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1.
Intensive Care Med Exp ; 11(1): 26, 2023 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234626

ABSTRACT

Therapeutic plasma exchange (TPE) is a therapeutic intervention that separates plasma from blood cells to remove pathological factors or to replenish deficient factors. The use of TPE is increasing over the last decades. However, despite a good theoretical rationale and biological plausibility for TPE as a therapy for numerous diseases or syndromes associated with critical illness, TPE in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting has not been studied extensively. A group of eighteen experts around the globe from different clinical backgrounds used a modified Delphi method to phrase key research questions related to "TPE in the critically ill patient". These questions focused on: (1) the pathophysiological role of the removal and replacement process, (2) optimal timing of treatment, (3) dosing and treatment regimes, (4) risk-benefit assumptions and (5) novel indications in need of exploration. For all five topics, the current understanding as well as gaps in knowledge and future directions were assessed. The content should stimulate future research in the field and novel clinical applications.

2.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 35(4): 546-556, July-Aug. 2022. graf
Article in English | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-2313981

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ischemic strokes secondary to occlusion of large vessels have been described in patients with COVID-19. Also, venous thrombosis and pulmonary thromboembolism have been related to the disease. Vascular occlusion may be associated with a prothrombotic state due to COVID-19-related coagulopathy and endotheliopathy. Intracranial hemorrhagic lesions can additionally be seen in these patients. The causative mechanism of hemorrhage could be associated with anticoagulant therapy or factors such as coagulopathy and endotheliopathy. We report on cases of ischemic, thrombotic, and hemorrhagic complications in six patients diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed typical SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia findings in all the cases, which were all confirmed by either serology or reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Thromboembolism/complications , COVID-19/complications , Diagnostic Imaging/methods , Ischemic Stroke , Hemorrhage
3.
Educación Médica ; 24(4):100820, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2313456

ABSTRACT

Introduction Information and communication technologies have demonstrated their utility adapted to Health Sciences, particularly from an educational perspective. Virtual reality (VR) has become a tool that catalyzes the acquisition of clinical skills before contact with the patient, increasing safety, dexterity in procedures, and reducing the possibility of errors or complications. However, these tools could also offer new approaches for teaching basic subjects for undergraduates (Anatomy, Histology, etc.) and the use of tablets, and especially smartphones, could act as a complementary educational incentive. Methods Two hundred seventy-four students from different levels of the degree in Medicine, were invited to use a VR app on their phones with stereoscopic goggles. The users immerse themselves in the bioscopic anatomy, navigating through different anatomical structures. Results The questionnaire scores were, in general, above 4, reaffirming a positive opinion, except regarding the use of the tool for student exams. Conclusion Universities could increase formative delivery at a reduced cost, while ensuring training quality. The proposed concept of VR also helps to provide a useful learning environment in the COVID-19 scenario. Our results show that the introduction of immersive technology associated with VR and smartphones for medical students can be a welcome complementary or alternative educational tool. Resumen Introducción Las tecnologías de la información y la comunicación han demostrado su utilidad adaptada a las Ciencias de la Salud, particularmente desde una perspectiva educativa. La realidad virtual (RV) se ha convertido en una herramienta que cataliza la adquisición de habilidades clínicas antes del contacto con el paciente, aumentando la seguridad, la destreza en los procedimientos y reduciendo la posibilidad de errores o complicaciones. Sin embargo, estas herramientas también podrían ofrecer nuevos enfoques para la enseñanza de materias básicas para estudiantes universitarios (Anatomía, Histología, etc.) y el uso de tabletas, y especialmente teléfonos inteligentes, podría actuar como un incentivo educativo complementario. Métodos Doscientos setenta y cuatro estudiantes de diferentes niveles de la licenciatura en Medicina fueron invitados a usar una aplicación de realidad virtual en sus teléfonos con gafas estereoscópicas. Los usuarios se sumergen en la anatomía bioscópica, navegando a través de diferentes estructuras anatómicas. Resultados Las puntuaciones del cuestionario fueron, en general, superiores a 4, reafirmando una opinión positiva, excepto en lo que respecta al uso de la herramienta para los exámenes de los estudiantes. Conclusión Las universidades podrían aumentar la entrega formativa a un costo reducido, al tiempo que garantizan la calidad de la capacitación. El concepto propuesto de RV también ayuda a proporcionar un entorno de aprendizaje útil en el escenario COVID-19 Nuestros resultados muestran que la introducción de tecnología inmersiva asociada con la realidad virtual y los teléfonos inteligentes para estudiantes de medicina puede ser una herramienta educativa complementaria o alternativa bienvenida.

4.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 47: e74, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2293963

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To assess the accumulated knowledge of the effects of public health emergencies of international concern on disease control and local health systems, and contribute to a better understanding of their effects on health programs and systems. Methods: This was a systematic review of published and gray literature (in English, Portuguese, or Spanish). Electronic databases (BVS/LILACS, PubMed, and SciELO) and Google Scholar were searched. Search terms were: COVID-19 OR H1N1 OR Ebola OR Zika OR poliomyelitis AND (outbreaks OR epidemics) AND (public health systems OR public health surveillance). Results: A total of 3 508 studies were retrieved, of which 31 met the inclusion criteria. The studies addressed the effects of the emergencies on: communicable diseases notification systems; malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, and malaria surveillance, control, and treatment; microcephaly; dengue; and vaccinations. The populations affected by the emergencies experienced reduced health services, which included fewer health visits, failures in the diagnostic chain, decrease in vaccination, and increased incidence or underreporting of notifiable diseases. Conclusions: Socioeconomic inequity is a determinant of the effects of public health emergencies of international concern within affected populations. The diversion of resources and attention from health authorities disproportionately affects vulnerable populations and can lead, over time, to a weakening of health systems. The analysis of the effects of public health emergencies is important for the development of new protocols that can better respond to future crises.

5.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2023 Mar 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2249689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The complement pathway is a potential target for the treatment of severe COVID-19. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of ravulizumab, a terminal complement C5 inhibitor, in patients hospitalised with severe COVID-19 requiring invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation. METHODS: This phase 3, multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial (ALXN1210-COV-305) enrolled adult patients (aged ≥18 years) from 31 hospitals in France, Japan, Spain, the UK, and the USA. Eligible patients had a confirmed diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 that required hospitalisation and either invasive or non-invasive mechanical ventilation, with severe pneumonia, acute lung injury, or acute respiratory distress syndrome confirmed by CT scan or x-ray. We randomly assigned participants (2:1) to receive intravenous ravulizumab plus best supportive care (BSC) or BSC alone using a web-based interactive response system. Randomisation was in permuted blocks of six with stratification by intubation status. Bodyweight-based intravenous doses of ravulizumab were administered on days 1, 5, 10, and 15. The primary efficacy endpoint was survival based on all-cause mortality at day 29 in the intention-to-treat (ITT) population. Safety endpoints were analysed in all randomly assigned patients in the ravulizumab plus BSC group who received at least one dose of ravulizumab, and in all randomly assigned patients in the BSC group. The trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04369469, and was terminated at interim analysis due to futility. FINDINGS: Between May 10, 2020, and Jan 13, 2021, 202 patients were enrolled in the study and randomly assigned to ravulizumab plus BSC or BSC. 201 patients were included in the ITT population (135 in the ravulizumab plus BSC group and 66 in the BSC group). The ravulizumab plus BSC group comprised 96 (71%) men and 39 (29%) women with a mean age of 63·2 years (SD 13·23); the BSC group comprised 43 (65%) men and 23 (35%) women with a mean age of 63·5 years (12·40). Most patients (113 [84%] of 135 in the ravulizumab plus BSC group and 53 [80%] of 66 in the BSC group) were on invasive mechanical ventilation at baseline. Overall survival estimates based on multiple imputation were 58% for patients receiving ravulizumab plus BSC and 60% for patients receiving BSC (Mantel-Haenszel analysis: risk difference -0·0205; 95% CI -0·1703 to 0·1293; one-sided p=0·61). In the safety population, 113 (89%) of 127 patients in the ravulizumab plus BSC group and 56 (84%) of 67 in the BSC group had a treatment-emergent adverse event. Of these events, infections and infestations (73 [57%] vs 24 [36%] patients) and vascular disorders (39 [31%] vs 12 [18%]) were observed more frequently in the ravulizumab plus BSC group than in the BSC group. Five patients had serious adverse events considered to be related to ravulizumab. These events were bacteraemia, thrombocytopenia, oesophageal haemorrhage, cryptococcal pneumonia, and pyrexia (in one patient each). INTERPRETATION: Addition of ravulizumab to BSC did not improve survival or other secondary outcomes. Safety findings were consistent with the known safety profile of ravulizumab in its approved indications. Despite the lack of efficacy, the study adds value for future research into complement therapeutics in critical illnesses by showing that C5 inhibition can be accomplished in severely ill patients. FUNDING: Alexion, AstraZeneca Rare Disease.

6.
Med Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 2021 Jul 30.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240816

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the rate of thrombosis, bleeding and mortality comparing anticoagulant doses in critically ill COVID-19 patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational and analytical cohort study. SETTING: COVID-19 patients admitted to the intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital between March and April 2020. PATIENTS: 201 critically ill COVID-19 patients were included. Patients were categorized into three groups according to the highest anticoagulant dose received during hospitalization: prophylactic, intermediate and therapeutic. INTERVENTIONS: The incidence of venous thromboembolism (VTE), bleeding and mortality was compared between groups. We performed two logistic multivariable regressions to test the association between VTE and bleeding and the anticoagulant regimen. MAIN VARIABLES OF INTEREST: VTE, bleeding and mortality. RESULTS: 78 patients received prophylactic, 94 intermediate and 29 therapeutic doses. No differences in VTE and mortality were found, while bleeding events were more frequent in the therapeutic (31%) and intermediate (15%) dose group than in the prophylactic group (5%) (p<0.001 and p<0.05 respectively). The anticoagulant dose was the strongest determinant for bleeding (odds ratio 2.4, 95% confidence interval 1.26-4.58, p=0.008) but had no impact on VTE. CONCLUSIONS: Intermediate and therapeutic doses appear to have a higher risk of bleeding without a decrease of VTE events and mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients.

7.
Neurology ; 2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243164

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: COVID-19 related inflammation, endothelial dysfunction and coagulopathy may increase the bleeding risk and lower efficacy of revascularization treatments in patients with acute ischemic stroke. We aimed to evaluate the safety and outcomes of revascularization treatments in patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter cohort study of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke receiving intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and/or endovascular treatment (EVT) between March 2020 and June 2021, tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection. With a doubly-robust model combining propensity score weighting and multivariate regression, we studied the association of COVID-19 with intracranial bleeding complications and clinical outcomes. Subgroup analyses were performed according to treatment groups (IVT-only and EVT). RESULTS: Of a total of 15128 included patients from 105 centers, 853 (5.6%) were diagnosed with COVID-19. 5848 (38.7%) patients received IVT-only, and 9280 (61.3%) EVT (with or without IVT). Patients with COVID-19 had a higher rate of symptomatic intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.53; 95% CI 1.16-2.01), symptomatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SSAH) (OR 1.80; 95% CI 1.20-2.69), SICH and/or SSAH combined (OR 1.56; 95% CI 1.23-1.99), 24-hour (OR 2.47; 95% CI 1.58-3.86) and 3-month mortality (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.52-2.33).COVID-19 patients also had an unfavorable shift in the distribution of the modified Rankin score at 3 months (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.26-1.60). DISCUSSION: Patients with acute ischemic stroke and COVID-19 showed higher rates of intracranial bleeding complications and worse clinical outcomes after revascularization treatments than contemporaneous non-COVID-19 treated patients. Current available data does not allow direct conclusions to be drawn on the effectiveness of revascularization treatments in COVID-19 patients, or to establish different treatment recommendations in this subgroup of patients with ischemic stroke. Our findings can be taken into consideration for treatment decisions, patient monitoring and establishing prognosis.

8.
Crit Care ; 27(1): 33, 2023 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214621

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To guarantee the safety of the public, clinicians and patients during the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital visits were severely restricted internationally. There are limited data on the precise impact of these visiting restrictions on Intensive Care Unit clinicians. Our objectives therefore were to explore the impact of family visitation restrictions on clinicians and care delivery and describe innovation alongside areas for potential improvement. METHODS: A qualitative approach using focus groups was employed. We recruited members of the multi-disciplinary team from Spain, France and the UK. Framework analysis was used to synthesize and interpret data. RESULTS: In total, 28 staff from multiple international sites contributed to data across six focus groups: 12 from the UK, 9 from France and 7 from Spain. In relation to the key aims, we derived four themes: the emergence of new technologies, relationships and rapport establishment, communication challenges and end-of-life care provision. Across each theme, the overarching concepts of clinician emotional exhaustion and emotional distress emerged alongside the negative impact on job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: The impact of COVID-19 family visitation restrictions is far reaching. Future research should examine the wider impact of family presence in the ICU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Terminal Care , Humans , Pandemics , Intensive Care Units , Focus Groups , Family/psychology
9.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0244822, 2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117717

ABSTRACT

Remdesivir (RDV) was the first antiviral drug approved by the FDA to treat severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) patients. RDV inhibits SARS-CoV-2 replication by stalling the non structural protein 12 (nsp12) subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). No evidence of global widespread RDV-resistance mutations has been reported, however, defining genetic pathways to RDV resistance and determining emergent mutations prior and subsequent antiviral therapy in clinical settings is necessary. This study identified 57/149 (38.3%) patients who did not respond to one course (5-days) (n = 36/111, 32.4%) or prolonged (5 to 20 days) (n = 21/38, 55.3%) RDV therapy by subgenomic RNA detection. Genetic variants in the nsp12 gene were detected in 29/49 (59.2%) non responder patients by Illumina sequencing, including the de novo E83D mutation that emerged in an immunosuppressed patient after receiving 10 + 8 days of RDV, and the L838I detected at baseline and/or after prolonged RDV treatment in 9/49 (18.4%) non responder subjects. Although 3D protein modeling predicted no interference with RDV, the amino acid substitutions detected in the nsp12 involved changes on the electrostatic outer surface and in secondary structures that may alter antiviral response. It is important for health surveillance to study potential mutations associated with drug resistance as well as the benefit of RDV retreatment, especially in immunosuppressed patients and in those with persistent replication. IMPORTANCE This study provides clinical and microbiologic data of an extended population of hospitalized patients for COVID-19 pneumonia who experienced treatment failure, detected by the presence of subgenomic RNA (sgRNA). The genetic variants found in the nsp12 pharmacological target of RDV bring into focus the importance of monitoring emergent mutations, one of the objectives of the World Health Organization (WHO) for health surveillance. These mutations become even more crucial as RDV keeps being prescribed and new molecules are being repurposed for the treatment of COVID-19. The present article offers new perspectives for the clinical management of non responder patients treated and retreated with RDV and emphasizes the need of further research of the benefit of combinatorial therapies and RDV retreatment, especially in immunosuppressed patients with persistent replication after therapy.

10.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1939965

ABSTRACT

Cellular and humoral immune responses are essential for COVID-19 recovery and protection against SARS-CoV-2 reinfection. To date, the evaluation of SARS-CoV-2 immune protection has mainly focused on antibody detection, generally disregarding the cellular response, or placing it in a secondary position. This phenomenon may be explained by the complex nature of the assays needed to analyze cellular immunity compared with the technically simple and automated detection of antibodies. Nevertheless, a large body of evidence supports the relevance of the T cell’s role in protection against SARS-CoV-2, especially in vulnerable individuals with a weakened immune system (such as the population over 65 and patients with immunodeficiencies). Here we propose to use CoVITEST (Covid19 anti-Viral Immunity based on T cells for Evaluation in a Simple Test), a fast, affordable and accessible in-house assay that, together with a diagnostic matrix, allows us to determine those patients who might be protected with SARS-CoV-2-reactive T cells. The method was established using healthy SARS-CoV-2-naïve donors pre- and post-vaccination (n=30), and further validated with convalescent COVID-19 donors (n=51) in a side-by-side comparison with the gold standard IFN-γ ELISpot. We demonstrated that our CoVITEST presented reliable and comparable results to those obtained with the ELISpot technique in a considerably shorter time (less than 8 hours). In conclusion, we present a simple but reliable assay to determine cellular immunity against SARS-CoV-2 that can be used routinely during this pandemic to monitor the immune status in vulnerable patients and thereby adjust their therapeutic approaches. This method might indeed help to optimize and improve decision-making protocols for re-vaccination against SARS-CoV-2, at least for some population subsets.

11.
Crit Care ; 26(1): 199, 2022 07 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1916967

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: It remains elusive how the characteristics, the course of disease, the clinical management and the outcomes of critically ill COVID-19 patients admitted to intensive care units (ICU) worldwide have changed over the course of the pandemic. METHODS: Prospective, observational registry constituted by 90 ICUs across 22 countries worldwide including patients with a laboratory-confirmed, critical presentation of COVID-19 requiring advanced organ support. Hierarchical, generalized linear mixed-effect models accounting for hospital and country variability were employed to analyse the continuous evolution of the studied variables over the pandemic. RESULTS: Four thousand forty-one patients were included from March 2020 to September 2021. Over this period, the age of the admitted patients (62 [95% CI 60-63] years vs 64 [62-66] years, p < 0.001) and the severity of organ dysfunction at ICU admission decreased (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment 8.2 [7.6-9.0] vs 5.8 [5.3-6.4], p < 0.001) and increased, while more female patients (26 [23-29]% vs 41 [35-48]%, p < 0.001) were admitted. The time span between symptom onset and hospitalization as well as ICU admission became longer later in the pandemic (6.7 [6.2-7.2| days vs 9.7 [8.9-10.5] days, p < 0.001). The PaO2/FiO2 at admission was lower (132 [123-141] mmHg vs 101 [91-113] mmHg, p < 0.001) but showed faster improvements over the initial 5 days of ICU stay in late 2021 compared to early 2020 (34 [20-48] mmHg vs 70 [41-100] mmHg, p = 0.05). The number of patients treated with steroids and tocilizumab increased, while the use of therapeutic anticoagulation presented an inverse U-shaped behaviour over the course of the pandemic. The proportion of patients treated with high-flow oxygen (5 [4-7]% vs 20 [14-29], p < 0.001) and non-invasive mechanical ventilation (14 [11-18]% vs 24 [17-33]%, p < 0.001) throughout the pandemic increased concomitant to a decrease in invasive mechanical ventilation (82 [76-86]% vs 74 [64-82]%, p < 0.001). The ICU mortality (23 [19-26]% vs 17 [12-25]%, p < 0.001) and length of stay (14 [13-16] days vs 11 [10-13] days, p < 0.001) decreased over 19 months of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Characteristics and disease course of critically ill COVID-19 patients have continuously evolved, concomitant to the clinical management, throughout the pandemic leading to a younger, less severely ill ICU population with distinctly different clinical, pulmonary and inflammatory presentations than at the onset of the pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/therapy , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Registries
12.
Infect Dis Ther ; 11(3): 1243-1251, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1813898

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Increased mortality has been reported in the Latin American population. The objective is to compare the clinical characteristics and outcome of Latin American and Spanish populations in a cohort of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 during the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: We retrospectively analysed all the Latin American patients (born in South or Central America) hospitalized in our centre from February 2020 to February 2021 and compared them with an age- and gender-matched group of Spanish subjects. Variables included were demographics, co-morbidities, clinical and analytical parameters at admission and treatment received. The primary outcomes were ICU admission and mortality at 60 days. A conditional regression analysis was performed to evaluate the independent baseline predictors of both outcomes. RESULTS: From the 3216 patients in the whole cohort, 216 pairs of case-controls (Latin American and Spanish patients, respectively) with same age and gender were analysed. COPD was more frequent in the Spanish group, while HIV was more prevalent in the Latin American group. Other co-morbidities showed no significant difference. Both groups presented with similar numbers of days from symptom onset, but the Latin American population had a higher respiratory rate (21 vs. 20 bpm, P = 0.041), CRP (9.13 vs. 6.22 mg/dl, P = 0.001), ferritin (571 vs. 383 ng/ml, P = 0.012) and procalcitonin (0.10 vs. 0.07 ng/ml, P = 0.020) at admission and lower cycle threshold of PCR (27 vs. 28.8, P = 0.045). While ICU admission and IVM were higher in the Latin American group (17.1% vs. 13% and 9.7% vs. 5.1%, respectively), this was not statistically significant. Latin American patients received remdesivir and anti-inflammatory therapies more often, and no difference in the 60-day mortality rate was found (3.2% for both groups). CONCLUSION: Latin American patients with COVID-19 have more severe disease than Spanish patients, requiring ICU admission, antiviral and anti-inflammatory therapies more frequently. However, the mortality rate was similar in both groups.

13.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5250, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764201

ABSTRACT

Dexamethasone and tocilizumab have been associated with reduction in mortality, however, the beneficial effect is not for all patients and the impact on viral replication is not well defined. We hypostatized that C-reactive protein (CRP) could help in the identification of patients requiring anti-inflammatory therapy. Patients admitted for > 48 h in our hospital for a confirmed or suspected infection by SARS-CoV-2 from February 2020 to February 2021 were retrospectively evaluated. The primary outcome was mortality at 30 days. Demographics and the most relevant variables related with the outcome were included. CRP was stratified by percentiles. Univariate and multivariate analysis were performed. A total of 3218 patients were included with a median (IQR) age of 66 (74-78) years and 58.9% were males. The rate of intensive care unit admission was 24.4% and the 30-day mortality rate was 11.8%. Within the first 5 days from admission, 1018 (31.7%) patients received dexamethasone and 549 tocilizumab (17.1%). The crude analysis showed a mortality reduction in patients receiving dexamethasone when CRP was > 13.75 mg/dL and > 3.5 mg/dL for those receiving tocilizumab. Multivariate analysis identified the interaction of CRP > 13.75 mg/dL with dexamethasone (OR 0.57; CI 95% 0.37-0.89, P = 0014) and CRP > 3.5 mg/dL with tocilizumab (0.65; CI95%:0.44-0.95, P = 0.029) as independent predictors of mortality. Our results suggest that dexamethasone and tocilizumab are associated with a reduction in mortality when prescribed to patients with a certain inflammatory activity assessed by C-reactive protein.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , C-Reactive Protein , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Dexamethasone , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Biomedicines ; 10(3)2022 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760361

ABSTRACT

Immunologic and neuroinflammatory pathways have been found to play a major role in the pathogenesis of many neurological disorders such as epilepsy, proposing the use of novel therapeutic strategies. In the era of personalized medicine and in the face of the exhaustion of anti-seizure therapeutic resources, it is worth looking at the current or future possibilities that neuroimmunomodulator or anti-inflammatory therapy can offer us in the management of patients with epilepsy. For this reason, we performed a narrative review on the recent advances on the basic epileptogenic mechanisms related to the activation of immunity or neuroinflammation with special attention to current and future opportunities for novel treatments in epilepsy. Neuroinflammation can be considered a universal phenomenon and occurs in structural, infectious, post-traumatic, autoimmune, or even genetically based epilepsies. The emerging research developed in recent years has allowed us to identify the main molecular pathways involved in these processes. These molecular pathways could constitute future therapeutic targets for epilepsy. Different drugs current or in development have demonstrated their capacity to inhibit or modulate molecular pathways involved in the immunologic or neuroinflammatory mechanisms described in epilepsy. Some of them should be tested in the future as possible antiepileptic drugs.

15.
Am J Obstet Gynecol ; 227(2): 277.e1-277.e16, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1757079

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 presents a spectrum of signs and symptoms in pregnant women that might resemble preeclampsia. Differentiation between severe COVID-19 and preeclampsia is difficult in some cases. OBJECTIVE: To study biomarkers of endothelial damage, coagulation, innate immune response, and angiogenesis in preeclampsia and COVID-19 in pregnancy in addition to in vitro alterations in endothelial cells exposed to sera from pregnant women with preeclampsia and COVID-19. STUDY DESIGN: Plasma and sera samples were obtained from pregnant women with COVID-19 infection classified into mild (n=10) or severe (n=9) and from women with normotensive pregnancies as controls (n=10) and patients with preeclampsia (n=13). A panel of plasmatic biomarkers was assessed, including vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor I, heparan sulfate, von Willebrand factor antigen (activity and multimeric pattern), α2-antiplasmin, C5b9, neutrophil extracellular traps, placental growth factor, soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, and angiopoietin 2. In addition, microvascular endothelial cells were exposed to patients' sera, and changes in the cell expression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 on cell membranes and von Willebrand factor release to the extracellular matrix were evaluated through immunofluorescence. Changes in inflammation cell signaling pathways were also assessed by of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Statistical analysis included univariate and multivariate methods. RESULTS: Biomarker profiles of patients with mild COVID-19 were similar to those of controls. Both preeclampsia and severe COVID-19 showed significant alterations in most circulating biomarkers with distinctive profiles. Whereas severe COVID-19 exhibited higher concentrations of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor I, heparan sulfate, von Willebrand factor antigen, and neutrophil extracellular traps, with a significant reduction of placental growth factor compared with controls, preeclampsia presented a marked increase in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 and soluble tumor necrosis factor-α receptor I (significantly increased compared with controls and patients with severe COVID-19), with a striking reduction in von Willebrand factor antigen, von Willebrand factor activity, and α2-antiplasmin. As expected, reduced placental growth factor, increased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 and angiopoietin 2, and a very high soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 to placental growth factor ratio were also observed in preeclampsia. In addition, a significant increase in C5b9 and neutrophil extracellular traps was also detected in preeclampsia compared with controls. Principal component analysis demonstrated a clear separation between patients with preeclampsia and the other groups (first and second components explained 42.2% and 13.5% of the variance), mainly differentiated by variables related to von Willebrand factor, soluble tumor necrosis factor-receptor I, heparan sulfate, and soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1. Von Willebrand factor multimeric analysis revealed the absence of von Willebrand factor high-molecular-weight multimers in preeclampsia (similar profile to von Willebrand disease type 2A), whereas in healthy pregnancies and COVID-19 patients, von Willebrand factor multimeric pattern was normal. Sera from both preeclampsia and severe COVID-19 patients induced an overexpression of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and von Willebrand factor in endothelial cells in culture compared with controls. However, the effect of preeclampsia was less pronounced than the that of severe COVID-19. Immunoblots of lysates from endothelial cells exposed to mild and severe COVID-19 and preeclampsia sera showed an increase in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation. Patients with severe COVID-19 and preeclampsia were statistically different from controls, suggesting that both severe COVID-19 and preeclampsia sera can activate inflammatory signaling pathways. CONCLUSION: Although similar in in vitro endothelial dysfunction, preeclampsia and severe COVID-19 exhibit distinctive profiles of circulating biomarkers related to endothelial damage, coagulopathy, and angiogenic imbalance that could aid in the differential diagnosis of these entities.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers , COVID-19 , Pre-Eclampsia , Angiopoietin-2 , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Endothelial Cells , Female , Heparitin Sulfate , Humans , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Placenta Growth Factor , Pre-Eclampsia/diagnosis , Pregnancy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-1 , p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases , von Willebrand Factor
16.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3563, 2022 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1730317

ABSTRACT

Neurologic impairment persisting months after acute severe SARS-CoV-2 infection has been described because of several pathogenic mechanisms, including persistent systemic inflammation. The objective of this study is to analyze the selective involvement of the different cognitive domains and the existence of related biomarkers. Cross-sectional multicentric study of patients who survived severe infection with SARS-CoV-2 consecutively recruited between 90 and 120 days after hospital discharge. All patients underwent an exhaustive study of cognitive functions as well as plasma determination of pro-inflammatory, neurotrophic factors and light-chain neurofilaments. A principal component analysis extracted the main independent characteristics of the syndrome. 152 patients were recruited. The results of our study preferential involvement of episodic and working memory, executive functions, and attention and relatively less affectation of other cortical functions. In addition, anxiety and depression pictures are constant in our cohort. Several plasma chemokines concentrations were elevated compared with both, a non-SARS-Cov2 infected cohort of neurological outpatients or a control healthy general population. Severe Covid-19 patients can develop an amnesic and dysexecutive syndrome with neuropsychiatric manifestations. We do not know if the deficits detected can persist in the long term and if this can trigger or accelerate the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Cognition Disorders/psychology , Mental Disorders/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index
18.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(1): 127-132, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621567

ABSTRACT

Hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) experiencing respiratory symptoms have different complications (inflammatory, co-infection, and thrombotic) that are identifiable by analytics patterns. Personalized treatment decisions decreased early mortality (odds ratio [OR] .144; 95% confidence interval [CI] .03-.686; P = .015). Increasing age (OR 1.06; P = .038) and therapeutic effort limitation (OR 9.684; P < .001) were associated with higher mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hospitalization , Humans , Odds Ratio , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl_5): S454-S464, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1577471

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS), a postmortem procedure that uses core needle biopsy samples and does not require opening the body, may be a valid alternative to complete autopsy (CA) in highly infectious diseases such as coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). This study aimed to (1) compare the performance of MITS and CA in a series of COVID-19 deaths and (2) evaluate the safety of the procedure. METHODS: From October 2020 to February 2021, MITS was conducted in 12 adults who tested positive before death for COVID-19, in a standard, well-ventilated autopsy room, where personnel used reinforced personal protective equipment. In 9 cases, a CA was performed after MITS. A thorough histological evaluation was conducted, and the presence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was evaluated by real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: The diagnoses provided by MITS and CA matched almost perfectly. In 9 patients, COVID-19 was in the chain of events leading to death, being responsible for diffuse alveolar damage and mononuclear T-cell inflammatory response in the lungs. No specific COVID-19 features were identified. Three deaths were not related to COVID-19. All personnel involved in MITS repeatedly tested negative for COVID-19. SARS-CoV-2 was identified by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry in the MITS samples, particularly in the lungs. CONCLUSIONS: MITS is useful for evaluating COVID-19-related deaths in settings where a CA is not feasible. The results of this simplified and safer technique are comparable to those of CA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
20.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(Suppl_5): S472-S479, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1573816

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases' outbreak investigation requires, by definition, conducting a thorough epidemiological assessment while simultaneously obtaining biological samples for an adequate screening of potential responsible pathogens. Complete autopsies remain the gold-standard approach for cause-of-death evaluation and characterization of emerging diseases. However, for highly transmissible infections with a significant associated lethality, such as COVID-19, complete autopsies are seldom performed due to biosafety challenges, especially in low-resource settings. Minimally invasive tissue sampling (MITS) is a validated new approach based on obtaining postmortem samples from key organs and body fluids, a procedure that does not require advanced biosafety measures or a special autopsy room. METHODS: We aimed to review the use of MITS or similar procedures for outbreak investigation up to 27 March 2021 and their performance for evaluating COVID-19 deaths. RESULTS: After a literature review, we analyzed in detail the results of 20 studies conducted at international sites, whereby 216 COVID-19-related deaths were investigated. MITS provided a general and more granular understanding of the pathophysiological changes secondary to the infection and high-quality samples where the extent and degree of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-related damage could be evaluated. CONCLUSIONS: MITS is a useful addition in the investigation and surveillance of infections occurring in outbreaks or epidemics. Its less invasive nature makes the tool more acceptable and feasible and reduces the risk of procedure-associated contagion, using basic biosafety measures. Standardized approaches protocolizing which samples should be collected-and under which exact biosafety measures-are necessary to facilitate and expand its use globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Autopsy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
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