due to COVID-19 . ART regimens including protease inhibitors (PIs) had a smaller average drop than ART not including PIs (16,6% vs 21,6%, p<0.05). Whether this may be due to the perception of a possible efficacy of PIs on COVID19 is not known. Conclusions: : Our experience highlights the importance of a resilient healthcare system and the need to implement new strategies in order to guarantee the continuum of HIV care even in the context of emergency.

16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(4)2022 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686817

ABSTRACT

The Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses a great threat to global public health. The original wild-type strain of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has genetically evolved, and several variants of concern (VOC) have emerged. On 26 November 2021, a new variant named Omicron (B.1.1.529) was designated as the fifth VOC, revealing that SARS-CoV-2 has the potential to go beyond the available therapies. The high number of mutations harboured on the spike protein make Omicron highly transmissible, less responsive to several of the currently used drugs, as well as potentially able to escape immune protection elicited by both vaccines and previous infection. We reviewed the latest publication and the most recent available literature on the Omicron variant, enlightening both reasons for concern and high hopes for new therapeutic strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Immune Evasion , Mutation , Pandemics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/classification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
17.
Infez Med ; 29(4): 614-617, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1579081

ABSTRACT

Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia (PJP) is one of the most common HIV-related opportunistic infection. Apart from HIV patients, subjects treated with an associated therapy of high doses glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs should be considered at risk. SARS-CoV-2 has become worldly known as the responsible of the pandemic that hit the world in late 2019 and that is still ongoing. Italy, and especially Brescia, was one of the area most struck by the pandemic, with a significant number of cases being reported (more than 112,648 as of October 2021). The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 is mainly based on RT-PCR assays performed on nasopharyngeal swab, X-ray of the chest and clinical manifestations. We describe two cases of PJP in two immunocompromised patients with breast cancer who were admitted at Spedali Civili of Brescia hospital, Italy, with an initial diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, despite testing negative to RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs. We also retrospectively reassessed all cases of pneumonia deemed as SARS-CoV-2-related upon admission and then converted to PJP as the final diagnosis. We describe the two following cases to emphasize that clinicians should always be alert about PJP, even during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, and avoid focusing on COVID-19 exclusively. PJP should always be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients, particularly if immunosuppressed, with an X-ray or TC of the chest suggestive of interstitial pneumonia and a negative SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR on nasopharyngeal swabs.

18.
JAC Antimicrob Resist ; 3(4): dlab188, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575038

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe our real-life experience with cefiderocol in XDR and difficult-to-treat resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (DTR-P) infections without any other available treatment options. METHODS: We included patients with a proven infection due to an XDR/DTR-P, who had failed on previous regimens, and were treated with cefiderocol, following them prospectively to day 90 or until hospital discharge or death. RESULTS: Seventeen patients treated for >72 h with cefiderocol were included: 14 receiving combination regimens (82.4%) and 3 receiving monotherapy (17.6%). Fourteen patients were males (82%) with a median age of 64 years (IQR 58-73). Fifteen patients (88.2%) were admitted to the ICU and five had septic shock (29%). Seven cases (41.2%) were ventilator-associated pneumonia, of which 71% (5/7) occurred in COVID-19 patients. Four were complicated intrabdominal infections, one ecthyma gangrenosum, one nosocomial pneumonia and one empyema, one osteomyelitis, one primary bacteraemia, and one nosocomial external ventricular drainage meningitis. Clinical cure and microbiological cure rates were 70.6% and 76.5%, respectively. There were six deaths (35.3%) after a median of 8 days (IQR 3-10) from the end of treatment, but only two of them (11.7%) were associated with P. aeruginosa infection progression. CONCLUSIONS: Our experience collecting this large case series of DTR-P treated with cefiderocol may help clinicians consider this new option in this hard-to-manage setting. Our results are even more relevant in the current scenario of ceftolozane/tazobactam shortage. Importantly, this is the first study providing real-life data indicating adequate cefiderocol concentrations in CSF.

19.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-295407

ABSTRACT

There are scarce data regarding flu vaccination among people with HIV infection (PWHIV). The goal of this explorative study is to assess hesitancy toward influenza vaccination in a group of PWHIV during the pandemic. A questionnaire was administered to 219 patients vaccinated at our clinic during the 2020-2021 campaign. It evaluated subjects’adherence over the last 3 seasonal vaccination campaigns, vaccine confidence, complacency and convenience, and the effect of the pandemic on the choice to vaccinate. The population was divided into two groups: fully adherent (all 3 campaigns, 117 patients) and non-fully adherent (1 or 2 campaigns, 102 patients). Adherence increased in non-fully adherent group in 2020-2021, but the pandemic did not affect the choice. Misbelieves emerged: influenza vaccine was considered protective SARS-CoV-2 (22.8% of total population);almost half of all patients thought influenza vaccine could improve their CD4+ cell level (57.3% in fully adherent, 40.2% in non-fully adherent, p<0.05). A quarter of the non-fully adherent group would not have vaccinated in a location other than our clinic (24.5% vs 11.9% in fully adherent group, p<0.05). Conclusively, offering a secure and private space for vaccination seems to encourage vaccination;healthcare professionals should improve counselling to increase adherence and correct misbeliefs.

20.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 14(12)2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554966

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) have been known since the 1970s. However, their therapeutic potential in the medical field has recently emerged, with the advancement of manufacturing techniques. Initially exploited mainly in the oncology field, mAbs have become increasingly relevant in Infectious Diseases. Numerous mAbs have been developed against SARS-CoV 2 and have proven their effectiveness, especially in the management of the mild-to-moderate disease. In this review, we describe the monoclonal antibodies currently authorized for the treatment of the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) and offer an insight into the clinical trials that led to their approval. We discuss the mechanisms of action and methods of administration as well as the prophylactic and therapeutic labelled indications (both in outpatient and hospital settings). Furthermore, we address the critical issues regarding mAbs, focusing on their effectiveness against the variants of concern (VoC) and their role now that a large part of the population has been vaccinated. The purpose is to offer the clinician an up-to-date overview of a therapeutic tool that could prove decisive in treating patients at high risk of progression to severe disease.

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