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J Clin Med ; 11(14)2022 Jul 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938853


SARS-CoV-2 may lead to a large spectrum of respiratory manifestations, including pulmonary sequelae. We conducted a single-center longitudinal study of survivors from severe COVID-19 cases who underwent a chest CT during hospitalization (CTH). Three months after being discharged, these patients were evaluated by a clinical examination, pulmonary function tests and a chest-CT scan (CTFU). Sixty-two patients were enrolled. At follow-up, 27% complained of exertional dyspnoea and 12% of cough. Dyspnoeic patients had a lower forced expiratory flow (FEF)25-75 (p = 0.015), while a CT scan (p = 0.016 showed that patients with cough had a higher extent of bronchiectasis. Lung volumes and diffusion of carbon monoxide (DLCO) at follow-up were lower in patients who had been invasively ventilated, which correlated inversely with the length of hospitalization and ground-glass extension at CTH. At follow-up, 14.5% of patients had a complete radiological resolution, while 85.5% presented persistence of ground-glass opacities, and 46.7% showed fibrotic-like alterations. Residual ground-glass at CTFU was related to the length of hospitalization (r = 0.48; p = 0.0002) and to the need for mechanical ventilation or high flow oxygen (p = 0.01) during the acute phase. In conclusion, although patients at three months from discharge showed functional impairment and radiological abnormalities, which correlated with a prolonged hospital stay and need for mechanical ventilation, the persistence of respiratory symptoms was related not to parenchymal but rather to airway sequelae.

J Clin Med ; 10(21)2021 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480814


Pneumothorax (PNX) and pneumomediastinum (PNM) are potential complications of COVID-19, but their influence on patients' outcomes remains unclear. The aim of the study was to assess incidence, risk factors, and outcomes of severe COVID-19 complicated with PNX/PNM. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter case-control analysis was conducted in COVID-19 patients admitted for respiratory failure in intermediate care units of the Treviso area, Italy, from March 2020 to April 2021. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with and without PNX/PNM were compared. RESULTS: Among 1213 patients, PNX and/or PNM incidence was 4.5%. Among these, 42% had PNX and PNM, 33.5% only PNX, and 24.5% only PNM. COVID-19 patients with PNX/PNM showed higher in-hospital (p = 0.02) and 90-days mortality (p = 0.048), and longer hospitalization length (p = 0.002) than COVID-19 patients without PNX/PNM. At PNX/PNM occurrence, one-third of subjects was not mechanically ventilated, and the respiratory support was similar to the control group. PNX/PNM occurrence was associated with longer symptom length before hospital admission (p = 0.005) and lower levels of blood lymphocytes (p = 0.017). CONCLUSION: PNX/PNM are complications of COVID-19 associated with a worse prognosis in terms of mortality and length of hospitalization. Although they are more frequent in ventilated patients, they can occur in non-ventilated, suggesting that mechanisms other than barotrauma might contribute to their presentation.