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1.
Minerva Cardiol Angiol ; 70(3): 303-309, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841790

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Lombardy region, in Northern Italy, suffered a major outbreak of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) at the end of February 2020. The health system was rapidly overwhelmed by the pandemic. It became evident that patients suffering from time-sensitive medical emergencies like stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, trauma and acute myocardial infarction required timely, effective and safe pathways to be treated. The problem was addressed by a regional decree that created a hub-and-spoke system for time-sensitive medical emergencies. METHODS: We report the re-organizational changes adopted at a hub hospital (despite having already destined to COVID-19 patients most resources), and the number of emergent procedures for medical emergencies on the first 30-day of activity. These data were compared with the hospital activity in the same period of the previous year. RESULTS: Organizational changes were implemented in few hours. Dedicated pathways for non-COVID-19 patients affected by a medical emergency were set up in the emergency department, in the labs and in the operating theater. Ten intensive beds were implemented from a high-dependency unit; two operating rooms were reserved 24 h/day to neurosurgical or trauma emergencies. The number of emergent procedures was not different from that of the previous year, no admission refusal, no treatment delay and no viral transmission to the treated patients were recorded. No viral transmission to health care workers was observed. CONCLUSIONS: Re-organization of a hospital in order to adopt a hub-and-spoke model resulted feasible and allowed to face acute coronary syndrome and other time-sensitive medical emergencies timely and safely.


Subject(s)
Acute Coronary Syndrome , COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Emergencies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
European heart journal supplements : journal of the European Society of Cardiology ; 23(Suppl G), 2021.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1602437

ABSTRACT

An 85-year-old was admitted in Internal Medic Ward for recurrent episodes of acute respiratory failure. His electrocardiogram showed a new onset of atrial flutter with spontaneous reversal to sinus rhythm (narrow QRS complex and normal atrioventricular conduction). The dyspnoea was worse with the patient sitting and was better when lying supine. Also, he report back pain associated to his major kyphoscoliosis. Results of chest radiography and blood test were normal. The arterial blood gas test revealed a hypocapnic hypoxemic respiratory failure, therefore the patient oxygen supplementation with noninvasive ventilation (NIV) was started, but peripheral oxygen saturation was persistently below 88% despite the high flow oxygenation. The patient underwent nasopharyngeal (NP) swab (ruling out SARS-CoV-2), high-resolution computed tomography (which was not pathologic), and computed tomography angiography (excluding pulmonary embolism). A transthoracic echocardiography was performed showing concentric hypertrophy, left atriomegaly and severe aortic ectasia of the root and of his ascending part, normal pulmonary pression and an aneurism of the interatrial septum with the presence of right-to-left shunt after using agitate saline contrast with Valsalva maneuver. Transesophageal echocardiography (TTE) confirmed the presence of severe structural interatrial septal abnormality with wide left convex aneurysm and an atrial septum defect (ASD) as ostium secundum, causing severe bidirectional shunt. Therefore, the patient underwent a successful transcatheter closure of secundum ASD with device Amplatzer Septal Occluder 018, while monitored with cardiac catheterization and transesophageal echocardiography. After few days, the patient was discharged at home without oxygen therapy. At the 3-month follow-up visit he reported no respiratory symptoms. Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome (POS) is an uncommon disorder characterized by dyspnoea and hypoxemia that occurs when the patient is sitting or standing and disappear quickly when recumbent. POS is characterized by both an anatomic and a functional component. The anatomic element is typically an interatrial communication such as ASD or Patent Foramen Ovale, which cause blood shunt left-to-right due to a higher pressure in left atrium and a greater compliance of the right ventricle, in the presence of normal pulmonary artery pressure. The syndrome occurs when a functional element, such as an increased atrial pressure or a decreased compliance of the right ventricle, reverses the flow. The shunts are often small and could remain asymptomatic: the high left atrial pressure let the defect close until there is a reverse pression which stretched atrial septum in particular in the upright position. In fact, when the patient is standing, the inferior vena cava comes in line with the defect increasing the right-to-left flow, sparking the respiratory symptoms. This could be linked to a cardiac or an extracardiac condition;in this case the presence of kyphoscoliosis and severe aortic ectasia of the root and of his ascending part, played an important role. The diagnosis is mainly made by echocardiography and cardiac catheterization to verify the mismatch in oxygen saturation between the pulmonary vein and the aorta. The diagnosis of POS is challenging, often considered only after other possible diagnosis is excluded. When POS is triggered by an interatrial defect in the absence of severe pulmonary hypertension, the usual treatment is a percutaneous or surgical closure.

3.
Int J Cardiol Heart Vasc ; 31: 100662, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-898900

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 outbreak, healthcare Authorities of Lombardy modified the regional network concerning time-dependent emergencies. Specifically, 13 Macro-Hubs were identified to deliver timely optimal care to patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). Aim of this paper is to present the results of this experience. METHODS AND RESULTS: This is a multicenter, observational study. A total of 953 patients were included, presenting with STEMI in 57.7% of the cases. About 98% of patients received coronary angiography with a median since first medical contact to angiography of 79 (IQR 45-124) minutes for STEMI and 1262 (IQR 643-2481) minutes for NSTEMI.A total of 107 patients (11.2%) had SARS-CoV2 infection, mostly with STEMI (74.8%). The time interval from first medical contact to cath-lab was significant shorter in patients with COVID-19, both in the overall population and in STEMI patients (87 (IQR 41-310) versus 160 (IQR 67-1220) minutes, P = 0.001, and 61 (IQR 23-98) versus 80 (IQR 47-126) minutes, P = 0.01, respectively). In-hospital mortality and cardiogenic shock rates were higher among patients with COVID-19 compared to patients without (32% vs 6%, P < 0.0001, and 16.8% vs 6.7%, P < 0.0003, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: During the COVID-19 outbreak in Lombardy, the redefinition of ACS network according to enlarged Macro-Hubs allowed to continue with timely ACS management, while reserving a high number of intensive care beds for the pandemic. Patients with ACS and COVID-19 presented a worst outcome, particularly in case of STEMI.

4.
Catheter Cardiovasc Interv ; 96(4): 839-843, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-832030

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic raised the issue to guarantee the proper level of care to patients with acute cardiovascular diseases and concomitant suspected or confirmed COVID-19 and, in the meantime safety and protection of healthcare providers. The aim of this position paper is to provide standards to healthcare facilities and healthcare providers on infection prevention and control measures during the management of suspected and confirmed cases of 2019-nCoV infection accessing in cath-lab. The document represents the view of the Italian Society of Interventional Cardiology (GISE), and it is based on recommendations from the main World and European Health Organizations (WHO, and ECDC) as well as from the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, Resuscitation and Intensive Care (SIAARTI).


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Cardiac Catheterization , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/organization & administration , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Italy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical
5.
Int J Cardiol ; 312: 24-26, 2020 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-135706
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