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1.
Medicina ; 81(6):908-915, 2021.
Article in Spanish | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1787420

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pneumonia represents a challenge for health systems. The objective of this study is to describe the clinical presentation and evolution of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 pneumonia. This is a prospective and descrip tive study. Patients older than 16 years with a PCR confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 were included in 94.0% (n=395) of the cases. Biochemical and imaging determinations were made. 421 patients were included, 57.0% male (n=240), with a mean age of 56.1 .. 15.1 years. 41.0% (n=172) were older than 60 years. 79.7% (n=333) had comorbidities. They had seven days 7 days (IQR 5) from symptom onset to hospitalization. The most frequent symptoms were: dyspnea (78.1%, n=307), cough (76.5%, n=297) and fever (73.6%, n=289). 50.2% (n=204) presented respiratory failure upon admission. 63.4% (n=173) presented pathological infiltrates on radiography and 96.0% (n=312) on chest tomography. The 4C score was 8 (IQR 6). 31.6% (n=133) had a poor clinical evolution. In-hospital mortality was 18.9% (n=80) and 23.7% (n=100) received mechanical ventilation. 21.9% (n=92) presented in-hospital complications. 39.6% (n=67) of those over 60 years of age were admitted to the Intensive Care Unit and 31.4% (n=54) died. 76.9% (n=319) of the patients received corticosteroids, 69.3% (n=289) antibiotics, and convalescent plasma 10.5% (n=43). This series stands out for the high rate of co morbidities and the severity of the patients included. Mortality was similar to other international series.

2.
Campus Virtuales ; 11(1):95-114, 2022.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1754355

ABSTRACT

The European Union and associated countries are working on European projects that provide relevant information on the methodologies used at the educational level through different programs, including the Erasmus+ Program. These projects are the source of inspiration for the research that is being carried out to obtain a methodological guide for the successful use of digital technologies in education to improve learning. This article focuses on how the research has been approached, the analysis of projects classified as good practice or success stories related to eLearning and/or ICT, the advances in data analysis carried out so far with the main results obtained in the project mapping process and the development and application of a survey, which give clues about the most relevant aspects of the projects reviewed.

3.
Non-conventional in English | National Technical Information Service, Grey literature | ID: grc-753532

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing an exponentially increasing number of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) cases globally. Prioritization of medical countermeasures for evaluation in randomized clinical trials is critically hindered by the lack of COVID-19 animal models that enable accurate, quantifiable, and reproducible measurement of COVID-19 pulmonary disease free from observer bias. We first used serial computed tomography (CT) to demonstrate that bilateral intrabronchial instillation of SARS CoV-2 into crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) results in mild-to-moderate lung abnormalities qualitatively characteristic of subclinical or mild-to-moderateCOVID-19 (e.g., ground-glass opacities with or without reticulation, paving, or alveolar consolidation, peri-bronchial thickening, linear opacities) at typical locations (peripheral>central, posterior and dependent, bilateral, multi-lobar). We then used positron emission tomography (PET) analysis to demonstrate increased FDG uptake in the CT-defined lung abnormalities and regional lymph nodes. PET/CT imaging findings appeared in all macaques as early as 2 days post exposure, variably progressed, and subsequently resolved by 6-12 days post exposure. Finally, we applied operator-independent, semi-automatic quantification of the volume and radiodensity of CT abnormalities as a possible primary endpoint for immediate and objective efficacy testing of candidate medical countermeasures.

4.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S258, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746689

ABSTRACT

Background. The incidence of bacterial or fungal coinfections in COVID-19 patients is low. The incidence of nosocomial superinfections is higher, especially related to ICU admission. Treating COVID-19 with steroids plus tocilizumab (TCZ) has been associated with superinfections. Therefore, the use of antibiotic prophylaxis prior to infusion of TCZ could be considered to reduce the risk of life-threatening superinfections in critically ill patients. Methods. Retrospective, single center cohort study. COVID-19 patients older than 14 years, admitted to Hospital Central de la Defensa (Madrid, Spain) from Mar 5th to Nov 24th, 2020 with a diagnosis of COVID-19 were included. Local protocols suggested antimicrobial prophylaxis before the infusion of TCZ. Medical records, treatments received, and microbiological data of all patients who received TCZ were reviewed. Microbiological isolates were considered in the 14 days following the administration of TCZ. Two ID specialists independently reviewed the medical record and decided to qualify the isolate as superinfection or colonization. Results. 2,069 patient records were analyzed. 70 patients received TCZ;all of them were admitted to ID wards and under steroid treatment. 45 (64,5%) patients received antibiotic prophylaxis. The preferred antibiotics were ceftriaxone (N = 18) and ceftobiprole (N = 14). No significant differences were found in age, Charlson index or COVID-19 SEIMC-Score. 24 isolates were detected in 14 patients (18 bacterial, 6 fungal). 17 isolates were considered superinfections;the most frequent isolates were C. albicans (N=5), E. faecalis (N=3) and S. epidermidis (N=2). There were no statistically significant differences between the different prophylaxis strategies in terms of in-hospital mortality or ICU admission. However, patients who received ceftobiprole tended to have fewer isolates and fewer superinfections than those receiving ceftriaxone (ceftobiprole group: 2 isolates in 1 patient, 1 (7,1%) patient with superinfection;ceftriaxone 11 isolates in 5 patients, 4 (22,2%) patients with superinfection) (p= 0,35, Fisher exact test). Conclusion. Antibiotic prophylaxis prior to infusion of TCZ in patients with COVID-19 and receiving steroids could determine the profile of bacterial and fungal superinfections.

5.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S381-S382, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746439

ABSTRACT

Background. COVID-19 was declared a global Public Health Emergency by the WHO in January 2020. Limited treatment options existed early in the pandemic. As COVID-19 spread across the globe and new therapeutics emerged, different interpretations of the literature grew, and major societies relayed conflictive recommendations. There is a paucity of data on COVID-19 management in low- and middle-income countries. As a result, we performed a nationwide survey of local treatment practices in the Dominican Republic (DR). Methods. We performed an anonymous survey of infectious diseases specialists in the DR and US. The survey collected hospital characteristics and COVID-19 management protocols during different quarters of 2020-21. Management was categorized by drug and disease severity based on supplemental oxygen requirements. A convenience sample in the US representing community and academic sites was surveyed for point comparison between the US and DR. Results. The survey was completed by physicians from a total of 11 sites located in 4 cities of the DR: Santo Domingo (3), Santiago (4), La Vega (2) and San Francisco (2). These cities were representative of all regions in the country. The survey included 7 (64%) hospitals with < 200 beds, 3 (27%) with 201-300 beds, and 1 (9%) with >400 beds. Seven (47%) were private, 2 (13%) public, and 6 (40%) were teaching hospitals. In the US, 2 academic hospitals with >400 beds and 2 community hospitals with < 200 beds in a major city were surveyed. Management of COVID-19 at sites in the DR and US throughout the pandemic is plotted in Figure 1. Remdesivir use by disease severity is plotted in Figure 2. Conclusion. Throughout the pandemic, as therapeutic options evolved, hospitals and physicians had to adapt to changing guidelines and availability of novel drugs. Variability between countries and sites emerged. The use of hydroxychloroquine and convalescent plasma waned more rapidly in the US. Dexamethasone was widely used at all sites. Tocilizumab and remdesivir were used more liberally in the DR. Antimicrobial stewardship limited these agents at US sites to more narrow therapeutic windows which could explain the discrepancies seen between the US and DR. Uncertainty of benefit in certain disease states, limited availability, and cost may also play a role.

6.
Revista Medica Herediana ; 32(4):197-200, 2021.
Article in Spanish | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1737488
7.
Drugs of the Future ; 46(10):849-850, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1736481

ABSTRACT

The Annual Meeting of the International Society for Stem Cell Research (ISSCR) brought together experts from across the world in the field of stem cell therapy research and regenerative medicine. The sessions were organized around 5 main themes: clinical applications, cellular identity, modeling development & disease, new technologies, and tissue stem cell & regeneration. This report covers some of the highlights of the virtual meeting.

8.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-329086

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is causing an exponentially increasing number of coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) cases globally. Prioritization of medical countermeasures for evaluation in randomized clinical trials is critically hindered by the lack of COVID-19 animal models that enable accurate, quantifiable, and reproducible measurement of COVID-19 pulmonary disease free from observer bias. We first used serial computed tomography (CT) to demonstrate that bilateral intrabronchial instillation of SARS-CoV-2 into crab-eating macaques (Macaca fascicularis) results in mild-to-moderate lung abnormalities qualitatively characteristic of subclinical or mild-to-moderate COVID-19 (e.g., ground-glass opacities with or without reticulation, paving, or alveolar consolidation, peri-bronchial thickening, linear opacities) at typical locations (peripheral>central, posterior and dependent, bilateral, multi-lobar). We then used positron emission tomography (PET) analysis to demonstrate increased FDG uptake in the CT-defined lung abnormalities and regional lymph nodes. PET/CT imaging findings appeared in all macaques as early as 2 days post-exposure, variably progressed, and subsequently resolved by 6-12 days post-exposure. Finally, we applied operator-independent, semi-automatic quantification of the volume and radiodensity of CT abnormalities as a possible primary endpoint for immediate and objective efficacy testing of candidate medical countermeasures.

9.
9th International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, TEEM 2021 ; : 634-639, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1613099

ABSTRACT

Today's education is in accelerated digital transformation, mainly promoted by the crisis with COVID-19. Face-to-face courses have had to be switched to virtual mode without many educational institutions being fully prepared for this change, which causes problems, especially with the quality of the courses offered. Therefore, strategies should emerge to evaluate the use of Information Technologies (ICTs) in education. One of these methodologies is expert judgment, so this work aims to present an assessment of an e-learning entrepreneurship course conducted by nine experts at a university in Mexico to analyze whether the course proposal was appropriate to achieve students' learning objectives. The results obtained showed that the course activities are appropriate for fulfilling the proposed objectives and the structure and variety of content were suitable for fostering the entrepreneurial spirit in students. It is considered that educational institutions can use this strategy to evaluate courses before implementation by experienced professionals in the study taking into consideration the current requirements caused by COVID-19 and that will remain with its effects for a more prolonged period. © 2021 ACM.

10.
9th International Conference on Technological Ecosystems for Enhancing Multiculturality, TEEM 2021 ; : 219-224, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1613090

ABSTRACT

The work presented in this paper is the result of research on Erasmus+ projects, related to the educational field and with a connection to eLearning, that have been classified as good practice or successful story. This publication shows some of the results obtained from administering a survey to the project coordinators. Specifically, it focuses on the responses collected from two sections of the survey that have to do with the possible factors considered the reason for being successful projects and their main characteristics. At the same time, it is explored the sustainability of the project results over time and how they have been useful in the pandemic. The main findings show that the results have been positive with sufficient funds to be able to carry them out and with the capacity to go on using them once the grant period has ended. Additionally, they have also been useful on the occasion of COVID-19. © 2021 ACM.

11.
14th Brazilian Symposium on Bioinformatics, BSB 2021 ; 13063 LNBI:41-52, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1598129

ABSTRACT

Currently, several hundreds of Terabytes of COVID-19 single-cell RNA-seq (scRNA-seq) data are available in public repositories. This data refers to multiple tissues, comorbidities, and conditions. We expect this trend to continue, and it is realistic to predict amounts of COVID-19 scRNA-seq data increasing to several Petabytes in the coming years. However, thoughtful analysis of this data requires large-scale computing infrastructures, and software systems optimized for such platforms to generate biological knowledge. This paper presents CellHeap, a portable and robust workflow for scRNA-seq customizable analyses, with quality control throughout the execution steps and deployable on supercomputers. Furthermore, we present the deployment of CellHeap in the Santos Dumont supercomputer for analyzing COVID-19 scRNA-seq datasets, and discuss a case study that processed dozens of Terabytes of COVID-19 scRNA-seq raw data. © 2021, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

12.
Revista Rol De Enfermeria ; 44(11-12):13-16, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576661

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In December 2019, China reported to the World Health Organization a cluster of pneumonia in March 2020 has classified as pandemic. Given the situation, ESEnfC, based on the rules and guidelines sent by DGS, reorganized teaching activities, face-to-face work and adapted spaces to minimize the impact of COVID-19, adopting preventive measures and control procedures at the level of risk. Objectives: Describe the implementation of preventive measures at ESEnfC. Methodology: Experience report. Results: number of cases retrieved 141 students (9.51%);13 employees (6.81%);active surveillance 244 students (16.45%);24 employees (12.57%) - 1557 tests. Conclusions: the implementation of guidelines, actions and correction of applied measures impact in the epidemiological control of COVID-19. The unexpected risk led ESEnfC to adjust its operation to the established permissions, safeguarding the interests of students in carrying out their academic year with the least possible harm. Encouraging the sharing of information and adopting a positive change in relation to the culture of safety and prevention of COVID-19 infection was the purpose of ESEnfC.

13.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-296999

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic coronaviruses represent a major threat to global public health. Here, using a recombinant reporter virus-based compound screening approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that potently block the replication of the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Among them, JIB-04 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC50 of 695 nM, with a specificity index of greater than 1,000. JIB-04 showed in vitro antiviral activity in multiple cell types against several DNA and RNA viruses, including porcine coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus. In an in vivo porcine model of coronavirus infection, administration of JIB-04 reduced virus infection and associated tissue pathology, which resulted in improved weight gain and survival. These results highlight the potential utility of JIB-04 as an antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 and other viral pathogens.

14.
16.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-293119

ABSTRACT

Pathogenic coronaviruses represent a major threat to global public health. Here, using a recombinant reporter virus-based compound screening approach, we identified several small-molecule inhibitors that potently block the replication of the newly emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Among them, JIB-04 inhibited SARS-CoV-2 replication in Vero E6 cells with an EC50 of 695 nM, with a specificity index of greater than 1,000. JIB-04 showed in vitro antiviral activity in multiple cell types against several DNA and RNA viruses, including porcine coronavirus transmissible gastroenteritis virus. In an in vivo porcine model of coronavirus infection, administration of JIB-04 reduced virus infection and associated tissue pathology, which resulted in improved weight gain and survival. These results highlight the potential utility of JIB-04 as an antiviral agent against SARS-CoV-2 and other viral pathogens.

17.
PUBMED; 2021.
Preprint in English | PUBMED | ID: ppcovidwho-292866

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 Gamma variant spread rapidly across Brazil, causing substantial infection and death waves. We use individual-level patient records following hospitalisation with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 to document the extensive shocks in hospital fatality rates that followed Gamma's spread across 14 state capitals, and in which more than half of hospitalised patients died over sustained time periods. We show that extensive fluctuations in COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates also existed prior to Gamma's detection, and were largely transient after Gamma's detection, subsiding with hospital demand. Using a Bayesian fatality rate model, we find that the geographic and temporal fluctuations in Brazil's COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates are primarily associated with geographic inequities and shortages in healthcare capacity. We project that approximately half of Brazil's COVID-19 deaths in hospitals could have been avoided without pre-pandemic geographic inequities and without pandemic healthcare pressure. Our results suggest that investments in healthcare resources, healthcare optimization, and pandemic preparedness are critical to minimize population wide mortality and morbidity caused by highly transmissible and deadly pathogens such as SARS-CoV-2, especially in low- and middle-income countries. Note: The following manuscript has appeared as 'Report 46 - Factors driving extensive spatial and temporal fluctuations in COVID-19 fatality rates in Brazilian hospitals' at https://spiral.imperial.ac.uk:8443/handle/10044/1/91875 . One sentence summary: COVID-19 in-hospital fatality rates fluctuate dramatically in Brazil, and these fluctuations are primarily associated with geographic inequities and shortages in healthcare capacity.

18.
Revista Mexicana De Ciencias Politicas Y Sociales ; 66(242):345-372, 2021.
Article in Spanish | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1524797

ABSTRACT

This work posits that under the terrible global crisis caused by the Covid-19 health crisis lies an economic-financial crisis, stemming from a continuum of multiple financial speculative practices in an asymmetrical multipolar environment and a driving force of global and local inequalities. Two important factors reviewed here are the financialization and consumerism whose causal environment has been influenced and intertwined with local and international governance and governability patterns fostered by the interests and hegemony of transnational and multinational enterprises (TM). Methodologically, we propose research that sheds light on these companies, as well as on multipolarity, governance and governability. The evidence analyzed confirms that underlying the health crisis lies a structural economic and financial crisis whose imbalances and abuses deepen the Covid-19 crisis.

19.
Revista da Associacao Medica Brasileira ; 67(7):997-1002, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1496633

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to analyze the risk factors for in-hospital mortality in a cohort of patients admitted to a newly adapted intensive care unit in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro. METHODS: This was an observational, retrospective, and descriptive study. Data were obtained from electronic medical records. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was diagnosed by detecting viral ribonucleic acid using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Factors associated with the risk/protection from death were determined using the odds ratio and adjusted odds ratio. RESULTS: Fifty-one patients were admitted to the hospital. The median age of the patients was 63 years, 60% were male patients, and 54% were white patients. Sixty-seven percent of the patients were diagnosed with COVID-19. Sepsis at admission increased the chance of in-hospital death by 21 times (adjusted odds ratio=21.06 [0.79-555.2];p=0.06). The strongest risk factor for death was the development of septic shock during hospitalization (adjusted odds ratio=98.56 [2.75-352.5];p=0.01), and one in four patients had multidrug-resistant bacteria. Mechanical ventilation, vasopressors, neuromuscular blockers, and sedatives were also the risk factors for in-hospital mortality. The in-hospital mortality rate was 41%, and the mortality rate of patients on mechanical ventilation was 60%. The diagnosis of COVID-19 was not statistically related to the adverse outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort, the strongest risk factor for in-hospital death was the development of nosocomial septic shock. Healthcareassociated infections have a significant impact on mortality rates. Therefore, to have a better outcome, it is important to consider not only the availability of beds but also the way healthcare is delivered.

20.
16th Iberian Conference on Information Systems and Technologies, CISTI 2021 ; 2021.
Article in Portuguese | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1449460

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has brought changes to people's daily life around the world, safety measures were taken so to reduce the speed with which the virus would spread itself, one of the most notorious of these is social isolation. In Brazil, higher education institutions were ordered by the State to cease in-person classes. This work aims to evaluate the factors that contribute to the success of e-learning platforms during the pandemic, when the migration from in-person classes to online classes was compulsory. This is an exploratory research, with quantitative and qualitative approach, making use of structural equation modeling. The sample used was 115 participants who answered a validated questionnaire (α = 0.88), with questions about the e-learning system adopted by the institution. Thus, the variables that most influenced the Individual Impact and the Use of e-learning systems were User Perceived Satisfaction, which had the most impact variables on Computer Anxiety and Interaction with Others. This result indicates that the establishment of routines with interactive classes and the attention to students who may feel uncomfortable with new technologies are crucial for the success of e-learning systems. © 2021 AISTI.

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