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1.
Int Rev Psychiatry ; 34(7-8): 797-808, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2187164

ABSTRACT

The potentially traumatic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic in subjects with pre-existing mental disorders is still unclear, especially regarding its long-term consequences. The aim of this study was to prospectively assess post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) in patients with mental disorders, during the 3rd wave of the infection (T0, March-April 2021) while strict containment measures were applied in Italy, and after 3 months (T1, June-July 2021), with reduced restrictive measures. A total sample of 527 subjects, with different DSM-5 diagnoses, was consecutively enrolled at nine Italian psychiatric outpatient services. Assessments at T0 included: the Trauma and Loss Spectrum-Self Report (TALS-SR), the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R) and the Work and Social Adjustment Scale (WSAS). These two latter were repeated at T1. Results showed that at T0, 43.6% of the sample reported symptoms of PTSD, with females (p = .004), younger subjects (p = .011), unemployed/students (p = .011), and living with their parental families (p = .017), resulting more affected. Differences in PTSD rates emerged across diagnostic groups ranging from 10% in patients with psychoses up to 59% in those with feeding and eating disorders. An improvement at T1 emerged in all diagnostic groups for the IES-R scores, while WSAS scores improved only in subjects with mood disorders. In conclusions, subjects with mental disorders presented relevant rates of PTSD and PTSS at 1-year into the pandemic. Further long-term studies are needed to follow-up the course of pandemic traumatic burden especially in patients with severe mental disorders.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Female , Humans , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Italy/epidemiology
2.
Int J Ment Health Addict ; : 1-20, 2022 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1750813

ABSTRACT

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on mental health has not been clarified yet, with multiple studies warranting a special focus on women and young adults. A sample of 101 Italian women recruited from the general population was evaluated a few weeks before the onset of the pandemic and during the first and the second wave of the pandemic. Depression values at the Brief Symptom Inventory showed an initial increase followed by a stabilization on higher values in respect to the baseline, whereas Phobic Anxiety was stably worsened. Participants with insecure attachment styles and childhood trauma showed higher levels of distress at all timepoints. In many psychopathological domains, moderation analysis showed an unfavorable trend over time for younger participants. The present study seems to confirm a high burden on mental health for women during the COVID-19 pandemic, highlighting young age, insecure attachment style, and childhood trauma as negative prognostic factors.

3.
Eating and Weight Disorders ; 26(8):2443-2452, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-1717279

ABSTRACT

Purpose: The COVID-19 pandemic restrictions had negative impact on the psychopathology of people with Eating Disorders (EDs). Factors involved in the vulnerability to stressful events have been under-investigated in this population. We aimed to assess which factors contributed to COVID-19-induced worsening in both general and specific psychopathology. Methods: Three-hundred and twelve people with a clinically defined diagnosis of an ED and undergoing a specialist ED treatment in different Italian ED services before the spreading of COVID-19 pandemic filled in an online survey. ED specific and general psychopathology changes after COVID-19 quarantine were retrospectively evaluated. Factors related to COVID-19 concerns (financial condition, fear of contagion, perceived social isolation/support, satisfaction in peer, family or sentimental relationships), illness duration and treatment-related variables (type of treatment provided, type of access to care, satisfaction with therapeutic relationships) were included as predicting factors in a structural equational model, which included latent variables consisting of general and ED psychopathology items as outcomes. Results: A perceived low quality of therapeutic relationships, fear of contagion and increased isolation were positively associated with psychopathology worsening. Reduced satisfaction with family and with friends' relationships and reduced perceived social support were associated with ED and general symptoms deterioration, respectively. No significant effect emerged for intimate relationships, illness duration, economic condition and type of treatment. Conclusions: This study provides a comprehensive evaluation of clinical variables associated with psychopathological changes during the COVID-19 lockdown period highlighting potential risk and resilience factors and, possibly, informing treatment as well as prevention strategies for EDs. Level of evidence IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series analysis such as case studies. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

4.
J Affect Disord ; 285: 77-83, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on specific Eating Disorder (ED) and general psychopathology in people with an ED diagnosis during the lockdown period and after the end of the related containment measures. METHODS: People with clinically defined diagnosis and undergoing treatment for an ED completed an online survey, which included adapted questions from standardized psychometric scales. Data relative to three different time periods (before, during and after the end of lockdown) were collected. Psychopathological changes over these periods were investigated and compared through one-way analysis of variance or covariance with repeated measures. RESULTS: Three hundred twelve people completed the survey (57.4% diagnosed with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or atypical AN, 20.2% with Bulimia Nervosa, 15.4% with Binge Eating Disorder, 7.05% with Other Specified Feeding or Eating Disorders). The severity of both specific and general psychopathology increased during the lockdown and the rise of general symptoms persisted in the following re-opening phase, except for suicide ideation. Almost all of these findings were not affected by ED diagnosis, participants' age and illness duration. LIMITATIONS: The retrospective nature of data collection is the main limitation of the study. CONCLUSIONS: People with EDs showed a COVID-19 emergency-induced worsening of both general and specific psychopathology. The effect on general psychopathology persisted in the re-opening period. These findings suggest a high stress vulnerability of ED individuals with important effects on internalizing symptoms, which are worth of attention by clinicians.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Feeding and Eating Disorders , Communicable Disease Control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/epidemiology , Humans , Psychopathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Psychosom Res ; 141: 110328, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Italy has been largely involved by the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study aimed at evaluating the impact of the lockdown during the pandemic on mental health adopting both a longitudinal and a cross-sectional design. Accordingly, the study investigated general psychopathology a few weeks before the COVID-19 outbreak (T0) and during lockdown (T1), and the associations between lockdown-related environmental conditions, self-perceived worsening in daily living and psychopathology. METHODS: 130 subjects (aged 18-60 years) were included in the longitudinal design, and an additional subsample of 541 subjects was recruited for the in-lockdown evaluation. Socio-demographic data and the Brief Symptom Inventory were collected both at T0 and T1. Moreover, at T1 an online survey was administered for the evaluation of lockdown-related environmental conditions and self-perceived variations in daily living induced by quarantine, along with the Impact of Event Scale-Revised. RESULTS: Longitudinal analysis showed that phobic anxiety and depressive symptoms increased at T1 as compared with T0, whereas interpersonal sensitivity and paranoid ideation decreased. Pre-existing general psychopathology predicted COVID-19-related post-traumatic symptomatology. Cross-sectional analyses underlined that self-perceived deteriorations in various areas of daily living were associated with general and post-traumatic psychopathology, and with several lockdown-related conditions, especially economic damage. CONCLUSION: The present study underlined a different trend of increased internalizing and decreased interpersonal symptoms during COVID-19 quarantine in Italy. Furthermore, the results showed that subjects with pre-existing psychopathology and those reporting economic damage during the pandemic were more likely to develop deterioration of their mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
6.
Int J Eat Disord ; 53(11): 1855-1862, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-734194

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: the aim of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 epidemic on Eating Disorders (EDs) patients, considering the role of pre-existing vulnerabilities. METHOD: 74 patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) or Bulimia Nervosa (BN) and 97 healthy controls (HCs) were evaluated before lockdown (T1) and during lockdown (T2). Patients were also evaluated at the beginning of treatment (T0). Questionnaires were collected to assess psychopathology, childhood trauma, attachment style, and COVID-19-related post-traumatic symptoms. RESULTS: A different trend between patients and HCs was observed only for pathological eating behaviors. Patients experienced increased compensatory exercise during lockdown; BN patients also exacerbated binge eating. Lockdown interfered with treatment outcomes: the descending trend of ED-specific psychopathology was interrupted during the epidemic in BN patients. Previously remitted patients showed re-exacerbation of binge eating after lockdown. Household arguments and fear for the safety of loved ones predicted increased symptoms during the lockdown. BN patients reported more severe COVID-19-related post-traumatic symptomatology than AN and HCs, and these symptoms were predicted by childhood trauma and insecure attachment. DISCUSSION: COVID-19 epidemic significantly impacted on EDs, both in terms of post-traumatic symptomatology and interference with the recovery process. Individuals with early trauma or insecure attachment were particularly vulnerable.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Feeding and Eating Disorders/psychology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Quarantine/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Exercise/psychology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Feeding and Eating Disorders/therapy , Female , Humans , Italy , Longitudinal Studies , Middle Aged , Object Attachment , Psychological Trauma/psychology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/etiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
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