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Pirkis, Jane, Gunnell, David, Shin, Sangsoo, DelPozo-Banos, Marcos, Arya, Vikas, Analuisa Aguilar, Pablo, Appleby, Louis, Arafat, S. M. Yasir, Arensman, Ella, Ayuso-Mateos, Jose Luis, Balhara, Yatan Pal Singh, Bantjes, Jason, Baran, Anna, Behera, Chittaranjan, Bertolote, Jose, Borges, Guilherme, Bray, Michael, Brečić, Petrana, Caine, Eric D.; Calati, Raffaella, Carli, Vladimir, Castelpietra, Giulio, Chan, Lai Fong, Chang, Shu-Sen, Colchester, David, Coss-Guzmán, Maria, Crompton, David, Curkovic, Marko, Dandona, Rakhi, De Jaegere, Eva, De Leo, Diego, Deisenhammer, Eberhard, Dwyer, Jeremy, Erlangsen, Annette, Faust, Jeremy, Fornaro, Michele, Fortune, Sarah, Garrett, Andrew, Gentile, Guendalina, Gerstner, Rebekka, Gilissen, Renske, Gould, Madelyn, Gupta, Sudhir Kumar, Hawton, Keith, Holz, Franziska, Kamenshchikov, Iurii, Kapur, Navneet, Kasal, Alexandr, Khan, Murad, Kirtley, Olivia, Knipe, Duleeka, Kolves, Kairi, Kölzer, Sarah, Krivda, Hryhorii, Leske, Stuart, Madeddu, Fabio, Marshall, Andrew, Memon, Anjum, Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor, Nestadt, Paul, Neznanov, Nikolay, Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas, Nielsen, Emma, Nordentoft, Merete, Oberlerchner, Herwig, O'Connor, Rory, Papsdorf, Rainer, Partonen, Timo, Michael, Phillips, Platt, Steve, Portzky, Gwendolyn, Psota, Georg, Qin, Ping, Radeloff, Daniel, Reif, Andreas, Reif-Leonhard, Christine, Rezaeian, Mohsen, Román-Vázquez, Nayda, Roskar, Saska, Rozanov, Vsevolod, Sara, Grant, Scavacini, Karen, Schneider, Barbara, Semenova, Natalia, Sinyor, Mark, Tambuzzi, Stefano, Townsend, Ellen, Ueda, Michiko, Wasserman, Danuta, Webb, Roger T.; Winkler, Petr, Yip, Paul S. F.; Zalsman, Gil, Zoja, Riccardo, John, Ann, Spittal, Matthew J..
SSRN; 2022.
Preprint in English | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-331684

ABSTRACT

Background When the COVID-19 pandemic began there were concerns that suicides might rise, but predicted increases were not generally observed in the pandemic’s early months. However, the picture may be changing and patterns may vary across demographic groups. We aimed to provide an up-to-date, granular picture of the impact of COVID-19 on suicides globally.Methods We identified suicide data from official public-sector sources for countries/areas-within-countries. We used interrupted time series (ITS) analyses to model the association between the pandemic’s emergence and total suicides and suicides by sex-, age- and sex-by-age in each country/area-within-country. We compared the observed number of suicides to the expected number in the pandemic’s first nine and first 10-15 months and used meta-regression to explore sources of variation.Findings We sourced data from 33 countries (24 high-income, six upper-middle-income, three lower-middle-income). There was no evidence of greater-than-expected numbers of suicides in the majority of countries/areas-within-countries in any analysis;more commonly, there was evidence of lower-than-expected numbers. Certain sex, age and sex-by-age groups stood out as potentially concerning, but these were not consistent across countries/areas-within-countries. In the meta-regression, different patterns were not explained by countries’ COVID-19 mortality rate, stringency of public health response, level of economic support, or presence of a national suicide prevention strategy. They were also not explained by countries’ income level, although the meta-regression only included data from high-income and upper-middle-income countries, and there were suggestions from the ITS analyses that lower-middle-income countries fared less well.Interpretation Although there are some countries/areas-within-countries where overall suicide numbers and numbers for certain sex- and age-based groups are greater-than-expected, these are in the minority. Any upward movement in suicide numbers in any place or group is concerning, and we need to remain alert to and respond to changes as the pandemic and its mental health and economic consequences continue.

2.
Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol ; 57(6): 1283-1289, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739286

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The aim of our study is to evaluate the number and the features of admissions to the emergency room (ER) requiring psychiatric consultation, in the period between May 4th and August 31st 2020. METHODS: We carried out a retrospective longitudinal observational study examining the 4 months following the initial lockdown imposed during the COVID-19 outbreak (May 4th and August 31st 2020). More specifically, the ER admissions leading to psychiatric referral were reviewed at all seven public hospitals of AUSL Romagna (Emilia Romagna region, Italy). Socio-demographic variables, history of medical comorbidities or psychiatric disorders, reason for ER admission, psychiatric diagnosis at discharge, and actions taken by the psychiatrist were collected. RESULTS: An 11.3% (p = 0.007) increase in psychiatric assessments was observed when compared with the same period of the previous year (2019). A positive personal history of psychiatric disorders (OR:0.68, CI: 0.53-0.87) and assessments leading to no indication for follow-up (OR: 0.22, CI: 0.13-0.39) were significantly less frequent, while there was a significant increase of cases featuring organic comorbidities (OR: 1.24, CI: 1.00-1.52) and suicidal ideation/self-harm/suicide attempt (OR: 1,71, CI: 1.19-2.45) or psychomotor agitation (OR: 1.46, CI: 1.02-2.07) as reason for admission. CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed an increase in ER psychiatric consultations compared to the previous year, underlying the increased psychological distress caused by the lockdown.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-306205

ABSTRACT

Aims: The aim of this study was to analyse the trend and characteristics of psychiatric consultations in 9 Italian hospital emergency departments (HEDs) during the lockdown and post-lockdown periods of 2020, compared with the equivalent periods in 2019.Methods: Information on HEDs psychiatric consultations of patients was collected between March 9, 2020 and June 30, 2020 and during the same period of the previous year. We investigated changes between the two years in the number of consultations, in the characteristics of patients accessing HEDs and in the drug prescriptions dispensed. Joinpoint models were used to identify changes in the weekly trend of HED psychiatric consultations over the same year and between years.Results: As compared with 2019, a 37.5% decrease number of psychiatric consultations was found in the lockdown period and 17.9% decrease after the lockdown. The number of individual patients seen in HEDs for psychiatric consultations decreased by 34.9% during the lockdown and 11.2% after the lockdown. Such decreases occurred in all but one centre. The analysis of the weekly trend of consultations in 2020 revealed a significant percentage change in the number of consultations occurring from March 11, 2020 (week 11) to May 5, 2020 (week 18), followed by a more gradual, non-significant increase.The demographic characteristics and the clinical history of patients were similar in the years 2020 and 2019, except for a higher percentage of patients with previous admissions to acute psychiatric wards (GPHUs) during the lockdown period (61.1% vs 56.3%;p=0.019) and a lower percentage after the lockdown (59.7% vs 64.7%;p =0.034). As to psychiatrist report after the consultation, during the lockdown there was a sharp increase in the diagnosis of substance use disorders, while after the lockdown a higher manic episodes and suicidal ideation or attempts was found. In particular, a 3.4% decline was observed in suicidal ideation and planning during the lockdown, followed by an upward rebound of the same after the lockdown (+3.4%), accompanied by an increase in suicide attempts (+2.3%). Lastly, during the lockdown the prescriptions of antipsychotics increased by 5.2% and that of benzodiazepines by 4.1%, with a similar trend after the lockdown. Notably, after the lockdown, the number of compulsory admissions were substantially higher than the equivalent period in 2019.Conclusions: Our results show a relevant decline in the number of psychiatric consultations during and after the lockdown, compared with the corresponding periods of 2019. An increase in consultations for mania and suicidality problems occurred at the end of the restriction period, suggesting that the attention of mental health services should remain high.

4.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(7): 579-588, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683800

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound mental health consequences for many people. Concerns have been expressed that, at their most extreme, these consequences could manifest as increased suicide rates. We aimed to assess the early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world. METHODS: We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or areas within countries through a systematic internet search and recourse to our networks and the published literature. Between Sept 1 and Nov 1, 2020, we searched the official websites of these countries' ministries of health, police agencies, and government-run statistics agencies or equivalents, using the translated search terms "suicide" and "cause of death", before broadening the search in an attempt to identify data through other public sources. Data were included from a given country or area if they came from an official government source and were available at a monthly level from at least Jan 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020. Our internet searches were restricted to countries with more than 3 million residents for pragmatic reasons, but we relaxed this rule for countries identified through the literature and our networks. Areas within countries could also be included with populations of less than 3 million. We used an interrupted time-series analysis to model the trend in monthly suicides before COVID-19 (from at least Jan 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020) in each country or area within a country, comparing the expected number of suicides derived from the model with the observed number of suicides in the early months of the pandemic (from April 1 to July 31, 2020, in the primary analysis). FINDINGS: We sourced data from 21 countries (16 high-income and five upper-middle-income countries), including whole-country data in ten countries and data for various areas in 11 countries). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs based on the observed versus expected numbers of suicides showed no evidence of a significant increase in risk of suicide since the pandemic began in any country or area. There was statistical evidence of a decrease in suicide compared with the expected number in 12 countries or areas: New South Wales, Australia (RR 0·81 [95% CI 0·72-0·91]); Alberta, Canada (0·80 [0·68-0·93]); British Columbia, Canada (0·76 [0·66-0·87]); Chile (0·85 [0·78-0·94]); Leipzig, Germany (0·49 [0·32-0·74]); Japan (0·94 [0·91-0·96]); New Zealand (0·79 [0·68-0·91]); South Korea (0·94 [0·92-0·97]); California, USA (0·90 [0·85-0·95]); Illinois (Cook County), USA (0·79 [0·67-0·93]); Texas (four counties), USA (0·82 [0·68-0·98]); and Ecuador (0·74 [0·67-0·82]). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to examine suicides occurring in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries. In high-income and upper-middle-income countries, suicide numbers have remained largely unchanged or declined in the early months of the pandemic compared with the expected levels based on the pre-pandemic period. We need to remain vigilant and be poised to respond if the situation changes as the longer-term mental health and economic effects of the pandemic unfold. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Global Health , Models, Statistical , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Humans
5.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; : 1-5, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442931

ABSTRACT

Objectives: An observation of the Emergency Room (ER) admissions during the lockdown.Methods: We monitored admissions to the ER requiring psychiatric evaluation during the 2020 lockdown (March 9th-May 3rd, 2020) compared to the same period of 2019, in four sites of Northern Italy (ASST Lariana, AUSL Modena, ASU Friuli Centrale and AUSL Romagna). Number of admissions, baseline demographic and clinical variables were extracted from the clinical databases.Results: A 20.0% reduction of psychiatric referrals was observed across the sites (24.2% in ASST Lariana, 30.5% in AUSL Modena, 12.0% in ASU Friuli Centrale and 14.5% in AUSL Romagna). This reduction peaked at 41.5% in the first month of the lockdown. Being homeless as well as with a dual diagnosis (OR 1,67, CI: 1.02-2.74), while living in a residential facility and admission for a depressive episode Being homeless (OR 2.50, CI: 1.36-4.61) and having a dual diagnosis (OR 1,67, CI: 1.02-2.74) were significantly associated with an increase in ER admission, while living in a residential facility (OR 0.48, CI: 0.31-0.74), having a depressive episode (OR 0.36, CI: 0.18-0.73) and a diagnosis of anxiety disorder (OR 0.60, CI: 0.36-0.99) were significantly associated with a decrease.Conclusions: During lockdown, a decrease in psychiatric referrals was observed.

6.
Front Psychiatry ; 12: 697058, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295709

ABSTRACT

Aims: The aim was to analyse the psychiatric consultations in nine Italian hospital emergency departments, by comparing the lockdown and post-lockdown periods of 2020 with the equivalent periods of 2019. Methods: Characteristics of psychiatric consultations, patients, and drug prescriptions were analyzed. Joinpoint models were used to identify changes in the weekly trend of consultations. Results: A 37.5% decrease in the number of consultations was seen during the lockdown period and 17.9% after the lockdown. The number of individual patients seen decreased by 34.9% during the lockdown and 11.2% after the lockdown. A significant change in the number of consultations from week 11 to week 18 occurred, followed by a gradual increase. There was a higher percentage of patients with previous psychiatric hospitalizations during the lockdown period (61.1 vs. 56.3%) and a lower percentage after the lockdown (59.7 vs. 64.7%). During the lockdown there was a large increase in psychiatric consultations for substance use disorders, whereas more consultations for manic episodes occurred after the lockdown. A 3.4% decrease was observed in consultations for suicidal ideation and planning during the lockdown, followed by an upward rebound after the lockdown, along with an increase in consultations for suicide attempts. During lockdown antipsychotic and benzodiazepine prescriptions increased by 5.2 and 4.1%, respectively. After the lockdown, the number of compulsory hospitalizations was higher than in 2019. Conclusions: We observed a decrease of psychiatric consultations during and after the lockdown. There was an increase in consultations for manic episodes and suicidality after the lockdown. The focus of psychiatric services must remain high particularly in this latter period.

7.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 8(7): 579-588, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1284642

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic is having profound mental health consequences for many people. Concerns have been expressed that, at their most extreme, these consequences could manifest as increased suicide rates. We aimed to assess the early effect of the COVID-19 pandemic on suicide rates around the world. METHODS: We sourced real-time suicide data from countries or areas within countries through a systematic internet search and recourse to our networks and the published literature. Between Sept 1 and Nov 1, 2020, we searched the official websites of these countries' ministries of health, police agencies, and government-run statistics agencies or equivalents, using the translated search terms "suicide" and "cause of death", before broadening the search in an attempt to identify data through other public sources. Data were included from a given country or area if they came from an official government source and were available at a monthly level from at least Jan 1, 2019, to July 31, 2020. Our internet searches were restricted to countries with more than 3 million residents for pragmatic reasons, but we relaxed this rule for countries identified through the literature and our networks. Areas within countries could also be included with populations of less than 3 million. We used an interrupted time-series analysis to model the trend in monthly suicides before COVID-19 (from at least Jan 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020) in each country or area within a country, comparing the expected number of suicides derived from the model with the observed number of suicides in the early months of the pandemic (from April 1 to July 31, 2020, in the primary analysis). FINDINGS: We sourced data from 21 countries (16 high-income and five upper-middle-income countries), including whole-country data in ten countries and data for various areas in 11 countries). Rate ratios (RRs) and 95% CIs based on the observed versus expected numbers of suicides showed no evidence of a significant increase in risk of suicide since the pandemic began in any country or area. There was statistical evidence of a decrease in suicide compared with the expected number in 12 countries or areas: New South Wales, Australia (RR 0·81 [95% CI 0·72-0·91]); Alberta, Canada (0·80 [0·68-0·93]); British Columbia, Canada (0·76 [0·66-0·87]); Chile (0·85 [0·78-0·94]); Leipzig, Germany (0·49 [0·32-0·74]); Japan (0·94 [0·91-0·96]); New Zealand (0·79 [0·68-0·91]); South Korea (0·94 [0·92-0·97]); California, USA (0·90 [0·85-0·95]); Illinois (Cook County), USA (0·79 [0·67-0·93]); Texas (four counties), USA (0·82 [0·68-0·98]); and Ecuador (0·74 [0·67-0·82]). INTERPRETATION: This is the first study to examine suicides occurring in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in multiple countries. In high-income and upper-middle-income countries, suicide numbers have remained largely unchanged or declined in the early months of the pandemic compared with the expected levels based on the pre-pandemic period. We need to remain vigilant and be poised to respond if the situation changes as the longer-term mental health and economic effects of the pandemic unfold. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Global Health , Models, Statistical , Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Developed Countries/statistics & numerical data , Humans
8.
Health Policy Technol ; 10(1): 143-150, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1002583

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to assess the changes in prevalence, incidence and hospitalisation rates during the first four months of 2020, compared to the same period of 2019, in Friuli Venezia Giulia Mental Health Departments (MHDs); to analyse the features of MHDs patients tested for Sars-Cov-2, and to monitor whether MHDs applied and adhered to regional recommendations. METHODS: Observational study using MHDs' administrative data and individual data on suspected and positive cases of Sars-Cov-2. Adherence to recommentations was assessed using 21 indicators. Changes in rates were calculated by Poisson regression analysis, while the Fisher exact test was used for assessing differences between suspected and positive cases. RESULTS: The decrease in voluntary admission rates on 100,000 inhabitants in hospital services was significantly larger from January to April 2020, compared to the same period of 2019 (P<0.001), while no other data showed a significant decrease. Among the 82 cases tested for Sars-Cov-2, five were positive, and they significantly differ from suspected cases only in that they were at home or in supported housing facilities prior to the test. The MHDs mostly complied with the indicators in the month after the publication of recommendations. CONCLUSIONS: Outpatient services continued to work normally during the emergency, while hospital services decreased their activities. A low number of positive cases was found among MHDs' users, which might be linked to a rapid reconversion of services, with an extensive use of home visits and telepsychiatry. These preliminary data should be interpreted with caution, due to the small size and the limited period of observation.

9.
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract ; 25(2): 135-139, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-990361

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An observation of the admissions to the emergency room (ER) requiring psychiatric evaluation during the lockdown and investigation of the demographic and clinical variables. METHODS: Retrospective longitudinal observational study of ER accesses for psychiatric evaluation was performed, comparing two periods (9 March-3 May 2020 vs. 9 March-3 May 2019). Data (number of admissions, key baseline demographic and clinical variables) were extracted from the ER databases of referral centres in a well-defined geographic area of North-Eastern Italy (Cesena, Ravenna, Forlì, and Rimini). RESULTS: A 15% reduction of psychiatric referrals was observed, together with a 17% reduction in the total number of patients referring to the ER. This reduction was most evident in the first month of the lockdown period (almost 25% reduction of both referrals and patients). Female gender (OR: 1.52: 95%, CI: 1.12-2.06) and being a local resident (OR: 1.54: 95%CI: 1.02-2.34) were factors associated with the decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Lockdown changed dramatically health priorities in the local population, including people with mental health. We speculate that our observations do not only refer to the confinement due to the lockdown regime but also to fear of contagion and adoption of different coping strategies, especially in women.Key-pointsDuring lockdown 15% reduction of psychiatric visits and >17% reduction in the number of psychiatric patients referring to the ER was observed.in the first four weeks of the lockdown almost 25% reduction of both visits and patients was observedFemale gender and being a local resident were factors associated with the decrease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mental Disorders/diagnosis , Mental Disorders/therapy , Middle Aged , Quarantine/psychology , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Young Adult
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